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Migration in the

Russian Federation:
A Country Profile 2008
Migration in the
Russian Federation:
A Country Profile 2008
Russia
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The opinions expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect
the views of the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The designations employed
and the presentation of material throughout the report do not imply the expression of any
opinion whatsoever on the part of IOM concerning the legal status of any country, territory,
city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.
IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants
and society. As an intergovernmental organization, IOM acts with its partners in the
international community to: assist in meeting the operational challenges of migration;
advance understanding of migration issues; encourage social and economic development
through migration; and uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.
Prepared by:
Alin Chindea
Magdalena Majkowska-Tomkin
Heikki Mattila
Isabel Pastor

Edited by:
Sheila Siar
Publisher: International Organization for Migration
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1211 Geneva 19
Switzerland
Tel: +41.22.717 91 11
Fax: +41.22.798 61 50
E-mail: hq@iom.int
Internet: http://www.iom.int
_____________________________________________________
ISBN 978-92-9068-483-1
ISBN 978-92-9068-517-3 (Migration in the Black Sea Region: Regional Overview,
Country Profiles and Policy Recommendations)
2008 International Organization for Migration (IOM)
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94_08
Migration in the
Russian Federation:
A Country Profile
October 2008
3
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Contents
List of tables and fgures ........................................................................ 7
Acronym list ............................................................................................ 7
Foreword .................................................................................................. 9
Executive Summary: General Assessment of Migration Issues........ 13
1. Immigrants ........................................................................................ 17
1.1. Number of immigrants .............................................................................17
1.2. Status of immigrants .................................................................................19
1.3. Main countries of origin of immigrants ....................................................28
2. Emigrants .......................................................................................... 33
2.1. Total number of emigrants ........................................................................33
2.2. Status of emigrants ....................................................................................34
2.3. Main countries of destination ..................................................................38
3. Remittances ...................................................................................... 41
3.1. Quantitative aspects of remittances ..........................................................41
3.2. Qualitative aspects of remittances ............................................................46
4. Migrant communities/diasporas ...................................................... 47
4.1. Description of relationship between diasporas and country of origin ......47
4.2. Migrant communities/diasporas organizations by country
of destination ..............................................................................................53
5. Irregular migration .......................................................................... 55
5.1. Numbers/estimates of irregular movements .............................................55
5.2. Figures and information on return migration fows ..................................57
5.3. Figures and information on traffcking ....................................................58
6. Assessment and analysis of migration issues .................................. 65
6.1. Government institutions responsible for migration policy ......................65
6.2. International legal framework in place relevant to migration ..................67
6.3. Migration policies in place ......................................................................72
6.4. Labour migration issues ............................................................................75
6.5. Policies to address irregular migration .....................................................81
6.6. Policies to address traffcking in human beings ........................................83
6.7. Refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons,
and relevant policies in place ....................................................................88
6.8. Other important migration actors in the country ......................................89
7. Annex: Some Additional Migration Statistics ............................... 95
4 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
list of tables
Table 1. Population born outside of the Russian Federation
(in thousands; as of 9 October 2002) .................................................18
Table 2. Foreign citizens and stateless persons (as of 9 October 2002) ..........19
Table 3. Asylum applications in the Russian Federation, 2004-2007 ..............19
Table 4. Residence permits issued in the Russian Federation, 2004-2007 ......21
Table 5. Temporary residence permits issued in the Russian Federation,
2004-2007 ..........................................................................................21
Table 6. Persons who received the forced resettlement or refugee status,
1992-2006 ...........................................................................................22
Table 7. Refugees and forced resettlers

(persons) ............................................23
Table 8. Forced resettlers (by place of former residence) ................................24
Table 9. Distribution of foreign workers (by types of economic activity) .......25
Table 10. Foreign workers in Russia (by main countries of origin) ................26
Table 11. Distribution of foreign workers in Russia
(by duration of work period) ............................................................27
Table 12. Distribution of foreign workers (by gender) ....................................27
Table 13. Immigration fows to the Russian Federation by country of
departure, 1997-2006 .......................................................................29
Table 14. Immigrants in Russia by ethnic origin in 2002-2006 .......................31
Table 15. Distribution of immigrants age 14 and older, by educational
status ...............................................................................................32
Table 16. Emigration from the Russian Federation in 1997 and 2000-2007
by year and country of destination ..................................................33
Table 17. Distribution of refugees and asylum seekers from Russia by
country of asylum ............................................................................34
Table 18. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad
(by gender) .......................................................................................35
Table 19. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad
(by educational status) .....................................................................35
Table 20. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad
(by duration of employment period) ................................................35
Table 21. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad in 2006
(by type of economic activity) .........................................................36
Table 22. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad in
2005-2007, by destination countries ................................................36
Table 23. Occupation of Russian citizens who migrated for employment
abroad ...............................................................................................37
Table 24. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad,
by category of occupation ................................................................38
Table 25: Selected countries of residence of Russian emigrants .....................38
Table 26. Russian emigration by countries of destination and by year,
2000-2006 ........................................................................................39
5
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 27. Educational status of emigrants 14 years and older, 2002-2006 ......40
Table 28. Amount of incoming migrant remittances to Russia .......................41
Table 29. Remittances to and from the Russian Federation, 2000-2006 .........42
Table 30. Remittances sent via money transfer systems in 2006 .....................43
Table 31. Violations of the Migration Law of the Russian Federation ............57
Table 32. IOM assisted voluntary returns to the Russian Federation,
2005-2006 .........................................................................................57
Table 33. Differences in GDP and standards of living among the
CIS countries ....................................................................................75
Table 34. Economically active population ......................................................78
Table 35. Average annual employment by type of economic activities ...........79
Table 36. Number of unemployed persons in the Russian Federation,
1992, 1995, and 2000-2006 .............................................................80
Table 37. Unemployment by age and educational attainment in 2006
(as of end of November; percentage of the total) ............................81
Table 38. Statistics on crimes related to traffcking in people, 2004-2007 ......86
Table 39. Asylum applications in the Russian Federation, 2004-2007 ............89
list of figures
Figure 1. Net migration to Russia, by ethnic group, 1992-2003 (in %) ..........28
Figure 2. Changes in average commission
(for transactions from Russia via payment systems) ........................45
Figure 3. Traffcking routes used in taking people out and into the
Russian Federation ...........................................................................63
7
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
aCronYM list
BSEC Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
CBR Central Bank of Russia
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
FMS Federal Migration Service
ILO International Labour Organization
IOM International Organization for Migration
MIA Ministry of Internal Affairs
MTO Money transfer operators
NGO Non-governmental organization
RCP Regional Consultative Process
UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund
UNODC United Nations Offce on Drugs and Crime
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
WGCC Working Group on Combating Crime
9
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
foreWorD
International migration is a prominent feature of globalization and one of
the defning issues of this century. Increasingly, migration entails economic, so-
cial, demographic, cultural, security and environmental effects on both sending
and receiving societies. The task of formulating effective and coherent approach-
es for the management of international migration poses formidable challenges
and frequently has led to regional initiatives such as Regional Consultative Proc-
esses (RCPs).
1
These initiatives which address a wide range of migration issues
including migration and development, integration of migrants, smuggling of and
traffcking in persons, irregular migration and so on often refect the different
migration agendas of governments even though the challenges they face may be
similar in nature.
Within this context and considering its proactive role in various RCPs, the
International Organization for Migration (IOM) signed a Memorandum of Under-
standing with the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)
in 2006. One of the main aims of this agreement is to enhance cooperation in
addressing irregular migration and combating traffcking in persons in the Black
Sea region, an area that experiences signifcant migration challenges as a transit,
origin, and destination hub for migrants. Consequently, in 2007, IOM launched
the Black Sea Consultative Process on Migration Management, a joint project
with the BSECs Working Group on Combating Crime (WGCC) (Particularly its
Organized Forms).
The project aimed to contribute to effective migration management in the
Black Sea region as well as combating irregular migration through strengthened
regional cooperation and capacity building of relevant authorities in all twelve
member states of the BSEC.
2
Specifcally, IOM has drafted national Migration
Profles for those countries where such documents did not exist, and has reviewed
and updated existing Profles.
3

Why country Migration Profles? A concept and tool promoted by the Eu-
ropean Commission, the Profles are an evidence-based approach to assess the
migration situation in a country. IOM has adopted and further developed this
1
Regional Consultative Processes bring together representatives of states, international organizations and, in
some cases, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for informal and non-binding dialogue and information
exchange on migration-related issues of common interest and concern.
2
Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Ser-
bia, Turkey and Ukraine.
3
Within the framework of the Slovenian presidency of the European Union, IOM prepared Migration Profles
for the Western Balkan Countries including BSEC members Albania, Serbia and Turkey.
10 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
concept and has since implemented it in various regions such as the Balkans,
Western and Central Africa, and Latin America. The intention is to contribute
towards greater coherence of national migration policies and enhanced regional
cooperation. This requires appropriate compilation of internationally comparable
data among other features such as national coordination and cooperation among
involved authorities and pursuit of an active international cooperation at bilateral,
regional and global levels. The Profles, using a common template, allow for
comparability despite data limitations
4
and different national contexts.
Furthermore, to ensure the legitimacy and recognized value of the Profles,
the BSEC member states and the BSEC WGCC provided substantial feedback
on the Profles. Drafted in IOMs offce in Budapest and coordinated with IOMs
Research Unit at IOM Headquarters in Geneva and the respective IOM offce in
each of the BSEC countries to ensure high-quality the Profles also offer a
set of policy recommendations for effective migration management in the region.
These were thoroughly discussed during an expert meeting of the BSECs WGCC
in Istanbul on 10

September 2008. Subsequently, the recommendations were ap-
proved by the BSECs Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs that convened in
Tirana on 23

October 2008.
This set of Profles is the result of intensive cooperation between many
individuals within IOM and among IOM and other stakeholders. The input of the
following people is highly appreciated: Christine Aghazarm and Vernica Escu-
dero, Research Unit in IOM Geneva, as authors of the regional overview and for
their extensive review of all the Profles, Frank Laczko, head of the Research and
Publications in IOM Geneva, for his supervision throughout the project, IOM
staff in IOM offces in all the BSEC countries, and the dedicated fnance and ad-
ministrative colleagues in IOM Budapest. Special thanks to IOMs 1035 Facility
who funded this project. Moreover, particular gratitude is warmly given to the
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Organization as the associate organiza-
tion in this project, especially the Permanent International Secretariat who kindly
arranged the meetings related to the implementation of the project. Not least,
IOM gratefully acknowledges the support of the BSEC Member States in the
production of the Profles, above all for their input to their specifc country profle
and the endorsement of the regional migration policy recommendations.

Argentina Szabados, Regional Representative
Alin Chindea, Project Coordinator
International Organization for Migration
Mission with Regional Functions for Central and South-Eastern Europe
4
For a discussion on the quality and limitations migration data, see the regional overview.
11
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
russia basic facts
Population (July 2007) 141,377,752 (estimate)
Total Area 16,995,800 sq. km
GDP per Capita PPP USD 12,200
Human Development Index (HDI) Rank 67 of 177
Net Migration Rate 0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sources: CIA World Factbook; United Nations Development Programme Human De-
velopment Report, 2006.
13
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
exeCutive suMMarY: general
assessMent of Migration issues
From the beginning of the 20
th
century until the disintegration of the Soviet
Union, migration fows concerning Russia took place mainly within the borders of
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Exceptions to this were during
the two World Wars and the civil war (1917-1922), which accompanied move-
ments of refugees and displaced persons, repatriations, and mass deportations.
After the end of the Soviet Union, the frst half of the 1990s was character-
ized by the so-called forced migration or forced resettlement towards the Russian
Federation, basically from countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) and Baltic States, the sharp reduction of emigration streams to these states,
and the booming emigration to far abroad or outside of the former Soviet Un-
ion. This far-abroad emigration was mostly ethnic in character: Germans, Jews
and Greeks, and Russians living in the large cities were mostly the ones to leave.
There were many scientists and representatives of art among emigrants in that
period.
1
However, during the second half of the 1990s, there was a reduction in
the streams of refugees and forced immigrants from the countries of the former
Soviet Union. Immigration lost its forced nature, and more and more migrants
started to move into Russia for social and economic reasons. The diversity of
emigration (by countries, by regions of origin in Russia, and by ethnic composi-
tion) decreased as well.
In the 2000s, the main factors infuencing migration in Russia have been its
more favorable economic development compared to most of the other CIS coun-
tries and the growing problems of demographic development in Russia.
Nowadays, Russia is facing similar migration challenges to most other
European countries. These challenges include: how best to use immigration (to-
day and in the future) to compensate for the declining population, labour force
shortages, and emigration of working age citizens; how to fght against irregular
forms of migration and traffcking in human beings; and how to overcome anti-
immigrant sentiment, xenophobia, and ethnic confict, problems closely linked
with migratory movements.
1
Vladimir , Mukomel and Nikita Mkrtchyan (2008) Expert memorandum drafted for this Country Profle; Com-
missioned by IOM Offce in Moscow; January 2008.
14 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
The vast territory of the country, its numerous administrative sub-regions,
and ethnically diverse population also create special problems, such as keeping
sparsely populated areas inhabited. The long land borders of nearly 20,000 km
pose special challenges for controlling migration fows.
Also, the common past of the CIS as former Soviet Republics, where the
Russian language is generally spoken and a visa-free regime prevails, gives a
special characteristic to the nature of migration to and from Russia.
Ivakhniouk (2006)
2
lists the following features that characterize much of
the migration system in the CIS area:
historical ties
geographical proximity, transparent borders (visa-free movements)
common transport infrastructure
psychological easiness to move (language, former common territory)
demographic complementarity
mutual interest towards common labour market
large-scale irregular migration
regional cooperation aimed at coordinated migration management.
Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, about
25 million ethnic Russians found themselves living in the other CIS countries and
in the three Baltic Republics.
3

Meanwhile, between 1989 and 2002, Russia received 10.9 million migrants
from the former Soviet Republics (the current CIS and the Baltic States).
4
A large
part of these Russians had to move under some degree of pressure, with many
of them even feeing conficts including those in South Ossetia, Abkhasia, and
Tajikistan. In Russia, they were therefore called refugees or forced migrants
(also forced resettlers).
During the same period, 4.1 million persons moved in the opposite direc-
tion,
5
that is, from Russia to the newly independent former Soviet Republics.
Thus, Russias net immigration fgure with the Former Soviet Union (FSU) Re-
2
Ivakhnyuk, Irina (2006) Migration in the CIS Region: Common Problems and Mutual Benefts, An expert
paper presented at the International Symposium on International Migration and Development, United Nations
Population Division, 28-30 June 2006, Turin, Italy.
3
Tishkov, Valery, Zhanna Zayinchkovskaya and Galina Vitkovskaya (2005) Migration in the Countries of
the Former Soviet Union, A paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global
Commission on International Migration.
4
Ibid.
5
Ibid.
15
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
publics in the same period was 6.8 million. These people resettled in numerous
communities all around the Russian Federation, and their resettlement was for
many years the main priority of the Russian migration authorities, most notably
the Federal Migration Service (FMS) created in June 1992.
6

According to Tishkov et al. (2005), since mid-1990s, such forced migration
in the CIS region has gradually decreased, while at the same time economically
motivated migration has grown. Ivakhniouk (2006) confrms
7
that during the last
15 years, the nature of migration fows in the CIS region shifted from primarily
forced migrations to voluntary economic migrations. The strongly varying eco-
nomic, social and political development in the CIS countries has generated large,
mostly economic migration fows primarily towards Russia (see more on this in
Section 6.4 on labour migration).
The increased mobility of various ethnic groups of the Central Asian coun-
tries of the CIS, and their employment in the Russian Federation, has led to an
expansion of migrant ethnic communities and intensive formation of new di-
asporas resulting in growing ethnic confrontations of a socio-cultural variety.

