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Bonds
Formulas & Examples
Basic bond valuation
Excel functions
Examples
Copyright (c) 1997 Ian H Giddy
Page 1
Bond Val
Basic Bond Valuation
Bond price (PV annuity + PV principal)
PV=PMT*(1-1/(1+R)^n)/R PV=FV/(1+R)^n
Example Coupon rate 8 FV 100
Yield 8.00% Yield 8.00%
Periods 10 Periods 10
PV 53.7 PV 46.32
Answer Price $100.00
Bond price with semi-annual payments
PV=(PMT/m)*(1-1/(1+R/m)^n*m)/(R/m) PV=FV/(1+R/m)^n*m
Example Coupon rate 8 FV 100
Yield 8.00% Yield 8.00%
Frequency 2 2
Periods 10 Periods 10
PV 54.4 PV 45.64
Answer Price $100.00
Page 2
Excel functions
Bond calculations with Excel functions
Use PRICE function to find a bonds price
Settle date 1/1/1997
Mat date 1/1/2007
Rate 8%
Yield 9%
Frequency 2
Price 93.50
Use YIELD function to find a bond's yield to maturity
Settle date 1/1/1997
Mat date 1/1/2007
Rate 8%
Price 95
Frequency 2
Yield 8.76%
Use MDURATION function to find a bond's modified duration
Settle date 1/1/1997
Mat date 1/1/2007
Rate 8%
Price 8%
Frequency 2
Modified duration 6.8
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Examples
Examples
1 Atlantic Bell issued 10-year bonds one year ago at a coupon rate of 9.25 percent. The bonds make
semiannual payments. If the YTM on these bonds is 7.15 percent, what is the current bond price?
Use the Excel PV function to calculate the current value of the bond.
Coupon rate 8.25%
Yield to maturity 12.00%
Years till maturity 7
Bond value $82.57
2 IBM issued 12-year bonds two years ago at a coupon rate of 8.4 percent. The bonds make semiannual
payments. If these bonds currently sell for 97.5 percent of par value, what is the YTM?
Use Excel YIELD function
Bond value $95.88 41.16606
Par value (redemption value) $100
Coupon rate (annual) 4.00%
Years till maturity 5
Today 6/6/2014 Maturity 6/6/2019
Yield to maturity 4.95%
3 Stern Investments has 14 percent coupon bonds issued by Rotten Tree Inc with seven years to maturity. The bonds make
semiannual payments and currently sell for 105 percent of par. What is the current yield on the bonds?
The YTM? The effective annual yield?
Use Excel YIELD and EFFECT functions
Bond value $105.00
Par value (redemption value) $100
Coupon rate (annual) 14.00%
Years till maturity 7
Today 6/6/2014 Maturity 6/6/2021
Current yield 13.33%
Yield to maturity 12.89%
Effective annual yield 13.31%
4 The YTM on a bond is the interest rate you earn on your investment if interest rates don't change. If you actually
sell the bond before it matures, your realized return is known as the holding period yield (HPY).
a. Suppose that today you buy a GE 9 percent coupon bond making annual payments of $1,200. The bond has
10 years to maturity. What rate of return do you expect to earn on your investment?
b. Two years from now, the YTM on your bond has declined by 2.5 percent, and you decide to sell. What
price will your bond sell for? What is the HPY on your investment? Compare this to the YTM when you
first bought the bond. Why are they different?
Use Excel YIELD and PRICE functions
Bond value $120.00
Par value (redemption value) $100
Coupon rate (annual) 9.00%
Years till maturity 10
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Examples
Today 6/6/2014 Maturity 6/6/2024
Yield to maturity 6.28%
2 years later
New yield 3.78%
Par value (redemption value) $100
Coupon rate (annual) 9.00%
Years till maturity 8
Today 6/6/2016 Maturity 6/6/2024
New Price 135.77
Holding period yield
Bond value $120.00
Par value (redemption value) 135.77
Coupon rate (annual) 9.00%
Years till maturity 2
Today 6/6/2014 Maturity 6/6/2016
Holding period yield 13.45%
5 An EDS Corp. bond carries an 8 percent coupon,
paid semiannually. The par value is $1,000 and the bond
matures in six years. If the bond currently sells for
$911.37, what is its yield to maturity?
What is the effective annual yield?
