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**Digital Signal Processing EC363
**

Prepared By Engr. Alexander Cabatit

1. There is a lot of competition for top jobs after college graduation, and hands-on DSP experience will differentiate you from other graduates. 2. DSP technology is used in cellular phones, hard disk drives, motors, global positioning systems, modems, wireless basestations, GPS-capable personal digital assistants, network routers, hearing aids, anti-lock brakes, and much more! DVD and digital cameras are becoming increasingly popular. 3. DSP is the fastest-growing segment of the semiconductor market. 4. The change from conventional analog Broadcasting to Digital Broadcasting (HDTV)

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DSP Development

Digital Signal Processing is relatively new developing for the past several years due computer technology and integrated circuit (IC) fabrication starting from: 1. MSI (medium scale integration) 2. LSI (Large scale integration) 3. VLSI (Very large scale integration) with powerful, smaller, faster and cheaper digital computers and special purpose digital hardware.

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**Possibilities and Limitations
**

Inexpensive and relatively fast digital circuit have made it possible to construct highly sophisticated digital systems capable of performing complex digital signal processing functions and task. Some signals with extremely wide bandwidths or real-time processing requiring. Analog or optical signal processing is the only possible solution for such signals. The subject DSP is limited to the signals that are being processed from analog to digital and vice versa.

ANALOG DSP (Signals)

DIGITAL

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Definitions

1. Signal – A single valued function of time that conveys information. Is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space, or any other independent variable(s). As a norm, a signal carries information and the objective of signal processing is to extract this information. Spectra – Describes the frequency content of the signal. Signal Processing – is extracting information from a signal and conditioning a signal for subsequent use, signal transformation, or altering a signal structure. Systems – is a process or method or plant that can manipulate, change, or transmit signals. They operate on signals to produce new signals or new signal representation. As a whole, it may be defined as an integrated unit composed of diverse, interacting structures to perform a desired task. The main function of a system is to process a given input sequence to generate an output sequence.

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Digital signal processing (DSP) • is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. DSP and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP has three major subfields: audio signal processing, digital image processing and speech processing.

2. 3. 4.

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1

**Two types of Signal
**

Analog - A signal with amplitude that varies continuously for all time (amplitude and time at their respective signals). Analog signals are continuous time signals. v(t) has a value to each instant of amplitude or value of t

**Advantages of using digital over analog
**

1. Digital circuits do not rely on precise values of digital signals for their operation. Less sensitive to changes in the component values. Less sensitive to variations in temperature, ageing and other external parameters In a digital processor, the signal and systems coefficients are represented in binary words. This enables one to choose any accuracy by increasing or decreasing the number of bits in the binary word. Tolerances in analog circuit components make it difficult to control the accuracy of an analog processing system. Digital signal processor provides much better control of accuracy requirements. Accuracy requirement in the A/D Converting.• Tolerance in analog circuit components make it extremely difficult for the system designer to control the accuracy of an analog processing system Digital Processing of a signal facilitates sharing of a single processor among a number of signals by timesharing. This reduces the processing cost per signal.

2. Digital - Discrete time interval signals that is quantized and then coded. Digital can be done by sampling a continuous time signal at isolated, equally spaced points in time. The result is a sequence of numbers that can be represented as a function of an index variable that takes on only discrete values. The signal remains to be an analog signal until it is coded then it becomes a digital signal. 3.

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Digital implementation of a system allows easy adjustment of the processor characteristics during processing. Allows flexibility in reconfiguring the digital signal process operation by simply changing the program. For analog usually implies changing the hardware. Adjustment in the processor characteristics can be easily done by periodically changing the coefficients of the algorithm representing the processor characteristics. These adjustments are necessary in adaptive filters and allows implementation of more complex signal processing algorithms. Reconfiguration of an analog system requires redesign of hardware. A major advantage of digital signals over analog is the use of digital filters to produce linear phase characteristics and multi-rate processing. Digital circuits can be connected in cascade without loading problems, whereas this cannot be done easily with analog circuits. Storage of digital data is very easy. Signals can be stored in various storage media without any loss, distortion, or loss of signal fidelity. On the other hand, analog signals deteriorate rapidly as time progress and cannot be recovered in their original form.

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7.