Partly linked to the recent large labour migration, Russia and the whole
CIS region have become transit and residence areas for large numbers of irregular
migrants, thus new and more effective methods are being sought to deal with the
situation.
The need for active migration policy has been acknowledged at the high-
est level. For instance, the then Russian President, Vladimir Putin, announced in
March 2005 the need for adjusting Russias migration policy as a result of the
rapid decline in the countrys population.
8
The President was quoted as saying
that the states migration policy needs to be adjusted and be closely linked to
important tasks of socio-economic development, with the main task at present to
create additional conditions for attracting skilled labour. The President also stated
that those migrants falling into the shadow economy largely have done so due to
the cumbersome procedures in place for obtaining legal employment in Russia.
In recent years, Russian authorities have launched numerous proactive mi-
gration policy initiatives, in their attempts to increase the recruitment of highly
skilled professionals from abroad, as well as to encourage Russian expatriates
6
Voronina (2006).
7
Ivakhnyuk, Irina (2006) Migration in the CIS Region: Common Problems and Mutual Benefts, An expert
paper presented at the International Symposium on International Migration and Development, United Nations
Population Division, 28-30 June 2006, Turin, Italy.
8
Interfax New Report, 17 March 2005.
16 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
to return and to diminish irregular migration, through facilitation of immigra-
tion procedures and imposition of sanctions to employers hiring undocumented
labour, improved migration databases and new passports with electronic and bio-
metric features, and increased cooperation among CIS countries in migration is-
sues. New migration legislation has also been in force since January 2007.
17
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
1. iMMigrants
1.1. Number of immigrants
Stock ............................................................................. 12,080,000 (2006)
9
As percentage of total population ......................................... 8.4% (2006

)
10
Gender ratio .............................................................57.8% female (2005)
11
The United Nations Population Division (UNPD) ranks Russia second to
the United States in the list of countries with the largest numbers of immigrants:
United States 38.9 million immigrants
Russian Federation 12.1 million
Germany 10.1 million
Ukraine 6.8 million
Many of the foreign-born residing in the current Russian Federation were
born in other states of the former USSR (Table 1). Therefore, for a large share
of the foreign-born in Russia, the fgure refects the changed geopolitical status
of their country of birth, rather than international migration to Russia. The total
number of citizens from other states and of stateless persons is much lower
(Table 2).
9
United Nations Secretariat, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (October 2006)
International Migration. The number of international migrants generally represents the number of persons born
in a country other than that in which they live.
10
Ibid.
11
World Bank, Development Prospects Group (2005) Migration and Remittances Factbook.
18 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 1. Population born outside of the Russian Federation
(in thousands; as of 9 October 2002)
12
Country no.
Azerbaijan 846
Armenia 481
Byelorussia 936
Georgia 629
Kazakhstan 2,585
Kirghizia 464
Latvia 103
Lithuania 86
Moldova 278
Tadzhikistan 383
Turkmenia 175
Uzbekistan 918
Ukraine 3,560
Estonia 67
Other countries 466
Total 11,977
Source: The 2002 Census in the Russian Federation as presented by Rosstat in 2005
12
Rosstat of the Russian Federation, Moscow (2005) Results of the 2002 Census in the Russian Federation, Vol.
14, Total Final Figures of the 2002 Census in the Russian Federation.
19
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 2. Foreign citizens and stateless persons (as of 9 October 2002)
13
no. (in thousands)
as percentage of the
russian population
Total no. of foreign citizens 1,025.4 0.7
Their country of citizenship:
Other than CIS 119.1 0.1
Azerbaijan 154.9 0.1
Armenia 136.8 0.1
Byelorussia 40.3 0.0
Georgia 52.9 0.0
Kazakhstan 69.5 0.1
Kyrgyzstan 28.8 0.0
Moldavia 51.0 0.0
Tadzhikistan 64.2 0.0
Turkmenia 6.4 0.0
Uzbekistan 70.9 0.1
Ukraine 230.6 0.2
Stateless people 429.9 0.3
Source: The 2002 Census in the Russian Federation as presented by Rosstat in 2005
1.2. Status of immigrants
Refugees/asylum seekers
Situation at the end of 2006:
Refugees ...........................................................................................1,425
14
Asylum seekers (pending cases)............................................................ 291
Table 3. Asylum applications in the Russian Federation, 2004-2007
2004 2005 2006 2007 (June)
315 292 1,170 291
Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 2007.
According to the Law on the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Rus-
sian Federation of July 25, 2002, No. 115-FZ, foreign citizens may temporarily
13
Ibid.
14
UNHCR (2007) Statistical Yearbook 2006, Trends in Displacement, Protection and Solutions, Geneva De-
cember 2007. The frst fgure refers to Persons recognized as refugees under the 1951 UN Convention/1967
Protocol, the 1969 OAU Convention, in accordance with the UNHCR Statute, persons granted a complemen-
tary form of protection and those granted temporary protection.
20 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
stay,
15
temporarily reside, and permanently reside in the Russian Federation. The
number of temporary residence permissions (for a period of three years) is allo-
cated by quota.
16
Residence permits are issued for a fve-year period with possible
extension. Prior to the receipt of a residence permit, a foreign citizen is obliged
to live in the Russian Federation for at least one year on the basis of a temporary
residence permit.
Forced migrants may seek, according to the Law of the Russian Federa-
tion, temporary refuge, refugee status, or displaced person status.
17
Simplifed procedure sfor the acquisition of nationality is in force between
the Russian Federation and the Republics of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyr-
gyzstan.
18
In addition, separate categories of immigrants may also obtain Russian
citizenship through a simplifed procedure.
19
Permanent residence status
The number of people issued residence permits in 2006 totaled 16,699. As
of October 2007 this fgure was 12,217.
15
The period of a foreigners temporary stay in the Russian Federation is defned by the validity period of his/her
visa. Temporary stay that does not require a visa but the duration of stay should not be longer than 90 days.
16
Quotas are distributed among subjects (regions) of the Russian Federation. Quotas are not extended to indi-
vidual categories of foreign citizens. A quota of 140,790 for part-time residence has been approved for the
year 2008.
17
The status of forced migrants can be given to internal migrants as well as to Russian citizens who are forced
to leave the place of their residence outside of Russia.
18
Federal Law of 2 January 2000, No. 18-FL.
19
These include foreign citizens and stateless persons who have at least one parent with Russian Federation
citizenship and living in the territory of the Russian Federation; who had the citizenship of the USSR; who had
resided or is residing in the former republics of the USSR and did not receive the citizenship of these republics
and thus remain stateless persons; who are citizens of the former republics of the USSR; who had received
professional or higher education in the educational institutions of the Russian Federation after 1 July 2002;
who were born in the territory of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and had citizenship of the
former USSR; who are married to the citizen of the Russian Federation for at least three years; and who are
not capable of working and have a legally capable son or daughter over the age of 18 who are citizens of the
Russian Federation. (The Federal Law on Amendments to the Federal Law on the Citizenship of the Russian
Federation, 11 November 2003, No. 151-FL).
21
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 4. Residence permits issued in the Russian Federation, 2004-2007
Year no.
2004 43,828
2005 18,862
2006 16,699
2007 (as of October) 12,217
Source: Federal Migration Service.
Temporary residence status
The number of people issued temporary residence permits in 2006 totaled
150,716. As of October 2007, the fgure reached 167,347.
Table 5. Temporary residence permits issued in the Russian Federation, 2004-2007
Year no.
2004 120,756
2005 170,267
2006 150,716
2007 (as of October) 167,347
Source: Federal Migration Service.
Refugees/asylum seekers
Refugees 445 persons (as of November 2007)
Applied for refugee status 1,872 persons (January-October 2007)
Recognized as refugees 113 (January-October 2007)
Applied for temporary asylum 1,042 persons (January-October 2007)
Received temporary asylum 359 persons (January-October 2007)
22 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 6. Persons who received the forced resettlement or refugee status, 1992-2006
20
total of forced
migrants
refugees
forced
re-settlers
1992 160,341
1993 323,244
1994 254,518 85,811 168,707
1995 271,950 46,409 225,541
1996 172,672 19,824 152,848
1997 131,130 5,751 125,379
1998 118,227 510 117,717
1999 79,126 381 78,745
2000 59,196 277 58,919
2001 41,958 134 41,824
2002 20,504 51 20,453
2003 4,726 58 4,668
2004 4,291 42 4,249
2005 8,939 25 8,914
2006 7,177 42 7,135
Source: Federal Migration Service.
20
FMS press release. Moscow, 1993-1999; Information and Statistics Collected Book No. 1, the FMS. Moscow,
2002; Population and migration in the Russian Federation. Moscow, the Goskomstat of Russia, 1994-2006.
23
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
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25
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 9. Distribution of foreign workers (by types of economic activity)
2005 2006
no. % no. %
Total 702,500 100.0 1,014,013 100.0
Building 272,122 38.7 414,084 40.8
Industry and mining operations 48,725 6.9 72,245 7.1
Agriculture, hunting 33,438 4.8 72,646 7.2
transport, communication 32,972 4.7 46,990 4.7
Trade and services 213,933 30.5 270,944 26.7
Other types of economic activity 101,310 14.4 137,104 13.5
Source: the Federal Migration Service
26 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Labour migrants
Table 10. Foreign workers in Russia (by main countries of origin)
2004 2005 2006
no. % no. % no. %
total 460,364 100.00 702,500 100.00 1,014,013 100.00
from Cis
countries (total)
221,862 48.19 343,665 48.92 537,722 53.03
Including:
Azerbaijan
9,844 2.14 17,302 2.46 28,319
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Armenia 17,000 3.69 26,169 3.73 39,760 3.92
Georgia 3,789 0.82 4,314 0.61 4,928 0.49
Kyrgyzstan 7,988 1.74 16,228 2.31 32,981 3.25
Moldavia 22,689 4.93 30,613 4.36 50,958 5.03
Tadzhikistan 23,282 5.06 52,602 7.49 98,736 9.74
Turkmenistan 304 0.07 1,499 0.21 704 0.07
Uzbekistan 24,101 5.24 49,043 6.98 105,061 10.36
Ukraine 108,615 23.59 141,777 20.18 171,292 16.89
from other
countries (total)
238,502 51.81 358,835 51.08 476,291 46.97
including:
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Bulgaria 2,268 0.49 1,815 0.26 1,547 0.15
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0.36
Vietnam 41,816 9.08 55,554 7.91 69,076 6.81
Germany 1,506 0.33 2,132 0.3 3,094 0.31
India 2,109 0.46 2,729 0.39 3,802 0.37
Italy 758 0.16 909 0.13 1,097 0.11
China 94,064 20.43 160,569 22.86 210,784 20.79
Korea (PDRK) 14,736 3.2 20,057 2.86 27,666 2.73
Korea Republic 466 0.1 968 0.14 1,321 0.13
Latvia 1,158 0.25 1,176 0.17 1,128 0.11
Lithuania 4,429 0.96 3,894 0.55 3,428 0.34
Poland 1,328 0.29 1,432 0.2 2,141 0.21
Serbia and Mon-
tenegro
7,504 1.63 9,777 1.39 13,661
1.35
Great Britain 1,449 0.31 2,168 0.31 3,193 0.31
United States 1,943 0.42 2,859 0.41 3,724 0.37
Turkey 48,007 10.43 73,695 10.49 101,407 10.00
Philippines 112 0.02 692 0.1 2,559 0.25
Finland 1,259 0.27 1,290 0.18 1,264 0.12
France 1,137 0.25 1,614 0.23 2,576 0.25
Source: Federal Migration Service
27
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 11. Distribution of foreign workers in Russia (by duration of work period)
2005 2006
Up to 3 months 2,260 2,683
3-6 months 34,764 5,590
6-9 months 17,663 14,206
9-12 months 391,477 547,633
Source: Federal Migration Service
Table 12. Distribution of foreign workers (by gender)
2004 2005 2006
No. % No. % No. %
Male 379,186 82.4 591,235 84.2 858,506 84.7
Female 81,178 17.6 111,265 15.8 155,507 15.3
Source: Federal Migration Service
1.3. Main countries of origin of immigrants
As indicated earlier, in the early to mid-1990s, the main migration fows
to the Russian Federation consisted of ethnic Russians who moved from other
former Soviet Republics, often feeing discrimination or ethnic conficts, and
therefore were known as forced migrants or forced resettlers in the Russian Fed-
eration. Since 2000, the top 10 source countries have been Ukraine, Kazakhstan,
Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and
Moldova.
21
21
World Bank, Development Prospects Group (2008) Migration and Remittances Factbook.
28 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Figure 1. Net migration to Russia, by ethnic group, 1992-2003 (in %)
Source: Valery Tishkov , Zhanna Zayinchkovskaya and Galina Vitkovskaya (2005) Migration in the countries of the former
Soviet Union, Global Commission on International Migration, p.13.
6.00%
10.00%
1.50%
15.70%
66.80%
29
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
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31
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
A signifcant part of migrants moving for permanent (primary) residence
to Russia are Russians (ethnic Russians from other regions of the Former Soviet
Republic who are entitled to Russian citizenship) arriving from other CIS coun-
tries or who belong to ethnic minorities of the Russian Federation. The majority
of them have Russian citizenship. The following table describes the ethnic origin
of those immigrants.
Table 14. Immigrants in Russia by ethnic origin in 2002-2006
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Total 184,612 129,144 119,157 177,230 186,380
Russians 99,683 66,076 65,831 92,576 82,647
Tatars 7,708 5,782 4,039 6,330 8,171
Other nations and
ethnic groups of the
Russian Federation
5,567 3,768 3,382 3,763 4,068
Azerbaijanis 2,921 1,884 1,196 2,489 5,345
Armenians 7,491 5,757 3,547 7,157 11,358
Belarusians 2,819 1,833 1,820 2,544 2,028
Georgians 1,451 968 609 811 1,055
Kazakhs 1,946 1,304 1,452 2,022 1,862
Kirghiz 428 276 403 1,332 2,394
Moldovans 1,263 981 807 1,385 2,033
Tadjiks 1,481 1,004 639 1,305 2,550
Turkmen 218 311 219 231 285
Uzbeks 2,020 1,597 1,130 2,069 3,880
Ukrainian 17,699 11,225 8,886 13,623 13,564
Koreans 1,577 1,295 985 2,162 2,870
Germans 2,523 1,913 2,342 2,974 2,438
Other nationalities,
living mainly outside of
the Russian Federation
4,077 2,986 2,148 3,565 3,546
Nationalities have not
been specifed
23,740 20,184 19,767 30,892 36,286
Source: Population and migration in the Russian Federation. Moscow, the Rosstat, 2004-2006
32 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 15. Distribution of immigrants age 14 and older, by educational status
educational status 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Total 158,505 111,883 104,550 155,056 163,687
Higher professional
education
28,561 22,185 20,563 29,357 31,118
Including Doctors of Sci-
ence (PhD specialists)
40 29 35 38 54
Candidates of Sciences
(PhD specialists)
206 161 60 79 86
Incomplete higher educa-
tion
4,254 3,193 3,210 4,973 5,083
Secondary vocational
education
47,620 33,250 31,797 48,180 48,554
General secondary
education
53,084 37,210 32,713 48,561 50,608
Basic secondary educa-
tion
19,283 12,566 12,387 18,689 18,313
Primary education or no
education
5,703 3,479 3,880 5,296 3,958
Educational status not
specifed
6,053
Source: Population and Migration in the Russian Federation, Moscow, the Rosstat, 2002-2006.
33
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
2. eMigrants
2.1. Total number of emigrants
..................................................................................... 11,480,137 (2005)
22
As percentage of total population .............................................8% (2005)
23
Table 16. Emigration from the Russian Federation in 1997 and 2000-2007 by year and
country of destination
1997 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Departures
from the Rus-
sian Federa-
tion, Total
232,987 145,720 121,166 106,685 94,018 79,795 69,798 54,061
of which to:
CIS countries 146,961 82,312 61,570 52,099 46,081 37,017 36,109 35,262
Azerbaijan 4,302 3,187 2,170 1,704 1,771 1,336 1,274 1,366
Armenia 2,578 1,519 1,362 1,114 1,098 654 620 686
Belarus 18,928 13,276 11,175 8,829 7,016 5,671 6,034 6,318
Georgia 3,286 1,802 1,339 964 939 740 691 593
Kazakhstan 25,364 17,913 15,186 13,939 14,017 12,504 12,437 11,948
Kyrgyzstan 6,296 1,857 1,333 1,080 959 656 473 605
Moldova 5,715 2,237 1,660 1,385 1,234 907 786 636
Tajikistan 2,474 1,158 993 827 922 549 434 424
Turkmenistan 1,532 676 352 272 251 168 125 112
Uzbekistan 7,370 3,086 1,974 1,400 1,130 717 595 648
Ukraine 69,116 35,601 24,026 20,585 16,744 13,115 12,640 11,926
to non- CIS
countries
86,026 63,408 59,596 54,586 47,937 42,778 33,689 18,799
Australia 297 176 184 144 146 167 209 167
Afghanistan 146 25 18 7 17 2 11 11
Bulgaria 668 180 163 133 156 160 124 116
Germany 48,363 40,443 43,682 42,231 36,928 31,876 21,458 8,229
Greece 886 314 204 190 186 157 155 139
Israel 12,873 9,407 4,835 2,764 2,048 1,733 1,745 1,408
Canada 1,333 841 812 725 701 783 628 552
China 1,222 658 156 151 86 154 456 196
22
World Bank Development Prospects Group (2005) Migration and Remittances Factbook.
23
Ibid.
34 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Cuba 89 27 15 6 8 8 2 3
Latvia 636 365 311 256 259 226 211 223
Lithuania 1,162 376 262 293 268 282 213 228
Poland 376 135 84 80 72 57 76 84
Syria 256 54 60 66 58 55 54 42
United States 9,087 4,793 4,527 3,134 3,199 2,919 4,040 3,109
Turkey 356 104 96 80 88 60 85 78
Finland 923 1,142 980 1,110 737 910 737 695
Sweden 151 195 148 162 151 158 110 132
Estonia 702 385 402 321 351 265 225 270
Other coun-
tries
6,500 3,788 2,657 2,733 2,478 2,806 3,150 3,117
Source: Goskomstat website
2.2. Status of emigrants
Refugees ........................................................................... 159,381 (2006)
24
Asylum seekers................................................................... 20,670 (2006)
25

