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CCB 3043

Kinetics and Reactor


Design
Associate Professor Dr Ku Zilati Ku Shaari
May 2014
CHAPTER 1
Course Outline
CHAPTER 1
Course Learning Outcomes (CO)
1. Explain the fundamentals of different types of reactors and
reactor operations.
2. Apply the principles of chemical reaction engineering in
solving reaction engineering problems, both for homogeneous
and heterogeneous systems.
3. Interpret and analyze reaction kinetics and reactor systems for
optimum reactor performance.
4. Apply reactor design equations for a broad range of conditions
including multiple reactions, catalytic reactions and non-
isothermal processes.
Apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering fundamentals
and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex chemical
engineering problems.
Identify, formulate, research literature and analyse complex chemical
engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first
principles of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences
Program Outcomes (PO)
CHAPTER 1
Chemical Engineering Program Outcomes (PO)
1. Apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering fundamentals and an engineering
specialization to the solution of complex chemical engineering problems.
2. Identify, formulate, research literature and analyse complex chemical engineering problems
reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences
and engineering sciences
3. Design solutions for complex chemical engineering problems and design systems,
components or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate consideration for
public health and safety, cultural, societal, and environmental considerations.
4. Investigate complex chemical engineering problems using research based knowledge and research
methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data and synthesis of
information to provide valid conclusions.
5. Use modern engineering and IT tools to evaluate complex chemical engineering activities.
6. Apply reasoning informed by contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and
cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to professional engineering practice.
7. Understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts
and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable development.
8. Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of
chemical engineering practice
9. Communicate effectively on complex chemical engineering activities with the engineering
community and society.
10. Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams and in multi-
disciplinary settings.
11. Recognise the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long
learning in the broadest context of technological change.
12. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering and management principles and apply
these to ones own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in
multidisciplinary environments.


CHAPTER 1
Important Rules and Regulations
1. PUNCTUAL!!! I am very strict about you
BEING ON TIME!
2. No make-up Test or Quiz (unless with
MC, UTP event approval form or death
certificate of immediate family
3. Attendance is compulsory, only 3
absences is accepted

CHAPTER 1: Mole
Balances
Lecture 1

CHAPTER 1
Objectives- Chapter 1:
Define the rate of chemical reaction.

Distinguish the difference in operation of
different types of reactor

Apply the mole balance equations to a
batch reactor, CSTR, PFR, and PBR.
CHAPTER 1
Topics (Chapter 1):
Lecture 1:

Chemical Identity
Reaction Rate
Lecture 2:

General Mole Balance Equation
Mole Balance for Different Reactor
Types
Lecture 3: Mole Balance for Different Reactor
Types
Examples
CHAPTER 1






CHAPTER 1
CHEMICAL
REACTION
ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL REACTION REACTOR DESIGN
CHAPTER 1
Basic knowledge:
Very important
Applications:
CHAPTER 1
Application of Chem Rxn Engr
(please read page 1-3)
Manufacture of polyethylene and ethylene.
Plant Safety (Nitroanaline Plant Explosion
Exothermic Reactions That Run Away).
Oil recovery.
Lubricant Design (Effective Lubricant Design
Scavenging Free Radicals).
Enzyme kinetics and Pharmacokinetics.
Cobra Bites (Pharmacokinetics of Cobra Bites
Multiple Reactions in a Batch Reactor (body).

CHAPTER 1
Reaction rate, -r
A
What does it tell???
How fast a number of moles of one
chemical species are being
consumed to form another chemical
species (identity).
CHAPTER 1
Chemical Identity
Identity of a chemical species is
determined by the kind, number and
configuration of the species atom
C C
H
H
CH
3
CH
3

Cis-2-butene
C C
H
H
CH
3

CH
3

Trans-2-butene
Considered as 2 different species due to the different configuration even when
the numbers of atoms of elements are the same
CHAPTER 1
Chemical Identity
A reaction is said to occur when a
species lost its identity and assumed a
new form either by:
Change in the number of atoms in the
compound
Change in structure of the compound
Change in configuration of atoms

CHAPTER 1
3 ways of losing chemical identity:
Decomposition

Combination

Isomerisation
Chemical Identity
2 2 2 3 3
CH C H H CH CH
NO 2 O N
2 2


2
3 2 2 5 2
CH C CH CH CH H C
CHAPTER 1
Reaction rate
Defined as the rate at which a chemical
species reacts (or formed) per unit volume
Expressed as:
Rate of reactant disappearance
Rate of product formation
CHAPTER 1
Example:
A B
Rate of reaction is given by:
-r
A
= rate of disappearance of A
r
B
= rate of formation of B
For heterogeneous reaction, rate of reaction is
express in terms of catalyst volume or catalyst weight
Reaction rate
CHAPTER 1
Reaction rate is an intensive properties
depends on concentration, temperature,
pressure, or type of catalyst, present in a
system
Reaction rate is NOT influence by type of
reactor used!!
Reaction rate is expressed as:
-r
A =
kC
A
n


NOTE: dC
A
/dt is not the definition for reaction rate

Reaction rate
CHAPTER 1
Reaction rate:
Example: Is NaOH
reacting?


CSTR - operated at steady state;
inlet flow rate = outlet flow rate
Perfectly well mixed system;
concentration of samples taken at
10 a.m is the same as concentration
taken at 5 p.m
Therefore: dC
A
/dt = 0

Does this mean that -r
A
= 0; i.e. no
reaction occurs?
The answer is NO!



dt
dC
r
A
A

CHAPTER 1
For any species A:
r
A
is the rate of formation of species A per unit
volume [e.g. mol/dm
3.
s]
r
A
is a function of concentration, temperature,
pressure, and the type of catalyst (if any)
r
A
is independent of the type of reactor (batch,
plug flow, etc.)
r
A
is an algebraic equation, not a differential
equation
Reaction rate
CHAPTER 1
Types of Reactor:
1. Batch reactor
2. Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor
(CSTR)
3. Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) or
Turbular Reactor
4. Packed Bed Reactor (PBR)
CHAPTER 1
Industrial reactors
Types of reaction
Liquid phase reaction Gas phase reaction
Semi batch reactor,
CSTR

Tubular reactor
CHAPTER 1
Different types of reactor:
1) Batch reactor
Physical shape: Tank
Used for:
small scale operation
process that is not suitable for continuous operation.
Advantage:
High conversion longer residence time
Disadvantage
High cost
Product variability
Not for large-scale operation
CHAPTER 1
Different types of reactor:
2) Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
Physical shape: Tank
Continuous Flow, Steady state, Perfectly mixed
Used for:
Liquid phase reaction
process that is suitable for continuous operation.
Advantage:
Continuous operation
Disadvantage
Not for non-ideal mixing
CHAPTER 1
Different types of reactor:
3) Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)
Physical shape: Cylindrical pipe
Continuous Flow, Steady state, Perfectly mixed
Used for:
Gas phase reaction
Reaction rate varies axially NOT radially.
Reactant
Product
CHAPTER 1
Different types of reactor:
4) Packed Bed Reactor (PBR)
Physical shape: Cylindrical
Continuous Flow, Steady state, Perfectly
mixed
Used for:
Fluid-solid heterogeneous reaction (catalyst)
Reactant
Product
CHAPTER 1
Photos of real reactor systems
Batch reactor
CHAPTER 1
CSTR
Photos of real reactor systems
CHAPTER 1
Photos of real reactor systems
PFR
CHAPTER 1
Dr. KuZee May 2014
CCB3043-Kinetics & Reactor Design