You are on page 1of 22


Corporate Social Responsibility is defined as operating a business that meets or exceeds the
ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations that society has of business.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate responsibility, corporate
citizenship, responsible business and corporate social opportunity) is a concept whereby
organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their
activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders,
as well as the environment. his obligation is seen to e!tend beyond the statutory obligation to
comply with legislation and sees organizations voluntarily taking further steps to improve the
"uality of life for employees and their families as well as for the local community and society at
#usiness ethics is a form of the art of applied ethics that e!amines ethical principles and moral or
ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.
$n the increasingly conscience%focused marketplaces of the &'st century, the demand for more
ethical business processes and actions (known as ethicism) is increasing. Simultaneously,
pressure is applied on industry to improve business ethics through new public initiatives and
laws (e.g. higher () road ta! for higher%emission vehicles).
#usiness ethics can be both a normative and a descriptive discipline. *s a corporate practice and
a career specialization, the field is primarily normative. $n academia, descriptive approaches are
also taken. he range and "uantity of business ethical issues reflects the degree to which business
is perceived to be at odds with non%economic social values. +istorically, interest in business
ethics accelerated dramatically during the ',-.s and ',,.s, both within ma/or corporations and
within academia. 0or e!ample, today most ma/or corporate websites lay emphasis on
commitment to promoting non%economic social values under a variety of headings (e.g. ethics
codes, social responsibility charters).
hose activities that companies voluntarily undertake to have a positive impact on
society, including cash contributions, contributions of products and services,
volunteerism, and other business transactions to advance a cause, issue or nonprofit
1onating money and other corporate resources to social causes.
Corporate philanthropy refers to the practice of companies of all sizes and sectors making
charitable contributions to address a variety of social, economic and other issues as part
of their overall corporate citizenship strategy.
Corporate philanthropy is a key component of a corporation2s broader social
responsibility and includes cash gifts, product donations and employee volunteerism. $t
serves as a ma/or link between the corporation and its communities.
3beying the letter and spirit of the law4 mitigating or remedying operational harm4 and
sustainable development of natural resources.
*chieving commercial success in ways that honor ethical values and respect people,
communities, and the natural environment.
*ddressing the legal, ethical, commercial and other e!pectations society has for business,
and making decisions that fairly balance the claims of all key stakeholders
Companies that consciously integrate strategies that seek to ma!imize the creation of
environmental and social value within their core business models, operations and supply
he idea of responsible business behaviour is far from new. #ut since the ',,.s, increasing
concern over the impacts of economic globalisation has led to new demands for corporations to
play a central role in efforts to eliminate poverty, achieve e"uitable and accountable systems of
governance and ensure environmental security. $n essence, the approach is to view business as
part of society and to find ways to ma!imise the positive benefits that business endeavour can
bring to human and environmental well%being whilst minimising the harmful impacts of
irresponsible business. he agenda that has resulted from these concerns has variously been
called %corporate citi&ens'ip(, %corporate social responsibility( )C!R*# %corporate
acco+ntability( or si,ply %corporate responsibility(-
*s we all know, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an e!pression used to describe what
some see as a company2s obligation to be sensitive to the needs of all to take account not only of
the financial5economic dimension in decision%making, but also the social and environmental
'.S(S*$6*#78 189873:;86<
368 of the most significant developments in the field of CSR over the past few years has been
the growth in public e!pectations that the companies not only make commitments to its
stakeholders in its business operations. he principle is closely linked with the imperative of
ensuring that these operations are =sustainable>, that is, that CSR is recognised as not only
necessary but also develop systems to manage implementation and systematically assess and
report on progress relative to those commitments. Corporate accountability encompasses the
systems a company establishes to develop policies, indicators, targets and processes to manage
the full range of activities. he scope of operations for which companies are e!pected to be
accountable has increased dramatically in recent years to include not only company2s own
performance but also that of the business partners and other actors throughout the company2s
value chain. he mechanisms a company uses to demonstrate accountability are varied and
inevitably need to change and grow as a company evolves4 at the same time effective systems for
increasing accountability generally allow the company to be inclusive, responsive and engaged
with its stakeholders.