Table 17. Distribution of refugees and asylum seekers from Russia by country of asylum
Country of asylum refugees
asylum seekers
(pending cases)
Total 159,381 20,670
United States 86,914 680
Germany 25,347 506
Austria 8,723 6,977
Poland 6,024 1,814
France 5,945 1,914
Belgium 5,425 730
Other countries 21,003 8,049
Sources: UNHCR, 2006
24
UNCHR (2006) Statistical Yearbook 2006. Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally
Displaced and Stateless Persons. Figures represent end-of-2006 statistics. Data are provisional and subject
to change. Status as of 15 June 2007. The fgure refers to Persons recognized as refugees under the 1951
UN Convention/1967 Protocol, the 1969 OAU Convention, in accordance with the UNHCR Statute, persons
granted a complementary form of protection and those granted temporary protection.
25
Ibid.
35
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Labour migrants
Suspended licenses - 1, cancelled licenses - 4 (as of January-October
2007)
Table 18. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad (by gender)
2005 2006 2007 (as of June)
Total 60,926 65,747 39,074
Male 50,722 52,185 30,243
Female 10,204 13,562 8,831
Source: Federal Migration Service
Table 19. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad (by educational status)
2005 2006 2007 (as of June )
Total 60,926 65,747 39,074
Higher professional education 20,880 20,901 11,916
Secondary vocational education 23,786 23,381 13,379
General secondary education 15,821 20,857 13,705
No general secondary education 439 608 74
Source: Federal Migration Service
Table 20. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad
(by duration of employment period)
2006 2007 (as of June)
Total 65,747 39,074
Up to 6 months 43,834 27,180
6 months - 1 year 14,949 9,728
1-2 years 1,651 258
2-3 years 1,843 373
3 years and more 3,470 835
Source: Federal Migration Service
36 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 21. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad in 2006 (by type of
economic activity)
economic activities
employment
before leaving russia abroad
no. % no. %
Total 65,747 100.00 65,747 100.00
I. Employment by economic activity 46,197 70.26 65,747 100.00
Fishing and fsh farming 3,178 4.83 3,238 4.92
Transport and communications 39,794 60.53 44,758 68.08
- Of which transport 39,771 60.49 44,738 68.05
Education 261 0.40 90 0.14
Health care and social services 186 0.28 132 0.20
Other utility, social, and personal services 1,501 2.28 3,085 4.69
Other economic activities 535 0.81 13,723 20.87
Other economic activities 1,025 1.56 14,186 21.58
II. Unemployed before leaving abroad,
except for never been employed before
5,456 8.30
III. Never been employed before 14,094 21.44
Source: Federal Migration Service
Table 22. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad in 2005-2007,
by destination countries
2005 2006
2007
(as of June)
Total 60,926 65,747 39,074
Including: CIS countries, total 478 1,697 907
Other countries, total 60,450 64,050 33,454
Antigua and Barbuda 666 1,053 344
Bahamas 815 1,877 1,119
Belize 1,629 1,831 787
Belgium 961 569 183
Germany 3,272 3,419 1,738
Greece 2,884 2,221 1,102
Italy 544 586 178
Cambodia 1,731 1,849 785
Cyprus 10,492 8,875 4,156
Korea, Republic 542 607 359
Liberia 3,955 3,963 1,803
Luxembourg 600 586 240
Malta 4,424 4,416 2,157
37
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Marshall Islands 897 1,121 632
Netherlands 2,428 2,386 1,421
Norway 1,963 2,006 945
Panama 1,090 1,590 552
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1,854 1,307 645
Singapore 839 972 417
United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
2,428 1,630 819
United States of America 7,409 13,457 8,614
Japan 2,619 1,603 965
Other countries 6,408 6,126 3,493
Source: Federal Migration Service
Table 23. Occupation of Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad
before departure abroad abroad
2005 2006
2007
(as of June)
2005 2006
2007
(as of June)
Total 60,926 65,747 39,074 60,926 65,747 39,074
Supervisors 10,711 11,056 6,836 10,890 11,040 6,818
Specialists 16,768 16,999 9,499 17,715 16,898 9,305
Offce workers
(technical personnel)
101 496 248 134 475 243
Workers 24,013 22,897 10,533 32,187 37,334 22,708
Others 9,333 14,299 11,958

Source: Federal Migration Service
38 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 24. Russian citizens who migrated for employment abroad,
by category of occupation
2005 2006 2007 (as of June)
Total 60,926 65,747 39,074
Including:
Those working in foreign-fag vessels
45,283 47,940 25,657
Seasonal workers 198 157 37
Students during vacations 8,250 14,214 11,644
Probationers 445 471 133
Others 6,750 2,965 1,603
Source: Federal Migration Service
2.3. Main countries of destination
According to the Development Prospects Group
26
of the World Bank, the
top 10 destination countries of migrants from the Russian Federation are Ukraine,
Kazakhstan, Belarus, Israel, Uzbekistan, United States, Latvia, Germany, Moldo-
va, and Estonia.
Table 25: Selected countries of residence of Russian emigrants
Country no. Year source
United States 340,175 2003 US Census
1
Germany 662,000 2006 Eurostat
Ukraine 3,613,240 2001 UKR Census
2
Latvia 2,801 2006 Eurostat
1
US Census Bureau (2003) Foreign-Born Population of the United States from the American Community Sur-
vey 2003, http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign/datatbls.html
2
State Statistics Committee of Ukraine (2001), http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua
26
World Bank, Development Prospects Group (2007) Migration and Remittances Factbook.
39
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 26. Russian emigration by countries of destination and by year, 2000-2006
Countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Total 145,720 121,166 106,685 94,018 79,795 69,798 54,061
CIS countries 82,312 61,570 52,099 46,081 37,017 36,109 35,262
Azerbaijan 3,187 2,170 1,704 1,771 1,336 1,274 1,366
Armenia 1,519 1,362 1,114 1,098 654 620 686
Belarus 13,276 11,175 8,829 7,016 5,671 6,034 6,318
Georgia 1,802 1,339 964 939 740 691 593
Kazakhstan 17,913 15,186 13,939 14,017 12,504 12,437 11,948
Kyrgyzstan 1,857 1,333 1,080 959 656 473 605
Moldova 2,237 1,660 1,385 1,234 907 786 636
Tadzhikistan 1,158 993 827 922 549 434 424
Turkmenistan 676 352 272 251 168 125 112
Uzbekistan 3,086 1,974 1,400 1,130 717 595 648
Ukraine 35,601 24,026 20,585 16,744 13,115 12,640 11,926
Other countries 63,408 59,596 54,586 47,937 42,778 33,689 18,799
Australia 176 184 144 146 167 209 167
Afghanistan 25 18 7 17 2 11 11
Bulgaria 180 163 133 156 160 124 116
Germany 40,443 43,682 42,231 36,928 31,876 21,458 8,229
Greece 314 204 190 186 157 155 139
Israel 9,407 4,835 2,764 2,048 1,733 1,745 1,408
Canada 841 812 725 701 783 628 552
China 658 156 151 86 154 456 196
Latvia 365 311 256 259 226 211 223
Lithuania 376 262 293 268 282 213 228
Poland 135 84 80 72 57 76 84
United States 4,793 4,527 3,134 3,199 2,919 4,040 3,109
Finland 1,142 980 1,110 737 910 737 695
Sweden 195 148 162 151 158 110 132
Estonia 385 402 321 351 265 225 270
Others 3,973 2,828 2,885 2,632 2,929 3,291 3,240
Sources: Demographic Yearbook of Russia, Moscow, 2006; Population and Migration in the Russian Federation in 2006,
Moscow.
40 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 27. Educational status of emigrants 14 years and older, 2002-2006
educational status 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Total 89,589 79,380 66,759 59,228 46,398
Higher professional education 16,479 14,463 12,675 12,215 10,798
Including doctors of sciences 22 14 23 19 23
Candidates of sciences 83 59 53 52 42
Incomplete higher education 2,666 2,633 2,187 1,889 1,611
Secondary vocational education 24,658 22,009 18,624 16,250 12,598
General secondary education 29,569 26,184 21,434 19,085 13,613
Basic secondary education 12,236 10,690 9,046 7,609 5,488
Primary education or no education 3,981 3,401 2,793 2,180 1,495
Educational status not specifed 795
Source: Population and Migration in the Russian Federation, Moscow, the Rosstat, 2002-2006.
41
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
3. reMittanCes
3.1. Quantitative aspects of remittances
The low proportion of remittances as a percentage of Russian GDP (0.3%
in 2006)
27
demonstrates that this phenomenon is currently of minor importance
for the Russian economy.
28
However, the continuous growth of remittances in
the past fve years indicates that it might increase in proportion in the coming
decade. This trend can already be observed in the region of the CIS countries.
29

But, as shown in Table 30, the outward remittance fows from Russia to migrants
countries of origin has grown much steeper than the inward fows sent by Rus-
sians abroad.
Table 28. Amount of incoming migrant remittances to Russia
30
Year remittances (million usD)
2003 1,453
2004 2,495
2005 2,918
2006 3,091
2007 (estimate) 4,000
Source: World Bank
27
Ibid.
28
Central Bank of the Russian Federation (2005), Cross Border Remittances, Russian Experience, p. 8, http://
www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2005/ADB-IADB-MIF-UNDP/cbr-the-russian-experience.pdf
29
Quillin, Bryce, Carlo Segni, Sophie Sirtaine and Ilias Skamnelos (2007) Remittances in the CIS Countries: A
Study of Selected Corridors, Chief Economists Regional Working Paper Series, Finance and Private Sector
Development Department, Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 5.
30
World Bank, Development Prospects Group (2007) Migration and Remittances Factbook.
42 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 29. Remittances to and from the Russian Federation, 2000-2006
31
remittances (million usD) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Inward remittance fows 1,275 1,403 1,359 1,453 2,668 3,117 3,308
of which
Workers remittances
- 363 232 300 1,098 820 983
Compensation of employees 500 624 704 814 1,206 1,714 1,647
Migrants transfer 775 416 423 339 364 583 678
Outward remittance fows 1,101 1,823 2,226 3,233 5,188 6,989 11,438
of which
Workers remittances
- 421 788 1,306 2,672 3,051 4,587
Compensation of employees 232 493 507 958 1,464 2,921 6,038
Migrants transfers 867 908 931 969 1,052 1,017 813
Sources: World Bank, Development Prospects Group.
Tables 27 and 28 above report the offcially recorded remittances. The
true size of remittances, including unrecorded fows through formal and informal
channels, is believed to be larger.
For comparison, Table 29 below shows the amount of remittances as reg-
istered by the Central Bank of Russia (CBR). The CBR records the remittances
of physical persons as performed by selected (most important) money transfer
systems
32
and the Postal Service of Russia.
31
World Bank, Development Prospects Group (2007) Migration and Remittances Factbook.
32
Including 16 international payment systems (Western Union, MoneyGram, and others).
43
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 30. Remittances sent via money transfer systems in 2006
Destination
country
remittances
from russia
(million usD)
share (%)
source
country
remittances
to russia
(million usD)
share (%)
Total 6,005 100.0 Total 1,304 100.0
Uzbekistan 1,000 16.7 United States 190 14.6
Tadzhikistan 957 15.9 Kazakhstan 154 11.8
Ukraine 927 15.4 Uzbekistan 92 7.0
Armenia 604 10.1 Ukraine 88 6.8
Moldova 525 8.7 Germany 62 4.8
Kyrgyzstan 438 7.3 Italy 50 3.9
Georgia 344 5.7
United
Kingdom
44 3.3
China 278 4.6 Kyrgyzstan 44 3.3
Kazakhstan 86 1.4 Spain 42 3.2
Other
countries
405 6.7
Other
countries
481 36.9
Source: Central Bank of Russia.
Data from CBR shows an increase in remittances from Russia in 2006 by
64 per cent in comparison with the outward remittances in 2005, and by 120 per
cent from the level in 2004. Remittances to Russia grew slower at a rate of 25 per
cent from 2005 to 2006 in comparison to 68 per cent in 2004.
Comparing the fgures of the World Bank and the Russian Central Bank
on the total amounts of registered remittances into and out of Russia in 2006 (the
only year shown in the CBR data), the World Bank totals are much larger, perhaps
due to the different methodology used.
As to the bilateral data on the total amounts of remittance fows between
Russia and individual countries, the CBR fgures from 2006 are, however, close
to those presented by the World Bank.
33
The bilateral remittance fgures of the
World Bank are actually estimates calculated by the World Bank and the Univer-
sity of Sussex Development Research Centre, using migrant stocks and incomes
both in the countries of destination and origin of the migrants.
Thus, according to such calculations published by the Development Pros-
pects Group of the World Bank,34 the most important remittance-sending coun-
33
These data are estimated using assumptions and arguments as explained in Ratha and Shaw (2006), South-
South Migration and Remittances, Development Prospects Group, World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/
prospects/migrationandremittances.
34
Ibid
44 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
tries or source countries of migrants remittances to Russia in 2005 were Ukraine
(USD 1,220 million), Kazakhstan (USD 461 million), Israel (USD 212 million),
Belarus (USD 189 million), United States (USD 166 million), Uzbekistan (USD
111 million), and Germany (USD 78 million).
Meanwhile, the key countries receiving remittances from Russia in 2005
were Armenia (USD 484 million), Azerbaijan (USD 432 million), Moldova (USD
340 million), Tadzhikistan (USD 268 million), Ukraine (USD 309 million), Bela-
rus (USD 168 million), Georgia (USD 201 million), Kyrgyzstan (USD 138 mil-
lion), and Kazakhstan (USD 122 million).
35