Storage of digital data is very easy. Signals can be stored in various storage media without any loss, distortion, or loss of signal fidelity. On the other hand, analog signals deteriorate rapidly as time progress and cannot be recovered in their original form. 8. For processing very low frequency signals like seismic signals, analog require inductors and capacitors of a very large size whereas, digital processing does not and is more suited for such applications. 9. In some cases, digital implementation is much cheaper than analog systems. 10. Digital processing hardware allows programmable operations, so be can easily modify and flexibility in system design. A digital programmable system allows flexibility in reconfiguring the digital signal processing operations simply by changing the program 11. Digital signal processing can allow more sophisticated signal processing algorithms. It is difficult to perform precise mathematical operations on signals in analog operations 10

**Disadvantages of digital processing:
**

1. Digital processing needs pre and post processing devices like analog to digital and digital to analog converters and associated reconstruction filters. This increases the complexity of the digital system and additional cost. But at present, digital circuits are now cheaper and more reliable. In many cases a digital implementation of the signal processing system is cheaper than analog implementation. 2. Digital systems suffer from frequency limitations or speed of application. For reconstructing a sampled signal the sampling frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency component present in the signal. The available frequency range of operation for a digital signal processor is primarily dependent on the sample and hold circuit and the analog to digital converter and as a result limited by the technology available. Overall, the advantages out weight the disadvantages and as time progress, the cost of DSP is decreasing continuously.

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Important Categories of DSP

Signal Analysis: Deals with the measurement of signal properties. It is generally a frequency-domain operations. Some of its applications: (1) Spectrum analysis, (2) Speech recognition, (3) Speaker verification, (4) Target detection Signal Filtering: This task is characterized by the “signal insignal out” situation. It is usually time domain operation. Some of its applications: (1) Remove of unwanted background noise, (2) Remove of interference, (3) Separation of frequency band, (4) Shaping of the signal spectrum

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Classification of Signals

1. Multichannel – signals are generated by multiple sources or multiple sensors and can be represented in vector form.

3.

Continues time signal x(t)– is a mathematically continues function Periodic signals v(t) and that function is called continues in the time domain.

⎧ s1 (t ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ f1 (t ) = ⎨s2 (t ) ⎬ ⎪ s (t ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭

2. Multi-dimensional – A signal that is represented by a single independent variable, the signal is called a one-dimensional signal. M-dimensional if its value is a function of M independent variables.

4.

Discrete-time signal x(n)– is a signal specified only at specific time instants. The amplitude of the discrete-time signal between two time instants is no zero but is just not defined. The smallest value of N is called the fundamental period.

⎧ I r ( x, y , t ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ V ( x, y , z ) = ⎨ I s ( x, y , t ) ⎬ ⎪ I ( x, y , t ) ⎪ ⎩ t ⎭

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Deterministic signal - Is a signal that has certainty with respect to its value at any time. They are functions that are completely specified in time such that the nature and amplitude of the signal can be predicted at any time. The pattern of the signal is regular and can be characterized mathematically.

7.

**Periodic Signals – A continues signal is said to be periodic if it exhibits periodically, x(t) = x(t + To), - ∞ < t < ∞
**

Where: t – denotes the signal location To – Is a constant. Defines the duration of one complete cycle V(t) or the period of the signal. The smallest value of T that satisfies the equation. A periodic signal has a definite pattern that repeats over and over, with a repetition period of To

x(t) = α(t) – Ramp function x(t) = A sin wt

⎧ 1, x (n) = ⎨ ⎩0,

6.

n≥0⎫ ⎬ otherwise⎭

8.

Non-deterministic Signals or random signals– is a signal whose occurrence is random in nature and its pattern is quite irregular. A typical example is thermal noise in an electrical circuit. Or the number of accidents in a year. One cannot exactly predict what would be the figure. Uncertainty of the value of the signal before its actual occurrence.

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Non-periodic (Aperiodic signal) - Any signal for which there is no value of To to satisfy the mathematical condition stated for periodic signals.

