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 The global heat budget- the global heat budget is an atmospheric system which involves inputs,
storage and outputs
 Long wave radiation- the infrared (thermal) radiation of the earth’s surface, atmosphere, and
 Short wave radiation- (SW) is radiant energy with wavelengths in the visible (VIS), near-
ultraviolet (UV), and near-infrared (NIR) spectra.
 Albedo- Albedo is the fraction of solar energy (shortwave radiation) reflected from the Earth
back into space.
 Jet stream- A high-speed, meandering wind current, generally moving from a westerly direction
at speeds often exceeding 400 kilometers (250 miles) per hour at altitudes of 10 to 15
kilometers (6 to 9 miles).
 Rossby waves- The movement of ridges and troughs in the upper wind patterns, primarily the jet
stream, circling the earth.
 Absolute humidity- The amount of water vapor present in a unit volume of air, usually expressed
in kilograms per cubic meter.
 Relative humidity- A type of humidity that considers the ratio of the actual vapor pressure of the
air to the saturation vapor pressure.
 Lapse rate: environmental - the rate of change of any meteorological factor with altitude,
especially atmospheric temperature, which usually decreases at a rate of 0.6°C per 100 metres.
 Lapse rate: adiabatic- Unsaturated air loses about 1°C per 100 m (dry adiabatic lapse rate),
whereas saturated air loses an average 0.5°C per 100 m (saturated adiabatic lapse rate)
 Atmospheric stability- A measure of the degree to which the atmosphere resists turbulence and
vertical motion.
 Atmospheric instability-
 Conditional instability- Any layer in the atmosphere where the rate of actual temperature
decreases with height is between the moist and dry adiabatic lapse rate.
 Anticyclones- a weather system with high barometric pressure at its centre, around which air
slowly circulates in a clockwise (northern hemisphere) or anticlockwise (southern hemisphere)
 Depressions- a large body of rotating and rising air below normal atmospheric pressure, which
often brings rain.
 Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)- the zone of deep convection and heavy rainfall in the
tropics, especially along or near the equator.
 Synoptic chart- a chart showing the distribution of meteorological conditions over a wide region
at a given moment.
 Microclimate- are climates that exist over small areas, where the conditions of shelter,
temperature, precipitation, humidity, winds, pressure and clouds are different to the general
 Tropical cyclone- A violent storm originating over tropical or subtropical waters, characterized by
violent rainstorms and high-velocity cyclonic winds.
 Soil- the upper layer of earth in which plants grow a black or dark brown material typically
consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles.
 Soil profile- a vertical section of soil from the ground surface to the parent rock.
 Soil texture- the relative proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil.
 Soil structure- the arrangement of soil particles in various aggregates differing in shape, size,
stability, and degree of adhesion to one another.
 Agroforestry- A system of land use in which harvestable trees or shrubs are grown among or
around crops or on pastureland, as a means of preserving or enhancing the productivity of the
 Urban heat island- An area, such as a city or industrial site, having consistently higher
temperatures than surrounding areas because of a greater retention of heat, as by buildings,
concrete, and asphalt.
 Storm surge- a rising of the sea as a result of wind and atmospheric pressure changes associated
with a storm.
 Water balance- the ratio between the water assimilated into the body and that lost from the
 Air mass- a body of air with horizontally uniform levels of temperature, humidity, and pressure.
 Greenhouse effect- the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere, due to the
greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared
radiation emitted from the planet's surface.
 Field capacity- the maximum amount of water that a particular soil can hold.
 Capillary action- The movement of a liquid along the surface of a solid caused by the attraction
of molecules of the liquid to the molecules of the solid.

 Primary economic activity- refer to the activity which involve the use/harvesting of physical
resources directly from the earth.
 Secondary economic activity- involves the processing of raw materials and the manufacture of
 Tertiary economic activity- services provided for others in exchange for money or product:
banking, nursing, and teaching.
 Quaternary economic activity-encompass a range of intellectual activities, including the
processing and distribution of information.
 Quinary economic activity- involve the creation, rearrangement and interpretation of new and
old ideas and information as well as innovation of methods in data interpretation.
 Aquaculture- the rearing of aquatic animals or the cultivation of aquatic plants for food.
 Hydroponics – the process of growing plants in sand, gravel, or liquid, with added nutrients but
without soil.
 Locational rent-
 Recreation- activity done for enjoyment when one is not working.
 Leisure- time when one is not working or occupied; free time.
 Island tourism- is associated with highly structured activities concentrated on coastal areas e.g.
 Mainland tourism-is associated with highly structured activities concentrated on larger land
areas e.g. France and Switzerland.
 Footlosse industry- one which could set up in many different locations. It is not tied to a fixed
location. It may locate where labour is cheaper, or where the government offers incentives.
 Isodapanes- A line joining up places of equal total transport costs for industrial production and
delivery between the points where the raw materials are located and the markets.
 Economic man – an imaginary individual created in classical economics and conceived of as
behaving rationally, regularly, and predictably in his economic activities with motives that are
egoistic, acquisitive, and short-term in outlook.
 Sub-optimum location-
 Industrial inertia- The best location for a firm in order to maximize profits.
 Package tour- a holiday organized by a travel agent, with arrangements for transport,
accommodation, etc., made at an inclusive price.
 Deindustrialization- the decline of a country's traditional manufacturing industry due to
exhaustion of raw materials, loss of markets and competition from NICs.
 Factory farming- a system of rearing livestock using highly intensive methods, by which poultry,
pigs, or cattle are confined indoors under strictly controlled conditions.
 Import substitution industrialization- An economic theory employed by developing or emerging
market nations that wish to increase their self-sufficiency and decrease their dependency on
developed countries.
 Land degradation- Deterioration in the quality of land, its topsoil, vegetation, and/or water
resources, caused usually by excessive or inappropriate exploitation.

 Development- The systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific
objectives or requirements.
 Underdevelopment- state of inadequate development; "much poverty can be traced to the
underdevelopment of industry".
 Sustainable development- Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
 Poverty- Condition where people's basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met.
 Absolute poverty- measures poverty in relation to the amount of money necessary to meet
basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter.
 Relative poverty- poverty in relation to the economic status of other members of the society.
 Gross domestic product- the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country
during one year.
 Human development index- A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank
countries' levels of social and economic development based on four criteria: Life expectancy at
birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per
 Age dependency ratio- is a measure of the age structure of the population.
 Life expectancy- the average period that a person may expect to live.
 Gender- the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural
differences rather than biological ones).
 Infant mortality rates- infant death rate: the death rate during the first year of life
 Gross national product- the total value of goods produced and services provided by a country
during one year, equal to the gross domestic product plus the net income from foreign
 Nodal region- A region characterized by a set of places connected to another place by lines of
communication or movement.
 Gender development index (GDI) - is a composite indicator that measures the development of
states according to the standard of living in a country.
 Human poverty index (HPI) - is an indicator of the standard of living in a country developed by
the United Nations (UN). It relates to life expectancy, malnutrition in children, literacy, and
access to health services and potable water.