&.C3R:3R*8 *CC3(6*#$7$?<
*ccountability in its basic sense implies render%ing of accounts and, by e!tension, indicate
answer%ability to an e!ternal agency or group and, further, implies ensuring propriety, legality
and safeguarding public interest in satisfaction of the e!pectations of the e!ternal agency or
group. Social *ccountability suggests accountability to the people4 this is a core value in a
democratic set%up. $n a decentralised democracy the basic ob/ec%tive is power to the people.
Corporate accountability today spans emerging CSR issues like business ethics, diversity,
marketplace behaviour, governance, human rights and labour rights as well as more traditional
areas of financial and environmental performance. herefore, an increasing number of
companies are reporting publicly on their social, environmental and ethical performance, both as
a communication to stakeholders and as a management tool. +owever, as this practice has only
become more widespread since the mid%',,.s, there are as yet no standard formats to address the
type of information companies choose to report, or how that information is collected, analysed
and presented.
8ffective and accountable management systems help companies shape cultures that support and
reward CSR performance at all levels. *s part of this effort, many companies are working to
increase accountability for CSR performance at the #oard level. his can lead to changes in who
serves on the #oard, how 1irectors handle social and environmental issues, and how the #oard
manages itself, and fulfils its responsibilities to investors and other stakeholders. Companies are
also seeking to build accountability for CSR performance at the senior management level, in
some cases by creating a dedicated position responsible for broad oversight of a company2s CSR
activities. 0inally, many companies are working to integrate accountability for CSR performance
into actions ranging from long%term planning to everyday decision%making, including rethinking
processes for designing products and services and changing practices used to hire, retain, reward,
and promote employees.
*t the same time, many stakeholders are becoming increasingly sophisticated in the type and
"uality of information they are demanding from companies. $n an effort to meet these demands
@as well as to strengthen the credibility of their social and environmental reports@some
companies are choosing to have their reports e!ternally verified. $n doing so, the companies
recognise that verification by a third party can add value to the overall social and environmental
reporting process by enhancing relationships with stakeholders, improving business performance
and decision%making, aligning practice with organisational values, and strengthening reputation
risk management.
A.CSR *61 B331 B398R6*6C8<
3ne of the most significant issues within the CSR agenda concerns the dynamic relationship
between CSR and good public governance. he limits both to corporate accountability through
law and to Cvoluntary2 CSR%related actions by businesses lie with the public good governance
agenda. 7egislation to deal with worst case instances of irresponsible behaviour and to set a
minimum floor for business conduct will not work in the absence of effective drivers for
business implementation and enforcement, whether they are market%based, or a result of
enforcement through the state..
he need is to implement social, ethical and environmental policy (commonly known as codes of
conduct) through the development of ob/ectives, programmes and mechanisms for monitoring
social compliance performance.
3ne very important aspect of ensuring social accountability is establishing social compliance
through continuous audit and monitoring. he demand for increased corporate accountability
today comes from all sectors. hus social accountability ensures transparency, reduces leakages,
forces proper spending of funds, generates trust and peace, and creates demand led improvement
in services. $n a sense, it is a continuing audit and a constant check on malfeasance.
"ENE.IT! O. C!R:
he scale and nature of the benefits of CSR for an organization can vary depending on the nature
of the enterprise, and are difficult to "uantify, though there is a large body of literature e!horting
business to adopt measures beyond financial ones found a correlation between
social5environmental performance and financial performance. +owever, businesses may not be
looking at short%run financial returns when developing their CSR strategy.
he definition of CSR used within an organization can vary from the strict Dstakeholder impactsD
definition used by many CSR advocates and will often include charitable efforts and
volunteering. CSR may be based within the human resources, business development or public
relations departments of an organisation, of may be given a separate unit reporting to the C83 or
in some cases directly to the board. Some companies may implement CSR%type values without a
clearly defined team or programme.