The World Bank fgures do not include remittances from Russia to China
and Uzbekistan. Citizens of these two countries occupy the frst and third places,
respectively, by the number of persons offcially engaged in the economy of Rus-
sia (see Table 29). In 2006, Uzbekistan was the foremost recipient of remittances
from Russia, estimated at more than one billion US dollars,
36
and this is expected
to increase further in 2007.
During the period January-September 2007, the remittances received by pri-
vate persons in Russia were USD 1,193 billion based on CBR data. Remittances
sent by physical persons from Russia amounted to USD 6,317 million (including
USD 5,733 million sent to the CIS countries). The main recipient countries were
Uzbekistan (USD 1,100 million), Tadzhikistan (USD 1,080 million), Ukraine
(USD 925 million), Armenia (USD 629 million), Moldova (USD 536 million),
Kyrgyzstan (USD 476 million), and Azerbaijan (USD 445 million).
Individual transfers
According to CBR data, the average amount of remittance transfers from
the CIS countries show a steady increase during the last couple of years. In 2006,
the average transfer rose to USD 511 from USD 457 in 2005, and further to USD
531 in the third quarter of 2007. The average amount of remittance transfer to
Uzbekistan was USD 593; to Tadzhikistan, USD 541; to Ukraine, USD 445; and
to Moldova, USD 558. According to experts at the CBR, the reason for the higher
average amount of remittance transfer to Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan compared
with that in Ukraine is because the transfers to Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan are
consolidated transfers, meaning the money resources of several people are given to
one authorized representative who transfer the remittances as a single amount.
37
35
Ibid.
36
Mukomel and Mkrtchyan (2008), Ibid.
37
http://www.cbr.ru/search/print.asp?File=/statistics/crossborder/cross-border_06.htm
45
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Several factors have contributed to the recent growth of individual amounts
sent from Russia. First, the steady growth of wages in Russia (the average wage
increased from 5,500 rubles in 2003 to 14,406 rubles in November 2007) has
made larger transfers possible. Second, the strengthening of the ruble-dollar ex-
change rate (the ruble appreciated by 23% in 2003-2007) has made the dollar
fgure larger. Third, it is believed that the increased trust and confdence to the
payment systems and the decrease in the amount of transfer commissions have
contributed to the growth of the individual transfers. In 2006, the average com-
mission charged to the client by the transfer systems for sending remittances
abroad was 3.7 per cent of the transferred amount. Given the average transferred
amount of between USD 500 and USD 600, the average commission was about
USD 20. As illustrated in Figure 2, the commission has considerably decreased
over the last few years. The greatest decrease was from USD 100 to USD 200.
On average, the amount of commission decreased by 7 and 13 per cent in 2006,
compared to 2005 and 2004, respectively.
Figure 2. Changes in average commission
(for transactions from Russia via payment systems)
Source: http://www.cbr.ru/search/print.asp?File=/statistics/crossborder/cross-border_06.htm named Transboundary opera-
tions of natural persons according to RF Central Bank
8%
7%
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
2003 2004 2005 2006
46 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
3.2. Qualitative aspects of remittances
Formal transfers are made through money transfer systems and through the
Russian Postal Service. Money transfer operators (MTOs) represent a growing
market given the improvements in macroeconomic conditions, the proliferation
of advanced technologies, and the liberalization of such markets in the country
and in the region.
38
Nevertheless, many transfers occur through other channels,
such as fnancial and credit institutions with links to organized crime organiza-
tions, or using the services of Russian nationals in order to escape the widespread
phenomenon of migrant workers falling prey to swindlers.
39
As previously mentioned, the amount of remittances being sent to Russia
in 2006 was 0.3 per cent of the GDP.
40
In-kind remittances were also sent. These
remittances were of greatest importance to vulnerable groups such as pensioners,
single persons, and one-parent families, among others. Generally, remittances
were important sources of income in the beginning of the 1990s, when the stand-
ard of living sharply decreased immediately following the fall of Communism
and emigration from Russia was about ten times higher than today.
As to the specifc use of the received money transfers, no data were found
as to their use for investment vis--vis consumption.
Aside from the transfer payment system (MTOs, Russian Postal Service)
and banking system, traditional transfer channels (for example, bringing the
money by hand) are used. According to CBR estimates, the share of the money
personally brought through the border in 2005 did not exceed 20 per cent of the
offcially registered transfers.
In Russia , remittances that are directed outside the country have received
much more public attention than the fows from abroad into Russia. As the remit-
tance fows out of the country have grown much larger than the money known to
have been sent to Russia, this has made the mass media, politicians, and offcials
critical of remittances given the seeming imbalance between the amount received
by and sent from Russia. Experts, however, point out that remittances only play a
marginal role in weakening the external balance of payments.
38
Quillin, Bryce, Carlo Segni, Sophie Sirtaine and Ilias Skamnelos ( 2007) op. cit., p. 5
39
Tishkov, Valery, Zhanna Zayinchkovskaya and Galina Vitkovskaya (2005) Migration in the Countries of the
Former Soviet Union, op. cit., p.29.
40
World Bank, Development Prospects Group (2006)
47
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
4. Migrant CoMMunities/Diasporas
With approximatively 20-25 million people, the Russian diaspora is one of
the largest in the world. The Russian population and other ethnic groups based
for the most part in the territory of Russia is believed to reach up to 23 million, 20
million of whom to live in the states of the former USSR
41
and about 3 million in
other countries, mostly in the United States and Canada.
42
4.1. Description of relationship between diasporas and country
of origin
The relationship between Russian authorities and Russians living abroad
has evolved through structures of fnancial support and social organizations pro-
viding support.
43
So far, no elaborate network structures have been created, and
the only offcial links that exist between the diaspora and the country of origin
appear to be through the support of veterans, pensioners, and socially vulnerable
Russian groups living abroad. Further evidence to the weakness of this offcial
relationship can be found in the increasingly important role played by American
and European foundations dealing with the young Russian-speaking elite,
44
as
well as by other organizations in the countries of destination that are involved
with Russian communities at the economic, cultural and scientifc levels.
Russias severe demographic decline
45
has led the authorities to make ef-
forts in attracting Russians of the diaspora to return to their homeland, focusing
their attention on the emigrant elite.
46
However, the appeals from compatriots to
the diaspora to return have met only limited success.
47

The state policy concerning compatriots abroad goes as a separate item in
the federal budget. The expenditure related to implementation of the State pro-
41
According to the census in the CIS countries and Baltic republics, the Russian population is about 18.2 million
and about 2.1 million are other ethnic Russians.
42
Kabuzan, V. (1996) Russians of the World, Russian Baltic Information Center BLITZ, St. Petersburg, p.21.
According to other estimates, their number may be 10-12 million people.
43
Yatsenko, Elena (2007) Russias Diaspora Capital: Key Actors and Conditions for Accumulation, Eurasia
Heritage Foundation, http://www.eurasianhome.org/xml/t/expert.xml?lang=en&nic=expert&pid=1361
44
Ibid.
45
From 148 million in 1992 to 142 million in 2006. See World Bank, Development Prospects Group (2007)
Migration and Remittances Factbook.
46
Heleniak, Timothy (2002) Russia Beckons, but Diaspora Wary, Migration Policy Institute, http://www.migra-
tioninformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=56
47
Ibid.
48 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
gramme for rendering assistance with regards to willful compatriot migration to
the Russian Federation is fnanced by another item in the budget.
Government and other agencies dealing with the Russian diaspora
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
The Ministry promotes development of relations and contacts with compa-
triots living abroad. It carries out protection of legitimate rights and interests of
compatriots living abroad, according to the norms of international law.
32/34, Smolenskaya-Sennaya ploshad
Moscow, 119200, Russia
Tel.: +7 (495) 244-16-06
http://www.mid.ru
Correspondence and private issues department (MFA reception desk)
Tel.: +7 (495) 244-22-83, fax: +7 (495) 244-34-48
E-mail: ministry@mid.ru
Governmental Commissions for Affairs of Compatriots Abroad
The Commission is a coordinating body of the Government of the Russian
Federation providing coordination support for the activities of federal executive
authorities and executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian
Federation. The administrative responsibility for the commission lies with the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.
Interdepartmental Commission for Implementation of the State Pro-
gramme on Assisting Willful Migration to the Russian Federation of the
Compatriots Living Abroad
This is a collegial body that controls the State programme on assisting
willful migration to the Russian Federation of compatriots living abroad, and also
monitors its implementation.
The Commissions organizational support is carried out by divisions of the
Administration of the President of Russia while system support is provided by
the FMS of Russia.
49
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Russian Center of the International Scientifc and Cultural Cooperation
under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia (Roszarubezhcenter)
The Roszarubezhcenters principal activities are:
o providing information support for the external and internal policy of Russia
and assisting in the formation of positive perception of the image of modern
Russia in the global community
o assisting in the development of comprehensive connections of compatriots
with the historical motherland and interaction with the Russian-speaking di-
asporas abroad
o strengthening of positions of the Russian language in the world
o preserving the high reputation abroad of the national system of higher educa-
tion
o conducting cultural and educational activities abroad and assisting in the de-
velopment of business and cultural relations of Russia with other countries
o assisting in the development of scientifc, technical and business cooperation
of Russia with foreign countries.
14, Vozdvizhenka Street, Moscow
Tel.: +7(495) 290-12-45
http://www.rusintercenter.ru/
http://www.rusintercenter.ru/?lang=ru&menu=70 (for the Roszarubezh-
centers foreign representations and Russian centers of science and culture).
Federal Migration Service (FMS) of Russia
The FMS participates in the implementation of the state policy of the Rus-
sian Federation concerning compatriots abroad.
16, Zhitnaya Street, Moscow, 117049, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 923-89-45
http://www.fms.gov.ru
Ministry of Regional Development (Minregion) of the Russian
Federation
The Ministry arranges the implementation of regional programmes for as-
sisting willful migration to the Russian Federation of compatriots living abroad.
50 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
10/23, Sadovaya-Samotechnaya Street
Bdg 1, Moscow, 127994, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 980-25-47
Fax: +7 (495) 699-38-41
http://www.minregion.ru/
Ministry of Education and Science (Minobrnauki ) of the Russian Fed-
eration
11, Tverskaya Street, 125993, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 629-70-62
Fax +7(495) 921-70-48
http://www.mon.gov.ru
Federal Education Agency (Rosobrazovanie)
The Agency organizes selection of youth from among the compatriots liv-
ing abroad for studying in higher and vocational educational institutions in the
Russian Federation. It also arranges Russian training in the countries of resi-
dence.
51, Lyusinovskaya Street, 113833, Moscow, Russia
Telephone: +7(495) 237-97-63
http://www.ed.gov.ru
Ministry of Culture and Mass Communications (Minkultury) of the
Russian Federation
7, Kitaygorodskiy proezd, 193693, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 925-11-95
http://www.mkmk.ru
Federal Agency for Press and Mass Communications (Rospechat)
5, Strastnoy Boulevard, 127994, Moscow, Russia
Committee for the Affairs of the Community of Independent States of
the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Fed-
eration
51
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
26, Bolshaya Dmitrovka Street, 103426, Moscow, Russia
Tel. : +7(495) 692-07-18 ; Fax: +7(495) 692-59-36
http://www.council.gov.ru/committee/item540.html

Committee for the Affairs of the Community of Independent States and
Relations with Compatriots of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly
of the Russian Federation
1, Okhotniy Ryad Street, 103265, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 692-59-95, 692-22-35, 692-53-18
http://www.duma.gov.ru
Human Rights Commissioner (Ombudsman) of the Russian Federa-
tion
47, Myasnitskaya Street, 107084, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 207-34-12 : +7(495) 207-39-77;
+7(495) 207-53-37 (press service); +7(495) 207-42-90 (international depart-
ment)
E-mail: press-sl@ropnet.ru
http://wwwombudsman.gov.ru,
Moscow Government
13, Tverskaya Street, 125032, Moscow, Russia
36/9, Noviy Arbat Street, 121205, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: + 7 (495) 777-77-77
http://www.mos.ru
Department of the International Relations
Tel. : +7(495) 725-04-82
http://www.moskvaimir.mos.ru/dms/activity/support
Department of the Relations with the CIS countries and Baltic Republics,
the Compatriots Abroad Division
Tel.: +7(495) 957-01-50
52 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
St. Petersburg Government
The Saint Petersburg Administration, Smolniy, 191060
Fax: +7 (812) 576-78-27
E-mail : gov@gov.spb.ru
http://www.gov.spb.ru
External Relations and Tourism Committee: http://www.kvs.spb.ru/ru
Relations with national associations of Saint Petersburg
and compatriots abroad:
Tel.: +7(812) 576-71-59, 70-85
Fax: +7(812) 576-45-84
The Russian World Foundation
The Foundation (http://www.russkiymir.ru/) was formed according to Decree
No. 796 (21 June 2007) of the President of Russia. Its founders on behalf of
the Russian Federation are the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry
of Education and Science.
The Rodina (Motherland) Association (http://www.association-rodina.
ru/site/)
The Russia and Compatriots Foundation (http://www.russiane.org)
Information support and communication
The Russian Line Information Agency (http://www.rusk.ru)
Network Center for the Russians Abroad (http://www.russkie.org/) of the
Institute for the Russians Abroad
Compatriot Information Portal (http://compatriot.su/) of the Institute of
the Eurasian Research Development Foundation
Compatriot Portal (http://www.russedina.ru)
53
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
4.2. Migrant communities/diasporas organizations by country
of destination
(Please note the lists below do not purport to be exhaustive or representa-
tive. IOM does not take responsibility for the accuracy of the contact details.)
Worldwide
USSR Russian Net Community (http://www.saumita.com/ussr/cindex.html)
American RU (http://www.americaru.com/)
Diaspora organizations abroad
International Council of the Russian Compatriots (http://www.msrs.ru)
For a list of organizations of the Russian compatriot abroad,
48
see.:
o the website of the Moscow House of the Compatriot (http://www.mosds.
ru/Soot/soot_org1.shtml)
o the Materik Portal (http://www.materik.ru/index.php?section=diaspora)

Migrant community/diaspora organizations in Russia
For a list of migrant organizations, see the website of the Forum of Reset-
tled Organizations (http://db.ngo.ru/fair.nsf/MigrantByTitle?OpenView&count
=1000).
Migrant communities, as a rule, are organized according to ethnicity. Many
migrants take part in the work of national cultural autonomies (NCA) and nation-
al cultural centers. A total of 17 federal NCAs and over 350 regional NCAs have
been created according to the Federal Law on the National Cultural Autonomy
No. 74-FL of 17 June 1996, and many national cultural centers also function
today.
For a list of NCAs, see the website of the Center of Interethnic Coopera-
tion (http://www.interethnic.org/CNO.htm).
48
The compatriots abroad, according to the Russian law, are understood as follows: the citizens of the Russian
Federation permanently living abroad; the persons having the citizenship of the USSR and living in the new
independent states; natives (emigrants) of Russia and the USSR; and descendants of the persons belonging
to the abovementioned groups, except for the descendants of persons of the eponymous ethnic groups of the
foreign states (The Federal Law About the State Policy of the Russian Federation Concerning Compatriots
Abroad, 24 May 1999, No. 99-FZ, Article 1, Part 2).
55
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
5. irregular Migration
5.1. Numbers/estimates of irregular movements
Irregular immigration into the Russian Federation
Russia is primarily a destination country for irregular migrants; secondly,
a transit state for those on their way to Western and Central Europe; and thirdly,
a country of exit for Russian citizens who intend to live or work irregularly in
other countries.
The major route of irregular migrants arriving in Russia is through the
southern bordersthe states of Central Asia and Trans-Caucasus, of which Rus-
sia has agreements for crossing t on visa-free terms.
The CIS countries are estimated to be the main sources of irregular migra-
tion to the Russian Federation. As for other source areas abroad, Southeast Asia
is said to be prominent. Along the nearly 20,000 km land border of the Russian
Federation, the borders with China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan are said to be
among the most preferred sections for illegal crossings into Russia. As transit
migrants from the CIS and from elsewhere try to make their way through Russia
to Central and Western Europe, the illegal crossings in the Western borders are
often much more diffcult. This asymmetry of the borders is one of the reasons
why many irregular migrants planning to transit through Russia get stuck in the
country.
49

In 2007, the number of irregular migrants reportedly decreased due to the
new migration law which came into force and the modifcation of procedures of
reception of temporary stays and labour permits. According to the FMS, irregular
migrants in 2006 totaled 10 to 15 million, but this was said to have gone down to
5-7 million in 2007.
50
However, some experts considered these fgures for 2006
and 2007 overestimated.
Indeed, World Bank researchers cite estimations that vary between 3 and
3.5 million of irregular migrants currently living in Russia.
51
According to pre-
49
ICMPD (2005)
50
FMS Director K. Romodanovskiy, 18 December 2007.
51
Quillin, Bryce, Carlo Segni, Sophie Sirtaine and Ilias Skamnelos (2007) Remittances in the CIS countries: A
Study of Selected Corridors, op. cit., p. 7.
56 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
vious estimates of the Russian Ministry of Labour,
52
about 3-5 million irregular
labour migrants were residing in the Russian Federation or nearly eight per cent
of the Russian working-age population. Additionally, estimates of the Russian
Federal Border Service indicate some 1.5 million irregular migrants from South-
ern and Central Asia, and Africa residing in the Russian territory.
53
Also, based
on the fgures of the FMS, over 93,000 employers were using the services of
irregular foreign workers in 2004, and about 713,000 foreign citizens fall in the
category of irregular workers.
54

Ivakhnouk (2006)
55
presents a larger estimate of 515 million irregular
migrants (in general terms, not only irregular labour migrants) in all the CIS
with the most part in the Russian Federation. Ivakhniouk points out that the
development of the private sector in Russia in the 1990s and its growing need
for labour, as well as the migration fows from CIS countries given their high un-
employment rate and lower salaries (such as Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan,
Ukraine, and Moldova), have propelled irregular migration into Russia spontane-
ously. Unfortunately, there has been no full documentation of its extent.
With insuffcient channels for regular labour migration and lack of offcial
migration infrastructure and legislation, a large irregular regional labour market
has developed. This situation has also been taken advantage of by international
networks of criminal organizations specializing in human traffcking. Human
traffckers are said to be benefting from the gaps in national legislation on mi-
gration, the lack of offcial migration infrastructure, and the highly bureaucratic
procedures for getting job permits, amidst the growing demand for migrant la-
bour in Russia.
As to the main sources of irregular foreign labour, the Federal Ministry of
Labour reports the Caucasus countries, China, Vietnam, and the Central Asian
countries.
56
52
Cited in ICMPD (2005): Overview of the Migration Systems in the CIS Countries.
53
Ibid.
54
Ibid.
55
Ivakhnyuk, Irina (2006) Migration in the CIS Region: Common Problems and Mutual Benefts, An expert
paper presented at the International Symposium on International Migration and Development, United Nations
Population Division, 28-30 June 2006, Turin, Italy.
56
Cited in ICMPD (2005), Ibid.
57
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 31. Violations of the Migration Law of the Russian Federation
2005 2007 2007 (as of June)
Violations to stay (residence)
regulation
1,514,759 1,403,261 282,074
Illegal labour activity 49,938 54,280 3,008
Violations to immigration
regulation
1,103 649 218
Source: Information Analysis Center, MIA of Russia.
5.2. Figures and information on return migration fows
Infows
Table 32. IOM assisted voluntary returns to the Russian Federation, 2005-2006
return from: 2005 2006 total
Austria 26 72 98
Belgium 210 159 369
Czech Republic 20 41 61
Finland 2 2
Germany 399 407 806
Hungary 7 3 10
Ireland 3 6 9
Italy 13 3 16
Lithuania 16 16
Netherlands 98 104 202
Norway 66 65 131
Poland 25 402 427
Portugal 19 8 27
Serbia and Montenegro 3 3
Slovakia 21 12 33
Spain 5 5
Switzerland 10 4 14
United Kingdom 39 64 103
Ukraine 1 1
Other 3 1 4
Total 977 1 360 2 337
Source: Provisional statistics from IOMs AVR Service Area, IOM Headquarters, Geneva, January 2008