Note that a sinusoid signals can be obtained by adding 2 equal amplitude complex exponential signals called phasors. • Positive frequency – counter clockwise angular motion • Negative frequency – clockwise angular motion

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Note:

the sum of two or more periodic continuous time signals need not be periodic. They will be periodic if and only if the ratio of their fundamental periods is rational. In order to determine whether the sum of two or more periodic signals is periodic or not, the following steps may be used to test: 1. Determine the fundamental period of the individual signals in the sum signal. 2. Find the ratio of the fundamental period of the first signal with the fundamental periods of every other signal. 3. If all the ratios are rational, then the sum signal is also periodic. 4. In the case of discrete time signals, the sum of the number of periodic signals is always periodic because the ratio of individual periods is always a ratio of integers, which is rational.

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9.

Even Signals – If a signal exhibits symmetry in the time domain that is the signal must be identical to its reflection about the origin. Mathematically, an even signal satisfies the following: For continues time signals x(t) = x(-t) For a discrete signal x(n) = x(-n) 10. Odd Signals – The signal is not identical to its reflection about the origin, but to its negative. Exhibits antisymmetry. It satisfies the following conditions mathematically: For continues time signals x(t) = -x (-t) For a discrete signal x(n) = -x (-n) x1(t) sin ωt and x2(t) cos ωt are good examples of odd and even signals.

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11. Energy signals - Another classification of signals are those that have finite energy or finite average power. However, there are some signals which can neither be considered as energy signals nor power signals. The Energy Signal is one which has finite energy and zero average power, ie x(t) is an energy signal if 0 < E < ∞. 12. Power Signal is one which has finite average power and infinite energy, ie 0 < P < ∞. If the signal does not satisfy these 2 conditions, then it is neither an energy nor a power signal.

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Digital Signals

Steps in the process of creating digital signals: 1. Sampling – The process of taking samples of the signals per sampling rate 2. Quantizing – The process of assigning steps or levels in the quantized signal 3. Coding – the process of assigning binary codes to the quantized value.

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**Analog to digital conversion of signals
**

A discrete time signal is defined by specifying its value only at discrete times called sampling instants. When sampling values are quantised (assigned values) and encoded, a digital signal is obtained. (Analog to digital converter - A/D)

Description

1. Sampler – extracts the sample values of the input signal at the sample instants. The output of the sampler is the discrete time signal with continues amplitude. 2. Quantiser – converts the continues amplitude into a finite number of sample values. Each sample can be represented by a digital word of finite word length. 3. Encoder – the final stage of AD assigns a digital word to each quantised sample. To reconstruct the original signal it is enough to pass the spectrum of x(t) and suppress the spectra of other translated frequencies or simply filtering. Often referred to as reconstruction filter. The output of the filter is CoX(f) in the frequency domain and x(t0 in the time domain. Band limited – when a signal x(t) is present only for a specific time or frequency only.

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Sampler

Quantizer

Encoder

Continuous-time continuous-amplitude input signal

Discrete-time continuous-amplitude signal

Discrete-time discrete-amplitude signal

Digital output signal

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Sampling theorem

Given a signal x(t), in order to recover the original signal from the samples, the sampling frequency must be greater or equal to twice the maximum frequency in x(t). The sampling theorem states that a bandlimited signal x(t) having no frequency components above the fundamental fh frequency in hertz, is completely specified by samples that are taken at a n uniform rate greater than 2fh hertz. The frequency equal to twice the highest frequency in x(t) = 2fh is called the Nyquist rate. • Undersampling or down sampling. fs < 2fa . The results is overlapping of adjacent spectra. Higer frequency components get superimposed on the lower frequency components.

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Sampling error

• This overlap is known as aliasing or overlapping or foldover. Aliasing means that a signal can be impersonated by another signal. To prevent aliasing, the sampling frequency fs should be greater that twice the frequency fa of the sinusoidal being sampled. In some applications anti-aliasing filter is placed before the sample and hold circuit.

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**Signal quantising and Encoding
**

A discrete time signal with continuous values of amplitude is called sampled data signal while a continues time signal with discrete values of amplitude is referred to as a quantised boxcar signal. Quantisation is the process by which the amplitude of each sample of a signal is rounded off to the nearest possible level. It is the conversion of a discrete time continuous amplitude signal into a discrete time, discrete valued signal. Encoding is done by representing each of these permissible levels by a digital word of fixed word length. Process of quantising produces an error called quantising error and its simply the difference between the value of the analog input and the analog equivalent of the digital representation. The errors will be negligible if there are more levels and width of these quantizing levels. For an AD, the quantiser is the only source of error.

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Quantizing

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The End

Chapter 1

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