* CSR programme can be seen as an aid to recruitment and retention particularly within the
competitive graduate student market. :otential recruits often ask about a firmEs CSR policy
during an interview, and having a comprehensive policy can give an advantage. CSR can also
help to improve the perception of a company among its staff, particularly when staff can become
involved through payroll giving, fundraising activities or community volunteering.
;anaging risk is a central part of many corporate strategies. Reputations that take decades to
build up can be ruined in hours through incidents such as corruption scandals or environmental
accidents. hese events can also draw unwanted attention from regulators, courts, governments
and media. #uilding a genuine culture of Edoing the right thingE within a corporation can offset
these risks.
$n crowded marketplaces, companies strive for a uni"ue selling proposition which can separate
them from the competition in the minds of consumers. CSR can play a role in building customer
loyalty based on distinctive ethical values. Several ma/or brands, such as he Co%operative
Broup and he #ody Shop are built on ethical values. #usiness service organisations can benefit
too from building a reputation for integrity and best practice.
Corporations are keen to avoid interference in their business through ta!ation or regulations. #y
taking substantive voluntary steps, they can persuade governments and the wider public that they
are taking issues such as health and safety, diversity or the environment seriously, and so avoid
intervention. his also applies to firms seeking to /ustify eye%catching profits and high levels of
boardroom pay. hose operating away from their home country can make sure they stay
welcome by being good corporate citizens with respect to labour standards and impacts on the
0irms that acknowledge the influence of stakeholders on their business can provide effective and
successful CSR programmes which can deliver real value in the form of reputation, customer
attraction, employee loyalty and investment opportunities. ;oving from theory to practice and
putting corporate responsibility into action can be achieved in a number of ways including<
$ncorporating a clear CSR policy into mission, vision and values statement
*dopting a meaningful code of ethics that is implemented consistently
:ublishing formal social and environmental reports and audits
Community $nvestment :rogrammes
:roviding products and services
8mployee volunteering schemes
:ublic education and awareness programs
;entoring programs
Corporate community partnerships
Supporting good causes in marketing campaigns
Supporting and contributing to community forums

he business case for CSR is not necessarily a simple one. *mong the challenges is the fact that
the social and5or environmental impact differs across industries, complicated by the fact that the
term CSR has different meanings to different industry sectors in different parts of the globe.
*lso, some may "uestion if the message C83s communicate about CSR is an add@on or part of
company core business activities@or is it merely an insincere effort to boost public relationsF $n
some organisations, CSR is still considered to mean compliance and philanthropy, although
some large companies are now placing CSR in a more strategic framework.
0urther, there is the "uestion of how to measure CSR. 3ne of the largest obstacles is lack of a
rigorous, credible business case backed up by performance indicators and metrics that can be
"uantified and benchmarked. 0urther, investment in CSR is not yet being taken seriously by
some organisations.
6ot all organisations may have the resources (for e!ample, funds, time, staff) to funnel into CSR
initiatives. +owever, CSR programmes may not be e!pensive or re"uire a significant time
commitment. 3rganisations that are interested in CSR may choose to start with small pro/ects
that showcase their commitment to their workforce and the community. Social Gork
professionals with their professional knowledge and e!pertise can help address this challenge by
considering different options and developing creative approaches to CSR to in the company.
hus, it is at this point that the +R leadership, as the eyes and ears of the organisation, is key to
the CSR e"uation. Social Gork professionals as +R leaders have the e!pertise to manage
programmes, policies and practices, to engage the organisation and its stakeholders (for e!ample,
owners, employees, management, customers, creditors, the government and other public
organisations) in the value of CSR by focusing on communications, employee relations, health,
safety and community relations to provide their organisations with a competitive
advantage.#esides, the greatest challenge to CSR and accountability are in three areas.