58 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Outfows
Based on the records of the FMS, the number of foreign citizens deported
from Russia (in thousands of persons) is 80.3 for 2005, 55.8 for 2007, and 24.0
for 2007 (January to October).
5.3. Figures and information on traffcking
According to the former Interior Minister of the Russian Federation Ana-
toly Kulikov, Russia is a provider, transiter, and consumer of human merchan-
dise. For migrants from CIS countries, Russia is a consumer, and for those who
are inclined to seeking sexual services abroad, it is a provider. More than 500,000
Russian-speaking women are said to have been traffcked for sexual exploita-
tion.
57
Estimates of the yearly number of traffcked Russian women vary from
35,000 to 57,750.
58
Numerous reasons have been given to explain the presence of human traf-
fcking in Russia, such as:
the practically transparent state borders between Russia and the CIS coun-
tries
the increase in migration fows outside and inside of Russia
the developed internal human traffcking system in Russia as one of the
spheres of criminal business activities, including the use of forced labour
the globalization of organized crime due the existence of stable channels of
deliveries.
Similarly, migration reports note that Russia is both a country of origin and
of destination for human traffcking. Tishkov et al. (2005)
59
estimate that some
50,000 women from Russia are involved in illegal sex trade in Western countries,
and an equal number from China and Southeast Asia is also reportedly involved.
Additionally, Ivakhniouk (2006)
60
claims that men, women, and children from
57
1. http://gzt.ru/society/2008/02/12/220004.html
2. The Coordinator of the Inter-Agency Working Group is E. Mizulina, Permanent Representative of the State
Duma in the Constitutional Court of Russia.
3. From 2004 the Legislative Committee of the State Duma was renamed into the Committee of civil, crimi-
nal, constitutional and procedural legislation.
58
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2004) Transport of Women and Children from Russia with the
Goal of Sexual Exploitation, Moscow.
59
Tishkov, Valery, Zhanna Zayinchkovskaya and Galina Vitkovskaya (2005) Migration in the Countries of
the Former Soviet Union, A paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global
Commission on International Migration.
60
Ivakhnyuk, Irina (2006) Migration in the CIS Region: Common Problems and Mutual Benefts, An expert
paper presented at the International Symposium on International Migration and Development, United Nations
Population Division, 28-30 June 2006, Turin, Italy.
59
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
poorer CIS countries are traffcked to Russia for labour exploitation. The author
adds that hundreds of thousands of Tajik, Kyrgyz, Moldovan, and Uzbek mi-
grants are taken to Russia for seasonal employment in construction and agricul-
ture. Their seasonal earnings provide sustenance to the families they left behind
while they endure hardships and sufferings such as the violation of their human
rights and exposure to serious health risks.
Tishkov et al. confrm that in Central Asia, traffcking also occurs frequent-
ly among men, who are sold for slave labour in Russia. The problem of traffck-
ing to Russia of young girls and women, in particular those from Moldova and
Ukraine, is also said to have increased.
Since 1999, IOM has been collecting statistical information on victims of
traffcking that the organization has assisted in its return and rehabilitation pro-
grammes. Although not all IOM-assisted victims have been entered into IOMs
database, fgures at the end of 2007 point to nearly 12,800 victims assisted. As the
information is collected only from victims who have benefted from IOMs pro-
grammes, the sample can be regarded as incomplete and not representative of the
total number of traffcking victims. Still, the IOM data can give relevant informa-
tion particularly on the profle of the potential victims to be targeted in prevention
activities. The data can likewise reveal information that can support law enforce-
ment offcials in apprehending and prosecuting criminal organizations.
At the end of 2007, the IOM database contained information on 233 vic-
tims of Russian origin. A total of 222 were female and only 11 were male. These
Russian victims had ended up in 23 different countries of destination, which were
in the regions IOM has a good coverage of counter-traffcking programmes and
where the data on the victims were gathered. These regions and destination coun-
tries include the Balkans (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Kosovo, FYRoM,
and Albania), East and South Eastern Europe (Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cy-
prus, Greece, Moldova), the Middle East (Turkey, United Arab Emirates), and
the Caucasus and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazahstan, and
Kyrgyzstan). In Western Europe, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland fgured
among the destination countries. The victims who ended up in the Balkans had
arrived through many different routes, with Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Croatia,
Bulgaria, and even Sweden and Argentina being used as transit countries.
For the 233 Russian victims in the database, Turkey was by far the most
important country of destination, with almost half of the victims (111 persons)
having ended up there. The other destination countries had much lower fgures,
with Belarus (22), the Russian Federation (19 victims of internal traffcking), and
60 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (18 Russian victims) following after
Turkey.
Recruitment
In the sample (233 Russian victims), 62 per cent were recruited through
personal contact, nine per cent through newspaper advertisement, one per cent
(two victims) through internet advertisement, and four per cent through other
methods. For the remaining 25 per cent, the recruitment method was not included
in the information and therefore was unknown. In 18 per cent of the 233 cases, the
sex of the recruiter was not registered, but in 51 per cent of the 191 known cases,
the recruiter was female, and in 45 per cent, male, while both men and women did
the recruitment in four per cent of the cases (eight victims).
Giving the applicants false promises of an overseas job was the predomi-
nant method used by recruiters. In 66 per cent of the sample for whom there was
information of the promised jobs, the jobs mentioned included waitressing, danc-
ing, selling, child care, agricultural work, and begging. Prostitution was signifed
to 23 victims (10%) and sweatshop labour to 7 victims. However, as many as
205 or 88 per cent of the sample ended in sexual exploitation, 18 (nearly 8%) in
forced labour, while 3 victims faced both types of exploitation. Another 7 victims
suffered yet other types of exploitation.
Profle of victims of traffcking
For the profle of the 233 Russian victims, the database revealed that 17
(7.3%) were minors, 134 (58%) fell in the age bracket 18-24, 51 (22%) in the age
bracket 25-30, and only 31 (13%) were over 30 years.
In 189 victims (81%), the educational level was known. Twelve (5%) had
fnished only primary or elementary school, 76 (33%) reached middle school, 57
(24.5%) had a high school diploma, 176 (93%) had fnished technical training,
and 26 (11%) had university studies.
The marital status was known in 204 cases and unknown for the remain-
ing 29. A total of 143 victims (61%) indicated that they were single, 36 were di-
vorced, 4 were separated, and 5 were widows. Only 14 were married and 2 were
living in common law relationships. No less that 74 or almost 32 per cent of the
233 victims had indicated that they had children, and 12 of them had more than
one child.
61
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Out of 233, 133 said that they worked in Russia at the time of the recruit-
ment while 13 did not. For 87, there was no information given. For the 133 who
worked, 77 were offce employees (either in private or public sector), 9 worked in
the industrial sector, and the rest in agriculture, domestic work, and sex industry.
A total of 179 answered to the question of the economic situation of their
families. Only one of them characterized it as well-off while 44 (25%) described
it as standard, 106 (59%) as poor, and 28 (16%) as very poor.
Traffcking routes
Experts identifed several basic routes used by transporters in taking
people out of the Russian Federation:
The Baltic route through Lithuania, as well as the Central European route
through Warsaw and Prague are regarded as the easiest methods to transport il-
legal migrants to Germany, Scandinavia and other European countries, and the
United States. Recently, these countries have substantially tightened their cross-
border travel rules. Nonetheless, European countries and the United States re-
main main destination countries for human traffcking out of Russia.
The Caucasus (or Georgian) transit route is made easier by the weak bor-
ders with Turkey.
Experts note that the majority of irregular migrants, including women and
children, have beentransported via Georgia into Turkey, Greece, and the Mediter-
ranean countries for sexual and labour exploitation.
Large resorts in Europe and Asia and armed confict zones or regions where
military and peacekeeping forces are stationed (in this case primarily those in
the Balkans) are regarded as notable traffcking hubs for sexual exploitation of
women. Routes through Egypt and into Israel as well as other Middle Eastern
countries are also common. In particular, many women and children are taken
from the southern regions of Russia to the United Arab Emirates for sexual ex-
ploitation.
Evidence of traffcking for labour exploitation has been found in countries
with large Russian diasporas such as in Germany, Turkey, Portugal, and other
southern European countries to which labourers are primarily transported for the
harvest of citrus fruit and other agricultural work.
62 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
China-bound human traffcking is divided into the China-Siberia and the
China-Primorsky Region routes. Russias policies in the early 1990s, to attract
greater Chinese tourists and to harbour good neighbouring country relations, re-
sulted in a large infux of Chinese citizens settling in Russias far-east region.
Chinese criminal groups have become a large problem for the law enforcement
authorities of the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Regions and neighboring areas. The
Chinese traffcking business has enormous potential. It is extremely stable, is
geared to long-term activity, and is organized more like a business activity than
a traditional criminal group activity. In contrast, the Russian human traffcking
business is not marked by stability and is oriented more towards immediate proft,
with its working slogan often being grab a buck and lay low. For this reason,
Russian organized criminal gangs engaged in human traffcking adopt particu-
larly harsh manners and methods of control.
Russia is also a destination country for human traffcking routes from CIS
countries and poor Asian regions. Almost all CIS states are involved in the traf-
fcking of people into Russia as origin countries. The most vulnerable populations
are those from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia, Moldova,
and Ukraine. For all these countries, Russia is one of the main destination coun-
tries for human traffcking for the purpose of labour and sexual exploitation.
61
61
E.V. Tiurukanova and the Institute for Urban Economics (2006) Human Traffcking in the Russian Federation,
Inventory and Analysis of the Current Situation and Responses. Report conducted for the UN/IOM Working
Group on Traffcking in Human Beings, Moscow, pp.23-25.
63
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Figure 3. Traffcking routes used in taking people out and into the Russian Federation
Source: http://www.undp.ru/index.phtml?iso=RU&lid=1&cmd=publications1&id=54 <http://www.undp.ru/index.phtml?iso=R
U&amp;lid=1&amp;cmd=publications1&amp;id=54> Human Traffcking in the Russian Federation. Inventory and Analysis
of the Current Situation and Responses/Report conducted by E.V. Turukanova and the Institute for Urban Economics for
UN/IOM Working Group on Traffcking in Human Beings, Moscow 2006. p. 25
65
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
6. assessMent anD analYsis of
Migration issues
6.1. Government institutions responsible for migration policy
Agencies responsible for migration policy and contacts with expatriate
community
The Federal Migration Service (FMS) is the key agency responsible for
the migration policy in the Russian Federation. It functions under the Ministry of
Internal Affairs (MIA). The jurisdiction of the FMS covers the following:

general strategy of the state migration policy
registration of citizens of the Russian Federation in their place of stay and
residence within the border of the country and control of citizens and of-
fcials compliance with the rules of registration
registration and issuance to foreign citizens and stateless persons of entry
and residence documents
control of compliance by foreign citizens and stateless persons with the resi-
dence and temporary stay regulations of the Russian Federation
prevention of illegal migration
execution of the law of the Russian Federation with regard to refugees and
forced immigrants, and granting of political asylum to foreign citizens and
stateless persons
control and supervision of external labour migration, engagement of foreign
workers in the Russian Federation, and employment of citizens of the Rus-
sian Federation abroad.
The FMS is located in Moscow. Each of the constituent entities of the Rus-
sian Federation has a territorial branch of the Service.
16, Zhitnay Street, 117049, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 923-89-45
http://www.fms.gov.ru
66 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
The Ministry of Health and Social Development develops state policy
in the feld of labour migration and prepares reports on the practicability of en-
gagement and use of foreign labour.
3, Rakhmanosvkiy pereulok, GSP-4, 127994, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: (495) 628 4453
http://www.mzsrrf.ru
The Federal Labor and Employment Service (Rostrud) has control and
supervision functions in the feld of labour, employment, and alternative civil
service, rendering of state services in the feld of assistance of employment of
the population and protection against unemployment, and labour migration and
settlement of collective labour disputes. Its work is coordinated by the Ministry
of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation.
1/2, Birzhevaya ploshad, 109012, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7(495) 298-84-36
http://www.rostrud.info
Other key offces involved in migration policy
Offce of the President of Russian Federation
103132, Moscow,
Ilinka Str, 23
State Duma of Russian Federation
103265, Moscow, Mokhovaya, 7
Tel.: +7(495) 692-80-00
Fax:+7(495) 203-42-58
E-mail: stateduma@duma.gov.ru
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
119200 Moscow, Smolenskaya-Sennaya, 32/34
Tel.: +7 (495) 244-16-06
Fax: +7 (495) 244-34-48
E-mail: ministry@mid.ru
Federal Security Service
101000, Moscow, Kuznetskiy most,22
Tel.: +7 (495) 924-31-58
E-mail : fsb@fsb.ru
http://www.fsb.ru
67
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Ministry of Interior
119049, Moscow, Zhitnaya St., 16
Tel: + 7 (495) 622-66-69
http://www.mvd.ru/contacts/10000005/
Offce of Prosecutor General
125993, -3, Moscow
Bolshaya Dmitrovka, 15
Tel.: +7 (495) 692-26-82
6.2. International legal framework in place relevant to migra-
tion
According to Voronina(2006),
62
as of 2006, there were more that 10 fed-
eral acts, over 100 presidential decrees, parliamentary resolutions, and ministerial
acts, and dozens of international and intergovernmental agreements that together
form the migration legislation of the Russian Federation.
The main laws regulating international migration into the territory of the
Russian Federation include the Scheme of Exit from the Russian Federation
and Entry into the Russian Federation (dated 15 August 1996, No. 114-FL, with
amendments effective 18 July 1998, No. 110-FL), the Law on the Legal Status
of Foreigners in the Russian Federation (dated 25 July 2002, No. 115-FL, with
amendments effective 18 July 2006, No. 110-FL), the Law on Russian Federa-
tion Citizenship (with amendments effective 11 November 2003, No. 151-FL),
and the Law on Migration Registration of Foreigners and Stateless Persons in
the Russian Federation (dated 18 July 2006, No. 109-FL). The migration policy
of Russia is also refected in decrees of the President such as: On Involvement
and Application of Foreigners Labor Force in the Russian Federation (dated 16
December 1993, No. 2146) and On Measures for Assistance in Voluntary Re-
settlement to the Russian Federation of Compatriots Residing Abroad (dated 22
June 2006, No. 637). Most issues of the migration policy are also addressed in
regulative acts of the Russian Federation government.
Russia ratifed the UN Convention on the Status of Refugees and its 1967
Protocol in 1993. It is also a party to a number of international treaties and agree-
ments in the sphere of migration management.
62
Voronina, Natalia (2006) Outlook on Migration Policy Reform in Russia: Contemporary Challenges and
Political Paradoxes, in Roger Rodriguez Rios (ed.) Migration Perspectives Eastern Europe and Central
Asia, IOM Technical Cooperation Centre for Europe and Central Asia, Vienna.
68 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
International agreements on resistance to illegal migration
Agreement on cooperation of members of CIS in the struggle against migra-
tion (Moscow, 6 March 1998)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Uzbekistan on cooperation in the struggle against
illegal migration (Tashkent, 4 July 2007)
Protocol between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Latvia on establishment of a working group on
issues of illegal migration (Moscow, 28 June 2006).
International readmission agreements
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Lithuania on admission and return of persons re-
siding illegally in the territory of the Russian Federation and in the territory
of the Republic of Lithuania ((Vilnius, 12 May 2003).
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the European Association
on readmission (Sochi, 25 May 2006)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the
Government of the Kingdom of Norway on readmission (Moscow, 8 June
2007)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Uzbekistan on readmission (Tashkent, 4 July
2007)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Cab-
inet of Ministers of Ukraine on readmission (Kiev, 22 December 2006)
International agreements on citizenship problems:
Agreement among the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan,
the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Russian Federation on simplifed procedure of
obtaining citizenship, effective 26 February 1999
69
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan on simplifed procedure of
obtaining citizenship by citizens of the Russian Federation arriving in the
Republic of Kazakhstan for permanent residency and by citizens of the Re-
public of Kazakhstan arriving for permanent residency in the Russian Fed-
eration, effective 20 January 1995
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Kyrgyzstan Republic on
simplifed procedure of obtaining citizenship by the citizens of the Russian
Federation arriving in the Kyrgyzstan Republic for permanent residency, and
by the citizens of the Kyrgyzstan Republic arriving in the Russian Federa-
tion for permanent residency, and on abatement of previous citizenships, ef-
fective 28 March 1996
Agreement between the Russian Federation and Turkmenistan on adjust-
ment of dual citizenship, effective 23 December 1993
International agreements on international citizens reciproal travels
Agreement among the Government of the Russian Federation, Government
of the Republic of Belarus, Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan,
Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, and Government of the Republic of
Tajikistan on citizens reciprocal free-of-visa- travel, effective 30 November
2000
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the
Government of the Azerbaijan Republic on citizens reciprocal free-of-visa
travel, effective 3 July 1997
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of Armenia on citizens reciprocal free-of-visa travel, effective 25
September 2000
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of China on citizens reciprocal free-of-visa travel,
effective 29 February 2000
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the
Government of the Republic of Moldova on citizens reciprocal free-of-visa
travel, effective 30 November 2000
70 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of Ukraine on citizens reciprocal free-of-visa travel, effective 16
January 1997
International agreements on labour force migration
Agreement on cooperation in labour force migration and social maintenance
of migrant workers, effective 15 April 1994 (signed under CIS), ratifed on
24 April 1995, No. 47-FL. The Protocol on insertion of amendments and ad-
ditions to the Agreement was signed on 25 November 2005 and came into
force on 15 December 2006
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Armenia on labour activity and social mainte-
nance of the Russian Federation citizens working in the territory of the Re-
public of Armenia, and of citizens of the Republic of Armenia working in the
territory of the Russian Federation, effective 19 July 1994
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Belarus on labour activity and social mainte-
nance of citizens of the Russian Federation working in the territory of the
Republic of Belarus, and of citizens of the Republic of Belarus working in
the territory of the Russian Federation, effective 24 September 1993
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Federal Republic of Germany on employment of persons
working for hire, targeted at improvement of their professional and language
knowledge (The Agreement on Employment of Guest Workers of 17 May
1992)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Kyrgyztan on labour activity and social protection of working
migrants, dated 28 March 1996 (came into effect on 15 January 1998, rati-
fed on 14 November 1997, No. 139-FL, with amendments, Protocol of 22
September 2003, ratifed on 3 January 2006, No. 3-FL)
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Government of the Peo-
ples Republic of China on temporary labour activity of citizens of the Rus-
sian Federation in China and the citizens of the Peoples Republic of China
in the Russian Federation, dated 3 November 2000
71
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Government of the Peo-
ples Republic of China on cooperation in mutual development of forest re-
sources, dated 3 November 2000.
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Government of the Re-
public of Lithuania on temporary labour activity of citizens, dated 29 June
1999
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Government of the Re-
public of Moldova on labour activity and social maintenance of citizens of
the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova, working outside the
boundaries of their states, dated 27 May 1993 (with amendments, Protocol
No. 105, dated 12 February 1994)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Poland on principles of labour activity of the
Russian citizens in the territory of Poland and Polish citizens in the territory
of the Russian Federation, dated 15 March 1994
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Slovak Republic on organization of citizens employment un-
der contractual agreements and on employment assistance to citizens, dated
13 February 1995 (came into effect on 27 March 1995)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of Ukraine on labour activity and social maintenance of the citizens
of Russia and Ukraine working outside the borders of their countries, dated
14 January 1993
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of Switzerland Confederation on exchange of probationers, dated 2
September 1993
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Tajikistan on labour activity of citizens of the
Russian Federation in the Republic of Tajikistan and citizens of Tajikistan in
the Russian Federation, dated 16 October 2004 (ratifed on 3 January 2006,
No. 2-FL)
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Gov-
ernment of the Republic of Uzbekistan on labour activity and protection of
72 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
rights of labour migrants who are citizens of the Russian Federation in the
Republic of Uzbekistan and the rights of labour migrants who are citizens
of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Russian Federation, signed on 3 July
2007
6.3. Migration policies in place
Voronina (2006)
63
divides the post-Soviet period of the Russian migration
policy into the following stages:
1992 1994 Formation
1995 1999 Expanding spheres under regulation and development
of migration legislation
1999 2002 Period considered by many as negative progress (the
FMS was dissolved)
2002 2004 Focus on combating irregular migration and restrictive
policies
2005 Reform of migration policy
In the early years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the frst priority
of the Russian migration authorities was to address the consequences of the large
return migration of Russians from the former Soviet Republics.
In May 1992, the Council of Ministries of the Russian Federation approved
the frst National Long-Term Migration Programme. The main goal of the Pro-
gramme was to provide assistance to refugees and involuntary migrants (Rus-
sians who came from the former Soviet Republics). The main components of the
Programme included support for resettlement, housing, employment, and health
care. The Programme was approved and its implementation started before the
Russian Federation created its own migration legislation.
64

Over the frst half of the 1990s, various components of migration legisla-
tion were created, including presidential decrees in 1993-94, namely, On Recruit-
ment and Employment of Foreign Labour Force in the Russian Federation and its
complementary decree in 1994. The frst Federal Migration Programme, created
likewise by a presidential decree in August 1994, was the frst attempt to compre-
hensively address the whole variety of migration issues.
63
Voronina, Natalia (2006) Outlook on Migration Policy Reform in Russia: Contemporary Challenges and
Political Paradoxes, in Roger Rodriguez Rios (ed.) Migration Perspectives Eastern Europe and Central
Asia, IOM Technical Cooperation Centre for Europe and Central Asia, Vienna.
64
Voronina, Natalia (2006), Ibid.
73
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
The Federal Migration Service, frst created in 1992, was in existence until
its dissolution in 2000, to be restored again in 2002 under the MIA. According
to Voronina (2006), this new administrative affliation demonstrated the focus
towards combating irregular migration.
In recent years, Russias migration policy has increasingly addressed the
need for labour immigration to Russia, such as by searching for measures that
would ease the geographical constraints and the skills shortages (see Section 6.4)
and mismatch in the labour markets, facilitating the legalization of undocumented
workers through smooth and non-bureaucratic procedures, attracting economic
migrants, facilitating permanent immigration and resettlement, and assisting in
the integration of immigrants.
The Action Plan for the Implementation of the Programme on Socio-eco-
nomic Development of the Russian Federation for 2006-2008 included the devel-
opment of a Concept for National Migration Policy, which was enacted by the
State Duma in 2006 and has been implemented since 2007. This coincided with
the entry into force of the new migration legislation in 15 January.
This new migration policy concerns three categories of migrants: tempo-
rary labour migrants from the CIS countries, for whom access to labour markets
and registration of their residence has been made easier; immigrants, for whom
the procedures for obtaining permits for residence have been liberalized; and
compatriots, for whom benefts are being provided while repatriating.
Taking into account public opinion on the negative attitude towards mi-
grants, and especially demographic and labour market concerns, one key priority
is the promotion of the return of compatriots. In 2007, the 12 pilot regions under
the Federal Programme on rendering assistance to voluntary return to the Russian
Federation of compatriots living abroad started to take part in the programme.
The regions of Eastern Russia that are suffering from labour force defcit
are considered to be the regions of frst priority. As of 1 December 2007, 4,800
Russians abroad (altogether 12,000 persons when family members included) were
accepted to participate in the Federal Programme, however only about 400 per-
sons did actually return. The Russian authorities expect these fgures to rise.
65
Lately, the improvement of migration policy is being realized in Russia,
which is aimed at enhancing the responsibility of employers in resisting the irreg-
ular employment of foreign workers, who, along with measures for simplifying
65
Initially, the plan was to resettle up to 50,000 people (Mukomel and Mkrtchyan 2008).
74 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
procedures of obtaining work permits and registration for working migrants, are
urged to help reduce the quantities of irregular migration in the Russian Federa-
tion. Measures are being simultaneously taken for improving practical methods
of setting quotas for the intake of labourers in the industrial sector. In 2007, the
Government of the Russian Federation approved a quota of 6,000 persons in the
issuance of invitations to foreign citizens for entry into the Russian Federation
for the purpose of labour activity from states with which Russia has established
a visa-free regime. With other states that do not fall under Russias visa-free re-
gime, the quota is set at 308,800 persons. The approved quotas are distributed
among subjects of the Russian Federation.
66
According to the law, Russian citizens should be given priority for local
employment while a cap on the permitted share of employment exists for foreign
citizens to work in certain felds. In 2006, the Government put limitations to a
foreigners access to certain established trade felds.
67
The Concept of Migration Processes Regulation in the Russian Federa-
tion
68
has set the following goals:
provision of steady development of national economy and demographic pol-
icy
national security in the Russian Federation
meeting the demands of the Russian economy in human resources
rational distribution of population over the territory of the country
use of intellectual and labour potential of migrants for prosperity of the Rus-
sian Federation.
Meanwhile, the principle directions of activity for migration processes
regulation as outlined in the Concept are:
maintaining control over immigration processes in the Russian Federation
building up the conditions for integration of forced migrants in the Russian
Federation
recruitment of immigrants to work in the Russian Federation to provide the
national economy with labour resources
entering of the Russian Federation into the international labour market and
the process of regulation of economic migration
66
Mukomel and Mkrtchyan (2008).
67
Resolution of the Russian Federation Government No. 683 dated 15 November 2006.
68
Approved by the Russian Federation Government Decree No. 256-r dated 1 March 2003.
75
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
building up of conditions for voluntary return to their former residential
places of Russian nationals, who left their places of permanent residence in
the Russian Federation by force and are now living in other territories of the
country
keeping and developing relationships with compatriots abroad
optimization of internal migratory processes and promotion of effective us-
age of labour resources
creation of conditions for the maintenance and further formation of popula-
tions in the northern, eastern, and cross-border regions of the Russian Fed-
eration
rendering of assistance for the voluntary migration of compatriots from the
CIS member countries and the Baltic countries.
6.4. Labour migration issues
Russias economic development has in recent years outperformed the other
CIS countries (see Table 32) and increasingly made Russia a destination of intra-
CIS labour migration fows.
Table 33. Differences in GDP and standards of living among the CIS countries
Cis country
gDp per capita
(usD)
percetage of population living on
less than usD 2 per day
Armenia 1234.0 49
Azerbaijan 2585.9 9
Belarus 3316.2 2
Georgia 1765.8 16
Kazakhstan 4386.1 25
Kyrgyzstan 507.7 25
Moldova 917.4 64
Russian Federation 6330.8 8
Tajikistan 411.5 43
Turkmenistan 3888.6 44
Ukraine 2020.6 46
Uzbekistan 498.6 72
Sources: IMF. World Economic Outlook Database, April 2006; UN Population Reference Bureau, World
Population Data Sheet, 2005, presented by Ivankniouk (2006)69
69
Ivakhnyuk, Irina (2006) Migration in the CIS Region: Common Problems and Mutual Benefts, An expert
paper presented at the International Symposium on International Migration and Developmen, United Nations
Population Division, 28-30 June 2006, Turin, Italy.
76 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Thanks to the generally favourable economic development in Russia, the
employment situation has steadily improved in the last years, as the succeed-
ing tables on the economically active population and on unemployment show.
The size of the economically active population has steadily risen as well as the
demand for immigrant labour due to the declining population. Registered unem-
ployment has clearly dropped in the last yearsby 29 per cent, from over seven
million in 2000 to less than fve million in 2006 (see Table 36).
Although the tables below do not refect any dramatic changes in the divi-
sion of the labour force between the different sectors of economic activity, Russia
seems to face the lack of professionals needed in the modern services-oriented
economy.
With its growing dependence on an immigrant labour force, Russia is fac-
ing the same situation as many other European countries: there is a generous
supply of an unskilled undocumented immigrant labour force, most of which is
quite ill-matched to the labour force demands. The domestic labour force also
cannot satisfy the current needs for professionals of modern business, production,
and related business and personnel administration, marketing and information
technology (IT). In Russia, the situation is typical as in many countries: there
is a shortage of engineers, IT specialists, industrial, technical and managerial
staff, commercial and marketing professionals, and related administrative sup-
port staff: This is illustrated in a list published by a Russian labour market news
website (http://www.rhr.ru) that presents Russias most in-demand professionals
at the beginning of 2007:
1. Human resources manager
2. Marketing manager
3. Director of production
4. Personnel director
5. Manager of production
6. Internet project manager
7. Client relations manager
8. Senior secretary
9. Bookkeeper
10. Programmer
Since January 2007, the new legislation regulating access of foreign citi-
zens to the Russian labour markets has become effective. The procedure for the
issuance of labour permits to foreign citizens arriving in the Russian Federation
has been considerably simplifed. The notice procedure covers employers as well,
77
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
wherein they are given the right to hire foreigners even without a foreign labour
engagement permit.
In 2007, the number of foreign citizens who are legally carrying out labour
activity in the territory of the Russian Federation rose from 1,014,000 in 2006 to
2,150,000 as of January-September 2007. The number of foreign citizens regis-
tered by migration
70
authorities has been much higherover six million people
as of January-September 2007. This may be explained by the fact that even if
a signifcant part of foreign citizens arrive in Russia primarily not for labour
activity, many of them most probably end up being engaged in irregular labour
activity.
71
Together with measures for the liberalization of engagement and applica-
tion of foreign labour, efforts aimed at strengthening the administrative responsi-
bility for combating irregular engagement and use of foreign labour and working
without a labour permit were executed. The administrative penalties for viola-
tion of regulations of stay and residence of foreign citizens and stateless persons,
and for regulation of engagement and use of foreign labour in the territory of
the Russian Federation were signifcantly increased to up to 800,000 rubles or
about 22,000 euros per worker. This resulted in a signifcant decrease in offences
in the irregular engagement of foreign workers and hiring them without labour
permits,
72
from 67,108 in 2005 and 68,703 in 2006 to 9,632 in the frst half of
2007.
73
70
Mukomel, Vladimir and Nikita Mkrtchyan (2008): Expert memorandum drafted for this Country Profle,
Moscow, January 2008.
71
Ibid.
72
Articles 18.10 and 18.15 (before 2007, Parts 1 and 2 of Article 18.10) of the Code of the Russian Federation
on Administrative Offences.
73
Source: Information Analysis Center of the MIA of Russia.
78 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 34. Economically active population*
1992 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006**
Thousand persons
Economically
active
population, total
75,060 70,740 72,332 71,411 72,421 72,835 72,909 73,811 74,187
of which:
employed 71,171 64,055 65,273 65,124 66,266 67,152 67,134 68,603 69,189
unemployed 3,889 6,684 7,059 6,288 6,155 5,683 5,775 5,208 4,999
Men 39,197 37,338 37,499 36,905 36,997 37,206 37,079 37,511 37,643
of which:
employed 37,161 33,726 33,754 33,527 33,709 34,199 34,177 34,710 35,012
unemployed 2,036 3,613 3,745 3,378 3,288 3,007 2,902 2,801 2,631
Women 35,863 33,401 34,833 34,506 35,423 35,629 35,831 36,300 36,544
of which:
employed 34,010 30,330 31,519 31,596 32,557 32,953 32,958 33,893 34,176
unemployed 1,853 3,072 3,314 2,910 2,866 2,676 2,873 2,407 2,368
As percentage of the total of economically active population
Economically
active
population, total
100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
of which:
employed 94.8 90.5 90.2 91.2 91.5 92.2 92.1 92.9 93.3
unemployed 5.2 9.5 9.8 8.8 8.5 7.8 7.9 7.1 6.7
Men 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
of which:
employed 94.8 90.3 89.8 90.8 91.1 91.9 92.2 92.5 93.0
unemployed 5.2 9.7 10.2 9.2 8.9 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.0
Women 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
of which:
employed 94.8 90.8 90.5 91.5 91.9 92.5 92.0 93.4 93.5
unemployed 5.2 9.2 9.5 8.5 8.1 7.5 8.0 6.6 6.5
Source: Goscomstat www.gks.ru
* Data for 1992 and 1995 are as of the end of October; for 2000 to 2006, as of the end of November.
**Data since 2006 include the Chechen Republic.
79
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 35. Average annual employment by type of economic activities

in thousand persons as percentage to the total
2004 2005 2006 2004 2005 2006
Total employment 66,407 66,792 67,017 100 100 100
by type of economic activities:
Agriculture, hunting and forestry 7,430 7,381 7106 11.2 11.1 10.6
Fishing, fsh farms 113 138 133 0.2 0.2 0.2
Mining and quarrying 1,088 1,051 1036 1.6 1.6 1.5
Manufacturing 11,787 11,506 11,255 17.7 17.2 16.8
Electricity, gas and water supply 1,900 1,912 1,917 2.9 2.9 2.9
Construction 4,743 4,916 5,075 7.1 7.4 7.6
Wholesale trade and com-
mission trade; repair of motor
vehicles, motorcycles; personal
and household goods
10,843 11,088 11,315 16.3 16.6 16.9
Hotels and restaurants 1,152 1,163 1,183 1.7 1.7 1.8
Transport and communication 5,293 5,369 5,423 8.0 8.0 8.1
of which communication ... 940 951 ... 1.4 1.4
Financial intermediation 835 858 928 1.3 1.3 1.4
Real estate, renting and busi-
ness activities
4,825 4,879 4,936 7.3 7.3 7.4
Public administration and de-
fence; compulsory social security
3,447 3,458 3,579 5.2 5.2 5.3
Education 6,125 6,039 6,014 9.2 9.0 9.0
Health and social work 4,488 4,548 4,603 6.8 6.8 6.9
Other community, social and
personal service activities
2,330 2,460 2,492 3.5 3.7 3.7
Source: Goskomstat www.gks.ru
80 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 36. Number of unemployed persons in the Russian Federation, 1992, 1995, and
2000-2006
1992 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
According to the results of the Sample survey on employment*
Total number of
unemployed, in
thousand Persons
3,888.6 6,684.3 7,059.1 6,287.9 6,154.7 5,683.3 5,775.2 5,208.3 4,998.7
Out of them:
Students,
pensioners