Settle date 1/1/1997
Mat date 1/1/2003
Rate 8%
Price 91.137
Frequency 2
Yield 10.00%
EAY 10.25%
6 A callable bond pays annual interest of $60,
has a par value of $1,000,
matures in 20 years but is callable in 10 years
at a price of $1,100, and has a value today of $911.90.
The yield to call on this bond is:
Settle date 1/1/1997
Mat date 1/1/2007
Rate 6%
Price 91.19
Frequency 1
Yield 7.27%
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Examples
7 A coupon bond which pays interest annually,
has a par value of $1,000, matures in 5 years
and has a yield to maturity of 12%.
If the coupon rate is 9%, the value of the bond today
will be:
Settle date 1/1/1997
Mat date 1/1/2002
Rate 9%
Yield 12%
Frequency 1
Price 89.19
8 As a portfolio manager at Putnam Management, you bought a 10-year, 8.25% semiannual-pay bond at issuance
2 1/2 years ago. At that time the yield to maturity was 8.23%; it's now fallen to 7.10%. How much has the bond's
modified duration changed?
Original Present
Settle date 1/1/1997 7/1/1999
Mat date 1/1/2007 1/1/2007
Rate 8.25% 8%
Yield 8.23% 9%
Frequency 2 2
Modified duration 6.7 5.5
9 You are the risk manager at a new savings bank, Lostyur Trust. Mr Edgar Lostyur, sole shareholder, has been
told by the regulatory authorities to provide them with the institution's modified duration in order to evaluate its
sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations. The Prime rate is 8.25%.
You find that the initial balance sheet of the savings bank looks like this:
Assets:
Cash on deposit 2 million face value
3-month loans at Prime + 2% 13 million face value
4-year, 6% s.a. Treasury bonds yielding 6.35% 20 million face value
7-year, 7.90% s.a. IBM bonds yielding 8.23% 6 million face value
Liabilities:
6-month CDs at 4% 3 million face value
5-year 9% s.a. bonds 33 million face value
Equity: 100,000 shares
What can you tell the regulators the bank's modified duration of assets is?
Of liabilities? And what is the net modified duration?
Based on the net duration, what would be the effect on net worth of a 10bp increase in rates?
Item Cash Loans Treas note IBM bond 6-mo CD 5-yr bond Equity
Face value 2 13 20 6 3 33
Page 6
Examples
Settle date 1/1/1997 1/1/1997 1/1/1997 1/1/1997 1/1/1997 1/1/1997
Mat date 1/1/1997 4/1/1997 1/1/2001 1/1/2004 7/1/1997 1/1/2002
Rate - 10.25% 6.00% 7.90% 4.00% 9.00%
Yield - 10.25% 6.35% 8.23% 4.00% 9.00%
Frequency - 2 2 2 2 2
Price 100 100.00 98.78 98.27 100.00 100.00 46.52
Value 2 13.00 19.76 5.90 3.00 33.00 4.65
Modified duration 0 0.2 3.5 5.3 0.5 4.0
If rates rose by 0.10% value would change by 0.028661 million
and this is 0.62% of 4.65 net worth
Page 7
Examples
IBM issued 12-year bonds two years ago at a coupon rate of 8.4 percent. The bonds make semiannual
Stern Investments has 14 percent coupon bonds issued by Rotten Tree Inc with seven years to maturity. The bonds make
semiannual payments and currently sell for 105 percent of par. What is the current yield on the bonds?
The YTM on a bond is the interest rate you earn on your investment if interest rates don't change. If you actually
a. Suppose that today you buy a GE 9 percent coupon bond making annual payments of $1,200. The bond has
b. Two years from now, the YTM on your bond has declined by 2.5 percent, and you decide to sell. What
price will your bond sell for? What is the HPY on your investment? Compare this to the YTM when you
Page 8
Examples
Page 9
Examples
As a portfolio manager at Putnam Management, you bought a 10-year, 8.25% semiannual-pay bond at issuance
2 1/2 years ago. At that time the yield to maturity was 8.23%; it's now fallen to 7.10%. How much has the bond's
You are the risk manager at a new savings bank, Lostyur Trust. Mr Edgar Lostyur, sole shareholder, has been
told by the regulatory authorities to provide them with the institution's modified duration in order to evaluate its
Assets Liab.+Eq. Net
Page 10
Examples
40.65 40.65
2.54 3.25 -0.71
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