.IR!T# the companies have to decide to look at CSR and accountability as a core part of their
business. ;any more companies are looking at the world that way today than they were ten years
ago, but it probably still is a minority opinion and so part of the challenge is simply about the
political will on the part of companies to look at their impact through the prism of sustainability.
!ECONDLY, there are two communities out there that e!ert immense influence on business
across all sectors< consumers and financial institutions. 0inancial institutions have actually
started to move significantly over the last couple of years@a very important development
because it2s remaking the way markets work.
he THIRD actor is the government.Ghether it2s through global trade agreements and the G3
or whether it2s their own enforcement of laws or =smart> regulation that looks at creating
incentives to engage the business community as a partner, the government remains an incredibly
significant actor and can be a net negative, net positive, or neutral in terms of influencing the
kinds of decisions that businesses make.
&.C+*7786B8S 3 S3C$*7 C3;:7$*6C8<
hough many multinational retailers can now boast of a Code of Conduct, only a few have been
able to roll out a full scale and independent monitoring programme. he issues involve from
finding resources to conflicts with short%term business ob/ectives. 3n the other hand, most
suppliers consider compliance programmes a new burden resulting in poor and untrustworthy
partnership with their buyers when it comes to implementing the code of conduct.
8!ternal challenges include cultural diversity, understanding the local law and at times finding
the local law, finding local language and dialect skills, finding local audit and monitoring
professionals who are well conversant with the local issues, involving workers, local
communities, 6B3s and other stakeholders.
Corporations like all other social institutions are an integral part of society and must depend on
it for their e!istence, continuity, and growth. *s organizations usually behave in response to
market forces, they initiate certain socially responsible activities that may have a direct impact
on their economic performance .*lthough these activities are social in nature and aim for
community welfare and societal development somewhere they have a hidden concern for profits.
+ere the management cares only about its company2s gains, profitability and organizational
success at any price. heir main strategy to have these activities is to e!ploit opportunities for
corporate gain. hese activities have a direct economic benefit that is clearly visible. *ctivities
that are undertaken to improve the image or reputation of an organization can be included in this
category. *s the criteria for legitimacy for such activities is economic in nature the cost that is
incurred in implementing these activities is treated as an investment. his is the also termed as
the re"uired behaviour of any organization. Such activities are undertaken after a detailed
planning and doing a thorough cost benefit analysis. hese activities generally become an
investment that helps the organization in improving long%term economic performance.
3rganizations following these activities are called as =8conomic Citizens>.
3rganizations prefers to conduct its operations within the legal framework imposed by social
system within which it operates. hose activities that are driven in response to legal constraints
fall under this category. Responsible behaviour that is driven by legal concern aims either at
compliance with the e!isting laws or to avoid any litigation. *s the criteria for legitimacy here is
legal in nature it implies that bringing corporate behaviour to a level where it is congruent with
the prevailing legal framework. hese activities intend not to violate laws and e"uate social
responsibility with fulfilling minimum legal re"uirements. his is the e!pected behaviour of any
organization. *nd those organizations that do not abide with the legal framework are termed as
illegal organizations. 3rganizations following these activities are called as =7egal Citizens>.
hese activities have very limited relevance of legal and market forces and they are above such
criteria. *lthough these activities are not compulsory for any organization to undertake but these
are definitely appreciated by the stakeholders. 3rganizations or activities belonging to this
category are driven by a high concern for society. *s these activities are not legally forced they
are in congruence with the prevailing social norms and values. 3rganizations having these
activities do recognize the importance of profitable operations but also takes definite stand on
issues of public concern. *ll ongoing community development programmes that are voluntary in
nature and are ultimately implemented to benefit the society at large come under in this category.
his is the desired behaviour of any organization.3rganizations having such activities are
progressive4 they are the leaders in the industry and are called as =Responsible Citizens>.