In thousand persons 717.5 520.3 686.5 726.9 633.1 645.6 777.3 610.5 517.1
In per cent 18.5 7.8 9.7 11.6 10.3 11.4 13.5 11.7 10.3
Women
In thousand Persons 1,852.9 3,071.7 3,314.2 2,910.2 2,866.3 2,675.9 2,873.2 2,406.9 2,367.8
In per cent 47.6 46.0 46.9 41.5 46.6 47.1 49.8 46.2 47.4
Rural residents
In thousand Persons 639.2 1,396.2 1,894.7 1,834.6 1,939.8 1,870.9 1,876.6 1,956.6 2,097.5
In per cent 16.4 20.9 26.8 29.2 31.5 32.9 32.5 37.6 42.0
In accordance with the data of the Federal Labour and Employment Service
(end of year)
Number of
unemployed
registered by
government employ-
ment offces, **
in thousand Persons
577.7 2,327.0 1,037.0 1,122.7 1,499.7 1,638.9 1,920.3 1,830.1 1,742.0
Out of them:
Women
In thousand Persons 417.0 1,454.7 714.8 763.2 1,012.6 1,106.2 1,272.6 1,199.5 1,132.5
In per cent 72.2 62.5 68.9 68.0 67.5 67.5 66.3 65.5 65.0
Rural residents
In thousand Persons 101.7 671.7 325.3 388.1 603.0 732.8 890.8 891.2 890.0
In per cent 17.6 28.9 31.4 34.6 40.2 44.7 46.4 48.7 51.1
Ratio of number of
unemployed regis-
tered by government
employment offces
to total number of
unemployed, in per
cent
14.9 34.7 14.8 17.8 24.4 28.7 33.3 35.1 34.8
Source: Goskomstat www.gks.ru
* Data for 1992 and 1995 are given as of the end of October; for 2000 to 2006, as of the end of November.
**Data since 2006 include the Chechen Republic.
81
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 37. Unemployment by age and educational attainment in 2006*
(as of end of November; percentage of the total)
total Men Women
Unemployed total 100 100 100
By age, in years:
Under 20 9.5 8.8 10.4
20 24 21.6 21.9 21.3
25 29 13.9 14.4 13.3
30 34 9.3 9.1 9.6
35 39 10.0 10.7 9.2
40 44 10.0 9.3 10.7
45 49 12.2 12.5 11.9
50 54 8.4 7.9 9.0
55 - 59 3.8 4.1 3.6
60 - 72 1.3 1.4 1.1
Mean age of unemployed,
in years
34.1 34.2 34.1
Unemployed total 100 100 100
including those with
education:

higher professional 10.7 8.7 13.0
incomplete higher profes-
sional
2.1 1.9 2.3
secondary professional 17.3 13.0 22.1
primary professional 17.6 20.0 14.9
secondary (complete)
general
37.0 39.8 33.8
basic general 13.5 14.8 12.1
primary general, without
primary general
1.8 1.9 1.8
Source : Goskomstat, see www.gks.ru
* Data according to returns of the sample survey on employment, including data on Chechen Republic.
6.5. Policies to address irregular migration
The combat irregular migration through international cooperation is con-
sidered to be one of the priority areas of the MIA.
During the last years, some policy documents on intergovernmental co-
operation for combating irregular migration were elaborated. Such documents
82 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
include the Concept of Cooperation between the CIS member countries against
illegal migration approved by the Resolution of the Council of Heads of CIS
member countries on 16 September 2004 in the city of Astana, and the Pro-
gramme of Cooperation for 2006-2008 between CIS member countries against
illegal migration approved by the Council of Heads of CIS member countries on
26 August 2005 at the city of Kazan.
Close cooperation between foreign partners in the fght against irregular
migration is as before being practiced by the internal security services of the Rus-
sian Federation in the framework of the Agreement on Cooperation between the
CIS member countries against illegal migration signed on 6 March 1998, and of
succeeding documents adopted as the Agreements continuation.
Recent measures to facilitate the issuance of work permits especially for
citizens of other CIS states, and the simplifcation of procedures to obtain foreign
workers, have contributed to the strong increase of legally employed foreigners,
while the estimated numbers of undocumented foreign workers have decreased.
These measures to simplify the bureaucracy have been linked with tougher em-
ployer sanctions. In 2007, more than 166,000 employers were found violating
regulations in hiring foreign citizens and were sanctioned by fnes or even by
temporary suspension of their business up to 90 days.
74


Cooperation with the other CIS states has been intensifed. In January 2008,
the Council of Heads of Migration Services of the CIS Member States was cre-
ated. The Council has an ambitious agenda to promote more favourable attitudes
on migration in CIS countries by promoting and facilitating legal migration and
cooperation against irregular migration. The director of the Russian FMS is the
frst Chairman of the Council.
75
Furthermore, the Russian authorities have launched a new database in De-
cember 2007 to improve migration information, and are continuing the devel-
opment of the Government Information System on Migration Records.
76
New
passports have been developed with electronic components that allow better man-
agement and control of migration fows. Further development work is underway
to include biometric data into travel documents.
The Russian Federation has signed or ratifed a number of international
instruments related to irregular migration. As previously mentioned, in March
74
From FMS, reported in Mukomel and Mkrtchyan (2008).
75
Idem.
76
IOM Moscow and FMS of the Russian Federation.
83
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
1998, the Agreement on cooperation between the CIS member-countries in their
struggle against illegal migration (Federal Law of 12 July 2000, No. 97-FL) was
ratifed.
Also, on 12 December 2000, the Russian Federation signed the UN Con-
vention Against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted on 15 November 2000,
and the complementary Protocol against the smuggling of migrants by land, sea
and air.
In Article 6 of this Protocol to the Convention, each member state shall
take legal and other measures against three specifed variants of smuggling or
related facilitation of illegal entry or stay. At present, only one offence is men-
tioned in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation as corpus delicti in the
Organization of Illegal Migration (Article 322.2).
6.6. Policies to address traffcking in human beings
In 2000, Russia signed the UN Convention against Transnational Organ-
ized Crime and its supplementing Protocol on Traffcking in Persons, which was
ratifed in March 2004. During this period, Russia also legally defned traffcking
in human beings within its criminal code and has initiated steps toward respond-
ing to traffcking issues. Fora such as government interagency meetings and
anti-traffcking conferences like the All-Russian Assemblies of Anti-Traffcking
NGOs have fostered dialogue among decision makers and practitioners in the
establishment of strategies to better combat traffcking in human beings.
In order to create a special legal basis for the prevention of human traf-
fcking in the Russian Federation, an Inter-Agency Working Group (WG)

was
established under the auspices of the Legislative Committee of the State Duma in
2002.
77
Members of Working Group (the State Duma deputies, representatives of
various ministries and departments, and non-government organizations) initiated
and developed the draft Federal Law on Prevention of Human Traffcking, which
determines the legal and organizational regulations for the prevention of human
traffcking in the Russian Federation and the means of coordination of activities
of executive federal agencies, public institutions, and unions. The draft Law also
determines the legal status and state guarantees for the victims of human traf-
fcking. The provisions of the draft Law were discussed during the parliamentary
hearings in February 2003 and March 2006. At present. the Working Group is
77
Mukomel, Vladimir and Nikita Mkrtchyan (2008): Expert memorandum drafted for this Country Profle,
Moscow, January 2008.
84 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
carrying out the revision and upgrading of the existing draft Law based on the
comments and amendments proposed by participating ministries, state depart-
ments, and political parties.
In 2003, Federal Law No. 162- on Introducing Changes and Additions
to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation was adopted in Russia. With
the adoption of this Law, Russian law enforcement authorities received a legal
basis for the criminalization and prosecution of traffcking-related offences. The
Law envisages criminal liability for traffcking in persons (Article 127-1), use
of slave labour (Article 127-2), involvement of minors in prostitution (Article
240, part 3), the organization of prostitution (Article 241), and the manufacture
and distribution of materials or objects with pornographic depictions of minors
(Article 242-1). The Law defnes traffcking in persons as the buying and selling
of a person or other actions committed for the purpose of his exploitation in the
form of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt. The Law
differentiates against the criminal liability for traffcking in persons. Depending
on the gravity of the crime (committed with regard to two or more persons, with
the use or threat of force, etc.), the punishment might be up to 15 years of impris-
onment.
The Law defnes slave labour as the use of persons labour with regard to
whom power characterized by the right of ownership is exercised, in the event
when a person, for reasons beyond his control, cannot refuse doing the work
(providing services). The maximum punishment of imprisonment is up to 15
years.
The criminal liability for involvement of minors in prostitution was in-
creased to up to eight years of imprisonment, and the criminal liability of organi-
zation in the engagement of other persons in prostitution was broadened. Ag-
gravating circumstances includes the use or threat of force, the use of authority of
an offcial position, and the deliberate use of minors for engaging in prostitution,
among others.
The Federal Law of 20 August 2004 No. 119- on State Protection of
Victims, Witnesses and Other Parties to Criminal Proceedings which entered into
force on 1 January 2005 plays an important role in combating the criminal busi-
ness of human traffcking. It enacts a set of state-guaranteed security measures
for the protected persons. In accordance to the Law, claimants, witnesses, and
victims shall be eligible for government protection.
85
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
The Law creates normative and legal bases for the protection of victims
of human traffcking and members of their families through relocation to a dif-
ferent permanent place of residence, issuance of new documents, change of ap-
pearance, personal protection and protection of home and property, provision of
special individual protection, communication and security alarm devices, protec-
tion of confdential information on the protected person, transfer to a new job or
educational institution, and temporary relocation to a secured shelter (Article 6,
Chapter 2).
To enhance the coordination of anti-traffcking activities, a programme of
cooperation of CIS member states in combating traffcking in persons for 2007-
2010
78
was adopted on 28 November 2006 in Minsk in which specialized units
have been created within the Ministry of Interior
79
and regional departments
with the purpose of preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal cases in the
sphere of irregular migration, traffcking in persons, and use of slave labour. The
methods used in the investigation of traffcking-related crimes were worked out.
The methods contain criminal qualifcation of traffcking in humans, investiga-
tion procedures of traffcking-related cases, ways of cooperation, tactical charac-
teristics of some initial investigative actions, and subsequent and fnal stages of
investigation.
Russian authorities are increasing their efforts towards strengthening anti-
traffcking response and improving corresponding legislation. In particular, the
State Duma Committee for Civil, Criminal, Arbitral and Remedial Legislation is
drafting three alternative bills for enriching the defnition of traffcking in human
beings. It is also proposed that a new article on Traffcking in Minors be added
as well as increasing the length of imprisonment for traffcking in minors. The
Committee intends to give the bills their frst reading in early 2008.
80

Furthermore, the leaders of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and
the Interior Ministry are calling for better international cooperation and exchange
of information, experiences and best practices on combating human traffcking,
with emphasis on the key role of the UN in the prevention of human traffcking
worldwide.
81
78
http://cis.minsk.by/main.aspx?uid=8046
79
According to Article 151 (Investigative Jurisdiction) of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federa-
tion in the criminal cases for crimes, envisaged by Articles 127.1 and 127.2, a preliminary investigation shall
be conducted by the investigators of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation.
80
http://www.rosbalt.ru/2008/02/12/455755.html
81
http://www.rian.ru/world/20080213/99134102.html, http://gzt.ru/world/2008/02/15/200652.html
86 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Table 38. Statistics on crimes related to traffcking in people, 2004-2007
82
(The table below contains data on traffcking violations with reference to relevant laws or
articles in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation indicated below as CC RF.)
article CC rf
number of
registered crimes
number of persons
called to account
2004
127-1
1
17 4
127-2
2
8 5
240
3
276 100
241
4
976 656
2005
127-1 60 24
127-2 20 10
240 390 100
241 1,030 741
2006
127-1 106 45
127-2 19 15
240 548 262
241 1,376 967
2007
127-1 104 55
127-2 35 22
240 575 273
241 1,570 1,049
1
Article 127.1 of the Criminal Code Traffcking of Human Beings
2
Article 127.2 of the Criminal Code Use of Slave Labour
3
Article 240 of the Criminal Code Attraction to Prostitution
4
Article 241 of the Criminal Code Organization of Prostitution
82
Statistics from the Main Center for Information and Analysis of the Interior Ministry of the Russian Federa-
tion.
87
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
The law enforcement authorities of the Russian Federation actively coop-
erate with law enforcement agencies in other countries, with Russian and inter-
national NGOs, and with the UN and other international organizations, including
the IOM (see main actors in Section 6.9).
83