Gith company reputation, viability and sometimes survival at stake, one of the critical roles of
the +R leadership today is to spearhead the development and strategic implementation of the
CSR throughout the organisation and promote sound corporate citizenship. *s +R leaders, we
can influence three primary standards of CSR@ethics, employment practices and community
involvement@that relate either directly or indirectly to employees, customers and the local
community, as outlined below. #y considering these three CSR standards, +R leaders can then
identify the CSR stage of their organisation before making decisions to develop and implement
CSR initiatives.
8thical standards and practices are developed and implemented in dealings with all company
stakeholders. Commitment to ethical behaviour is widely communicated in an e!plicit statement
and is rigorously upheld.
+uman resource management practices promote personal and professional employee
development, diversity at all levels and empowerment. 8mployees are valued partners, with the
right to fair labour practices, competitive wages and benefits and a safe, harassment%free, family%
friendly work environment.
he company fosters an open relationship that is sensitive to community culture and needs and
plays a proactive, cooperative and collaborative role to make the community a better place to live
and conduct business.
3ne of the most visible CSR initiatives is in community relations. Strong community relations
can have a positive impact on company reputation and brand. hrough community programmes
that highlight the company doing good work, we can link critical issues@decreasing turnover,
savings on cost per hire and attracting talented individuals@to CSR and the bottom line. here
are many other possibilities that +R leaders could e!plore to match both company and
community needs (for e!ample, cultural facilities for the community, recreational facilities for
employees and their families, an educational pro/ect to help prepare tomorrow2s workforce)
. *s +R leaders, a development professional can perform the following< .
H Scan the environment to identify potential threats (for e!ample, competition for talent within
the organisation2s industry sector).
H #uild personal and professional capability of the workforce (for e!ample, e!pand intellectual
capital within the organisation and in collaboration with other organisations).
H $nclude ethical concerns in staff performance measures. H Support participative decision%
H 8nsure highest standards in workplace health and safety.
H 8ncourage active engagement in community activities.
;oving 0orward with CSR@+R as a Change *gent
03C(S$6B on company values, we as +R leaders can set the tone for an organisational culture
that is open to and understands CSR. +R2s role as a change agent@grounded in mutual respect
and open and honest communication@is essential to educate management and employees about
including CSR when setting business goals and ob/ectives. hree practical steps to promote
change regarding CSR are to<
') establish a workable stakeholder consultation process4
&) use the process to understand the local culture (for e!ample, internal@the workforce@or
e!ternal@the community) at all stages of implementing CSR4
A) create a sense of ownership between the staff who set up a pro/ect and those who implement
#eyond including CSR in the +R management system, our role as a change agent continues
through keeping the C83 and other members of the senior management team informed of human
capital initiatives, the status of community relations, measurements of employment activities and
development of partnerships for CSR programmes, both inside and outside the organisation.
0ollowing the companyEs collapse, 8nron has become a by%word for corporate irresponsibility.
he financial misrepresentation that covered%up the giant black hole at the heart of the companyEs
finances have fuelled interest in how such corporations can be identified and held to account.
his is made all the more challenging on account of that fact that % to some observers % 8nron
was doing the whole Dsocial responsibility thingD with its CSR reporting, environmental and
community programmes.
$SS(8S % he firm pro/ected itself as a highly profitable, growing company % an image which
"uickly turned out to be an elaborate mistruth. 8nronEs statements about profits were shown to be
untrue, with massive debts concealed so that they didnEt show up in the companyEs accounts.
CSR R8:3R$6B % he 8nron last social and environmental report was rather light on the kind
of measures that are increasingly being demanded. he company was gearing up to address
human rights and other issues. $t did include a number of figures on environmental performance,
and on health and safety records.#ut there is a bigger challenge here. he move towards more
robust social and environmental reporting will not "uickly get to the point where its indicators
pick up the deliberate actions at the top that typify this story. *fter all, what social reporters are
trying to do is identify the core reporting data which will give a real picture of the health of the
company % /ust like we already have in financial reporting. #ut financial reporting was not
sufficiently transparent and robust to pick up on the 8nron problem % how much more difficult
for the hard%to%define measures of stakeholder engagement and social performanceF
he main message from this is that e!pectations of company reporting need to be kept realistic.
he CSR movement needs to be wary of promoting the achievements of companies when all
they are doing is going through the motions.
6ike has become one of those global companies targeted by a broad range of campaigning
6B3s and /ournalists as a symbolic representation of the business in society. $n 6ike2s case, the
issues are those of human rights and conditions for workers in factories in developing countries.
$n the face of constant accusations, 6ike has developed a considered response, supported by
corporate website reporting. $t now has a well developed focus for its corporate responsibility on
improving conditions in contracted factories, aiming for carbon neutrality, and making sports
available to young people across the world. he criticism continues, however.
$SS(8S % 6ike has around I.. contract factories, within which around &.J of the workers are
creating 6ike products. Conditions for these workers has been a source of heated debate, with
allegations made by campaigns of poor conditions, with commonplace harassment and abuse.
CR$$CS2 3:$6$36 % Critics have suggested that 6ike should publicise all of its factories, and
allow independent inspection to verify conditions there. *ny auditing carried out by 6ike should
be made public. * lot of focus is given to wage rates paid by the company2s suppliers. #y and
large, audits have found that wage rates are above the national legal minimum, but critics
contend that this does not actually constitute a fair living wage
Gith the retreat of the state in economic activity in $ndia, the imperative for business to take up
wider social responsibilities is growing. *t all levels, there is a felt need for companies to
graduate to strategic interventions in CSR, which at present in many cases remain ad hoc. *
sense of strategic direction is a vital component in an effective approach to corporate
responsibility. ?et, for all these signs of progress, CSR in $ndia has yet to realise its full
potential. $ndividual and collaborative initiatives continue to be dominated by self%assertion
rather than accountability. here is certainly no lack of CSR programmes and pro/ects in $ndia<
what is absent, however, are clear metrics for evaluating their actual impact in improving social
conditions.;any $ndian business houses, private sector and public sector companies have
undertaken ma/or initiatives till date and have adopted several modes of practice related to CSR
in $ndia. Several innovative measures have also been adopted by companies towards the
institutionalisation of CSR that includes CSR initiatives by 7upin, Cipla, Ranba!y, 6$$, CS,
#:C7, and $on 8!change.
0or long%established industrial dynasties, such as the #irlas and the #irlas, concepts of nation%
building and trusteeship have been alive in their operations long before CSR become a popular
cause. *longside these are the leading $ndian companies with strong international shareholdings,
such as +ero +onda, +77 (+industan 7ever 7td), $C, and ;aruti (dyog, where local dynamics
fuse with the business standards of the parent or partner. *nother tradition emerges from the
public sector enterprises, such as #+87 (#harat +eavy 8lectricals 7td), +10C (+ousing
1evelopment 0inance Corporation), 6:C (6ational hermal :ower Corporation), and 36BC
(3il and 6atural Bas Corporation), where social obligations remain an integral part of their
business despite the march of privatisation. *nd then there is the new generation of enterprises
that has surged on the back of knowledge based globalisation, such as 1r Reddy2s, $nfosys,
Ranba!y, and Gipro, where less emphasis is on minimising negative impacts and more on
ma!imising the positive spill%over effects of corporate development.
#irla Broup is a pioneer in promoting CSR in $ndia. he #irla Broup is a giant family
of businesses that dominates $ndian markets. *nd #irla cement is one of twenty%eight
ma/or corporations within the #irla Broup. 0ounded in ',K&, it is the largest private
sector Cement company in $ndia, with a capacity of A.L million tones per annum crude
Cement production. 3perations are spread across the country, with Cement manufacturing
and mining activities situated in the states of Mharkhand and 3rissa at eight
locations. he company employs appro!imately K-,... people as at *pril &..&.
#irla Cement CSR activities started as early as its inception. $nitially, these activities
were only philanthropic in nature and the company believed more in Cgiving2 back to
the society.