Examples of counter-traffcking projects
Many anti-traffcking projects in the Russian Federation are carried out by
local NGOs. However such project-based activities have certain weakness. Typi-
cally, the length of such projects is no more than one year. Furthermore, there is
little coordination between the different projects, resulting in some overlap of
activities as well as existence of serious gaps. Since anti-traffcking activities and
support to victims of traffcking of the majority of NGOs are based on interna-
tional donor support, the lack of stability, continuity, and sustainability will be a
main concern until government agencies and public entities start supporting these
projects with fnancial, information, and other types of assistance.
At the same time, in order to strengthen understanding, coordination, and
collaboration in counter-traffcking , a UN and IOM working group was estab-
lished in 2004, with UN agency membership including the ILO, UNFPA, UN-
ODC, UNDP, UNICEF and the UN Resident Coordinators Offce in the Russian
Federation. Thus, to support efforts of both government and non-government
structures to combat traffcking in human beings in the Russian Federation as a
country of origin, transit, and destination, IOM spearheaded three anti-traffcking
projects:
1. Prevention of human traffcking in the Russian Federation (funded by the
European Commission and the United States and Swiss governments). The
main components of the project are:
Policy Advice: improving the legislative framework and the state poli-
cies regarding human traffcking, including the national capacity to
assess and measure this phenomenon in Russia
Prevention: strengthening the capacity of the relevant law enforce-
ment agencies to combat human traffcking; raising awareness among
the risk groups, general public and relevant Russian authorities, NGOs
and diplomatic missions of foreign states
83
E.V. Tiurukanova and the Institute for Urban Economics (2006) Human Traffcking in the Russian Federation,
Inventory and Analysis of the Current Situation and Responses. Report conducted for the UN/IOM Working
Group on Traffcking in Human Beings, Moscow, http://www.undp.ru/index.phtml?iso=RU&lid=1&cmd=p
ublications1&id=54
88 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Reintegration: building the capacity of the national authorities and lo-
cal NGO networks to protect and reintegrate victims of traffcking.
2. Combating Traffcking in Human Beings in the Russian Federation (funded
by Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The
main components of the project are:
Provision of equipment to Federal Counter-Traffcking Department/
Unit/Focal-points
Counter-traffcking educational programme
Networking visits to countries of origin
Law Enforcement Conference in Moscow/Saint Petersburg
2008/2009
Youth group capacity building and engagement.
3. Reintegration assistance to victims of traffcking from the Russian Fed-
eration (funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation or
SDC). The main components of the project are:
establishment of a safe house facilitating long-term assistance and
support to up to 20 victims of traffcking (women victims of sexual
exploitation)
launching of a project development contest for NGOs focusing on
counter-traffcking services with as many as four NGOs receiving
funding for the selected projects
creation of a reintegration fund providing assistance to up to 75 former
victims of traffcking.
6.7. Refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons,
and relevant policies in place
Shortly after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation,
having joined the UN Convention on Refugees of 1951 and the Protocol of 1967,
could not completely fulfll its obligations to the UN Convention due to fnan-
cial constraints. Refugee status was granted mainly to citizens of CIS and Baltic
countries; applicants from foreign countries were granted refugee status only in
exceptional cases. Russia adopted the Law on Refugees (of February 1993, No.
4528-1) and on Asylum Seekers (19 February 1993, No. 4530-1).
84
84
In 1995, the new version of the resolution On asylum seekers was adopted (by Federal Law of 20 December
1995, No. 202-FL). Following this, in 1997, the new version of the resolution On refugees (Federal Law
of 28 June 1997, No. 95-FL), was adopted, putting the national legislation in better alignment with the UN
Refugee Convention.
89
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Since July 1992, more than 1,623,000 people have been granted refugee
and asylum seeker status. On 1 January 2001, 445 people were provided with
refugee status and 117,711 with asylum seeker status, out of whom 23,827 per-
sons were considered internally displaced persons.
85
The FMS of Russia projects that in 2008-2010, the number of applicants
for refugee status and who will obtain this status will increase. This projection
goes as well to the number of persons who will be given temporary asylum.
Russia has unfulflled fnancial obligations to persons who have received
the status of asylum seekers. Nevertheless, in 2007, 1,287 families of asylum
seekers were provided with housing; in 2006, 306 families received this type of
support. For 2008, the federal budget envisages to allocate RUR 1129.2 million
(about USD 46 million) for the purchase of housing for asylum seekers.
In 2007, the government rendered support to citizens who suffered in the
Ossetian-Chechen conficta total of 655 families and 68,661 persons who were
returned to the places of their former residence in the territory of the Chechen
Republic. A total of 309 families received reimbursement for the lost of their
housing and/or property.
Table 39. Asylum applications in the Russian Federation, 2004-2007
2004 2005 2006 2007( June)
315 292 1,170 291
Source: UNHCR, 2007.
6.8. Other important migration actors in the country
International actors
Delegation of the European Commission to the Russian Federation
19017, Moscow
Kadashevskaya nab., 14/1
Tel.: (+7 495) 721 20 00
Fax (+7 495) 721 20 20
E-mail: Delegation-Russia@ec.europa.eu
85
These fgures do not include data on persons forcibly moved to the Ingushetiani Republic from the Republic
of North Ossetia-Alania, as well as those who applied to the FMS for refugee and asylum seeker status, due to
events in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996 and 1999-2001.
90 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
International Organization for Migration in Moscow (IOM)
2-ya Zvenigorodskaya St., 12
Moscow, 123100
Tel.: (495) 797-8722; (495) 253-1335
Fax: (495) 253-3522
http://www.iomrussia.ru; http://www.iom.int
International Labour Organization (ILO)
107031 Moscow
Petrovka 15, apt. 23
Tel.: +7 (495) 933-0810
Fax.: +7 (495) 933-0820
E-mail: moscow@ilo.org
United Nations Offce for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Regional Offce for Russia and Belarus
28 Ostozhenka, Moscow, Russia, 119034
Tel.: +7(495) 787 2121
Fax.: +7(495) 787 2129
E-mail: offce@unodc.ru
United Nations Offce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(OCHA) in the Russian Federation
6 pereulok Obukha Moscow 105064
Tel.: (+7 495) 956 6405
Fax: (+7 495) 956 6355
E-mail: ocharf@un.org
http://www.ocha.ru
Offce of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
(UNHCHR)
119034 Moscow 28 Ostozhenka St.,
Tel.: +7(495) 787 21 00
Fax +7(495) 787 2101
http://www.unrussia.ru
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Moscow
Ostozhenka St. 28, 119034
Tel.: 7(495) 787 21 00
Fax: 7(495) 787 21 01
E-mail: offce@undp.ru
91
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
St. Petersburg
Fontanka St. 21, 191011
Tel.: (812) 570 59 19
Fax: (812) 570 55 47
E-mail: unoffce@peterlink.ru
Vladikavkaz
Tel.: (8672) 45 14 26
Fax: (8672) 54 60 97
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Karl Marx Av. 29/1, Room 207
Tel: (41522) 91 9 70
Fax: (41522) 90 827
United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF)
4/17 Pokrovsky Blvd., Building 1, Offce 19/20101000
Moscow, Russian Federation
Tel.: +7 495 933 8818
Fax: +7 495 933 8819
E-mail: moscow@unicef.org
http://www.unicef.org/russia/ru/
Collective Security Treaty Organization
103012, Moscow, Varvarka St, 7,
Tel.: +7(495) 625-7620, (495) 606-9771
E-mail: odkb@gov.ru
National Actors
NGOs working against traffcking in human beings
A very large number of NGOs are working in counter-traffcking in the
Russian Federation. The following list, compiled by the IOM Offce in Moscow,
shows some of NGOs that are active in different parts of the Russian Federation
Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovskaya oblast Ekaterina
Contact person: Ermakova Lyudmila Mikhaylovna
Tel.: 8 (343) 220 30 28
E-mail: lusy@etel.ru, lusy@isnet.ru
92 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Astrakhan - Oratorium
Contact person: Perepyolkin Eduard
Tel.: 8 (906) 457 09 34
E-mail: oratorium@inbox.ru
Petrozavodsk, Karelia- Karelskiy Centre for Gender Studies
Contact person: Boychenko Larisa Dmitrievna
Tel.: 8 (8142) 773 919
Moscow- Coalition Angel
Contact person: Kuzbit Oleg Romanovich
Tel.: (495) 915 43 74, 783 5865
E-mail: program@angelcoalition.org, okouzbit@nagelcoalition.ru
http://www.angelcoalition.org
Moscow- Sisters
Contact person: Mokhova Mariya Lyvovna
Tel.: 7 (095) 901 02 01
E-mail: syostri@gmail.com; maha64@mail.ru
Moscow- Kesher
Director: Svetlana Yakimenko
Tel.: 8 (095) 254 99 58, 8 (916) 128 25 58
E-mail: svetakesher@online.ru, svetakesher@inbox.ru,www.projectkesher.org
Khabarovsk, Far East Winrock
Director: Shchetinina Olga Petrovna
Tel.: (4212) 30 63 73, 31-08-18, 30-85-67
E- mail: oschetinina@success.winrock.ru
Vladivostok, Far East Far Eastern Crisis Centre
Director: Bazhenova Svetlana Kupriyanovna
Tel.: (4232) 43 20 33, (4232) 903312
E-mail: fe-centre@mail.ru
Aksinya
Contact person: Irina Mardar
Tel.: 8-926-4538351
93
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Kazan- Fatima
Contact person : Galitskaya Marina
Tel.: (843) 2536085, (843)2464401
E-mail : Fatima@bancorp.ru
Novosibirsk- Siberian Womens League
Contact person: Head of the Council Yurtayeva Larisa
Tel.: (383) 208 09 91
E-mail: liga@online.nsk.su
Chelyabinsk- Womens Commonwealth
Contact person: Vasilyeva Larisa Semyonovna
Tel.: (3512) 62 00 96
E-mail: vls05@mail.ru
Irkutsk- Angara
Contact person: Uralova Svetlana Valentinovna
Tel.: (3952) 38 79 02, 39 78 35, (3952) 46-55-09
E-mail: uralova@inbox.ru
Saratov- Womens Crisis Centre
Contact person: Pylayeva Oksana Yuryevn
Tel.: (8452) 27 91 70
E-mail: gamerazum@rambler.ru
Murmansk- Crisis Centre- Priyut
Contact person: Shtylyova Lyubov Vasilyevna
Tel.: (8152) 22 71 36, 22 68 75
E-mail: krc@unis.ru
Nizhniy Novgorod- Russian Childrens Fund
Contact person: Dernova Nina Ivanovna
Tel.: (8312) 33 14 80
E-mail: dernova@infonet.nnof.ru
Yaroslavl- Center for Sexual Culture Formation
Contact person: Shelkova Valentina Anamovna
Tel.: (4852) 55 66 91; Fax: 55 50 64, 53 13 21
Mobile: 33 13 46; Hotline: (8910) 973 13 46
E-mail: ovsnnk@mail.ru, ovsnnk@rus21.ru
94 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Krasnoyarsk- Verba
Contact person : Palchik Natalya Borisovna
Tel. : (3912) 34 25 38
E-mail : palchiknata@mail.ru
95
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
7. annex: soMe aDDitional Migration
statistiCs
Annex Table 1. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who obtained temporary asylum
and were registered with the Federal Migration Service of Russia, 2001-2007
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Families Persons Families Persons Families Persons Families Persons Families Persons
Total
725 1,232 723 1,228 599 1,061 584 1,020 700 1,174
Including
near-abroad
countries
9 14 7 12 8 13 13 26 44 75
Far-abroad
countries
716 1218 716 1,216 591 1,048 571 994 656 1,099
Source: Federal Migration Service (http://www.fms-rf.ru/about/ofstat/vu_stat/vu_reg_count.php)
Annex Table 2. Conferment of Russian citizenship, 2005-2006
2005 2006
Acquired the Russian citizenship 493,948 365,255
Including:
In a simplifed procedure 376,948 283,004
In a common procedure 614 152
According to the international treaties 116,376 82,099
Out of those who acquired the citizenship:
Adults 316,517 273,960
Children under 18 96,298 90,145
Students 15,774 11,798
Source: Federal Migration Service.
96 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Annex Table 3. Principal indicators of temporary labour migration to Russia, 2005-2007
2005 2006
2007 (January
to october)
Employers with permits to engage for-
eign labour
35,886 45,205 27,830
Foreign labour permits issued, total 44,323 56,379 21,200
Foreign workers employed during the
reporting period
702,500 1,014,013 2,024,069
Including from the CIS countries 343,665 537,722 1,663,404
Foreign labour permits issued to foreign
citizens, total
430,147 583,609 1,871,752
Including from the CIS countries 238,115 317,398 1,611,805
Organizations licensed to employ the
Russian citizens to work abroad as of the
end of the reporting period
558 616 600
Source: Federal Migration Service, http://www.fms.gov.ru/about/ofstat/stat_1_rd/index.php
Annex Table 4. Number of engaged foreign labour and average monthly salary in 2006 by regions of
the Russian Federation*
subjects of the russian
federation
number of employed
foreign workers
average monthly nominal
salary accounted in 2006,
roubles.
the Russian Federation total 1,014,013 10,727.7
Central Federal District
the Belgorod Region 4,284 8,428.1
the Bryansk region 974 6,385.7
the Vladimir region 4,358 7,515.5
the Voronezh Region 3,539 6,666.7
the Ivanovo Region 1,439 6,545.2
the Kaluga Region 4,991 8,483.8
the Kostroma region 1,481 7,492.4
the Kursk region 1,256 7,150.6
the Lipetsk Region 1,833 8,617.1
the Moscow region 85,067 11,752.4
the Orel region 853 6,786.6
the Ryazan Region 5,430 7,763.1
the Smolensk Region 911 7,827.6
the Tambov region 1,188 6,267.5
the Tver region 3,670 8,115.1
the Tula region 4,115 7,723.3
the Yaroslavl region 3,378 9,012.8
City of Moscow 355,384 18,698.6
97
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
North-western Federal District
the Republic of Karelia 2,187 10,706.7
the Komi Republic 2,961 14,247.3
the Arkhangelsk Region 2,426 11,901.2
the Vologda Region 4,226 10,777.6
the Kaliningrad Region 8,492 9,373.5
the Murmansk Region 1,453 10,612.1
the Novgorod Region 1,536 14,983.9
the Pskov Region 1,458 8,843.8
St. Petersburg 34,811 6,974
The Leningrad region 12,983 12,978.9
Southern Federal District
Republic of Adygeya 190 6,350.7
Republic of Dagestan 1,684 4,884.4
Republic of Ingushetia 103 6,720.2
Kabardino-Balkarian Republic 103 5,862
Republic of Kalmykia 628 5,626.6
Karachai-Circassian Republic 94 6,051.8
Republic of North Ossetia-Alania 630 5,893.8
Chechen Republic 2 8,078
Krasnodar Territory 22,455 8,065.2
Stavropol Territory 3,364 6,844.1
the Astrakhan region 3,943 8,193
the Volgograd region 7,673 7,679.4
the Rostov region 3,642 7,485.3
Privolzhsky Federal District
Republic of Bashkortostan 13,475 8,474.8
Republic of Marij El 103 6,526.1
Republic of Mordovia 899 6,362
Republic of Tatarstan 14,784 8,839.1
Udmurtian Republic 2,817 7,881.6
Chuvash Republic 316 6,407.2
the Kirov Region 707 9,584.7
the Nizhni Novgorod Region 11,919 7,187.7
the Orenburg Region 4,693 8,147.9
the Penza Region 1,157 7,752.8
the Perm Region 9,106 6,492.3
the Samara Region 7,883 9,630.5
The Saratov region 951 7,170.8
98 Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
The Ulyanovsk region 2,213 6,733.9
Uralian Federal District
the Kurgan Region 737 7,267.7
the Sverdlovsk Region 52,845 10,942.5
the Tyumen Region 9,634 2,3854
the Chelyabinsk Region 15,707 26,936.8
the Khanty-Mansijsk Autonomous
District
29,348 32,929.6
the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous
District
26,443 9,364.9
Siberian Federal District
Republic of Altai 765 7527
Republic of Buryatia 3,525 9,333.6
Republic of Tuva 408 8,956.8
Republic of Khakassia 332 9,511.5
Altai Territory 5,861 6,149
Krasnoyarsk Territory 22,805 12,454
the Irkutsk region 12,901 11,069.1
the Kemerovo region 5,027 10,328.4
the Novosibirsk region 12,786 9,120.5
the Omsk region 5,649 8,980.7
the Tomsk region 1,667 11,495.1
the Chita region 20,569 10,039.4
Far East Federal District
the Republic of Sakha Yakutia 14,861 16,154.6
The Primorskiy Territory 37,900 10,887.3
Khabarovsk Territory 13,643 12,512.6
the Amur region 18,454 11,069
the Kamchatka Region 549 19,692.4
the Magadan region 1786 18,516
the Sakhalin Region 16,816 19,001.7
the Jewish Autonomous Region 6,326 9,829.1
the Chukotka Autonomous District 4,451 25,113.8
Source: Federal Migration Service; Social and Economic Situation in Russia, January 2007, Rosstat, 2007
* Data by autonomous areas, except for the Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Areas, are included in
relevant areas.
99
Migration in the Russian Federation: A Country Profle 2008
Annex Table 5. Immigrants at age 14 and older, by citizenship
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
All migrants 158,505 111,883 104,550 155,056 163,687
Russian citizens 142,731 94,425 93,293 142,108 149,212
Foreign citizens 13,225 14,738 9,063 10,303 9,931
Stateless persons 2,549 2,720 2,194 2,645 1,728
Not indicated 2,816
Source: Population and Migration in the Russian Federation. Moscow, the Rosstat, 2004-2006
Annex Table 6. Remittances from and to Russia sent through money transfer systems
and the Postal Service of Russia, 2003-2007, in million dollars
2003 2004 2005 2006
2007 (January-
september)
Remittances from
Russia
1,310 2,070 3,549 6,005 6,317
Including.: non-CIS
counties
323 622 584
CIS countries 3,226 5,382 5,733
Remittances to Russia 588 777 1,041 1,304 1,193
Including: non-CIS
counties
645 746 592
CIS countries 396 559 600
The opinions expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect
the views of the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The designations employed
and the presentation of material throughout the report do not imply the expression of any
opinion whatsoever on the part of IOM concerning the legal status of any country, territory,
city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.
IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants
and society. As an intergovernmental organization, IOM acts with its partners in the
international community to: assist in meeting the operational challenges of migration;
advance understanding of migration issues; encourage social and economic development
through migration; and uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.
Prepared by:
Alin Chindea
Magdalena Majkowska-Tomkin
Heikki Mattila
Isabel Pastor

Edited by:
Sheila Siar
Publisher: International Organization for Migration
17 route des Morillons
1211 Geneva 19
Switzerland
Tel: +41.22.717 91 11
Fax: +41.22.798 61 50
E-mail: hq@iom.int
Internet: http://www.iom.int
_____________________________________________________
ISBN 978-92-9068-483-1
ISBN 978-92-9068-517-3 (Migration in the Black Sea Region: Regional Overview,
Country Profiles and Policy Recommendations)
2008 International Organization for Migration (IOM)
_____________________________________________________
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