CSR activities are now ranging from community development, improving health care,
reducing poverty, occupational health and safety risk control and protecting the
environment that means covering almost all the stakeholders.
=Ge do not claim to be more unselfish, more generous or more philanthropic than
others, but we think we started on sound and straightforward business principles
considering the interests of the shareholders, our own and health and welfare of our
employeesNthe sure foundation of prosperity>.
hese =sound and straightforward principles> carried through the generations of
#irlas still has influence on the prevailing businesses and practices. Gith such a
strong tradition of corporate responsibility, it is no surprise that very recently Ratan
#irla has been honoured with Carnegie ;edal of :hilanthrophy in :ittsburgh on
Gednesday 3ctober &&, &..I
Gith the understanding that the hunger for employment can never be satisfied despite its best
efforts, the Company took an enlightened decision to address the needs of those who migrated to
its vicinity in search for employment. $t first stimulated entrepreneurship and economic
development in the Cement City and then reached out to the rural poor, empowering them with
the means to create better livelihoods within their own villages. #irla Cement is $ndia2s
acknowledged Corporate Social Responsibility leader and is recognised as a most humane
organisation. 8very lesson learned, every piece of knowledge gathered, the Company offers to all
those who wish to work alongside it to Dimprove the "uality of life of the communities it serves.D
#irla Cement has influenced the integration of tribals in the economy in a less obvious and
immediate way by propping up the education of tribal children and youth of various ages and at
various stages of their academic career.he CS bears the entire e!pense of two tribal students
who secure admissions for management education at the #irla $nstitute of Social Sciences. *n
unusual pro/ect called Sahyog, implemented in five schools, helps tribal students to develop self%
esteem and plan their future.he Oavier $nstitute for ribal 8ducation near Mamshedpur has also
been supported by #irla Cement.
8fforts to support tribals may well leave them at the doorstep of development without a sense of
belongings and their cultural heritage. his Centre showcases the tribal legacy of four ma/or and
five minor tribes of Mharkhand and 3rissa and evokes a lot of interest amidst scholars,
researchers and even laypersons. #irla not only documents relevant research but also enables the
continuation of the tradition by sharing it with the youth and non%tribals.*dditionally, a Santhali
7anguage 7aboratory has also been initiated in the Centre since &..&%.A.
Corporate Social Responsibility is one such niche area of Corporate #ehaviour and Bovernance
that needs to get aggressively addressed and implemented tactfully in the organizations. *t the
same time CSR is one such effective tool that synergizes the efforts of Corporate and the social
sector agencies towards sustainable growth and development of societal ob/ectives at large. $ndia
is a fast growing economy and is booming with national and multinational firms. *t the same
time, the $ndian land also faces social challenges like poverty, population growth, corruption,
illiteracy /ust to name a few. herefore it is all the more imperative for the $ndian companies to
be sensitized to CSR in the right perspective in order to facilitate and create an enabling
environment for e"uitable partnership between the civil society and business.
he impact of CSR is under close scrutiny. here are three primary areas of concern<
') product responsibility4
&) strategies for sustainability4
A) the "uality of CSR management
herefore, with the growing importance of human capital as a success factor for today2s
organisations, the role of +R leadership will become ever more critical in leading and educating
organisations on the value of CSR and how best to carry out the strategic implementation of CSR
policies and programmes in $ndia and abroad.
'. =Corporate Social Responsibility>, Gikipedia, he 0ree 8ncyclopedia, Muly A. (&..P). &.
6ancy R. 7ockwood (&..K 1ecember), Corporate Social Responsibility< +R2s 7eadership Role,
A. *ccountability and #usiness for Social Responsibility (with #rody Geiser #urns), (&..A.
Mune), #usiness and economic development< he impact of corporate responsibility standards
and practices.
K. #urke, 8. ;. (',,,), Corporate Community Relations< he :rinciple of the 6eighbor of
Choice, Gestport, C< Quorum #ooks.