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University of Western Australia

School of Civil and Resource Engineering 2004


6. Prestressed Concrete :
Ultimate shear strength
of beams
Approach to shear strength design
Inclined web crushing
Inclined web fracture -
flexure-shear resistance
web shear resistance
Concrete and steel contributions to shear
strength
APPROACH TO SHEAR STRENGTH DESIGN
Shear fracture can occur without warning, and . .
Shear resistance is variable, even for identical beams, so . .
We design such that shear resistance ALWAYS
exceeds the bending strength of the member, and
A lower strength reduction factor is used: f = 0.7
In prestressed beams, shear strength at any section is
affected by the bending moment at that section. So we
need to estimate this bending moment as part of the
design.
Typically, ultimate shear strength includes contributions
from concrete and steel (stirrups) so that V
u
= V
uc
+ V
us
Firstly consider a sections response to shear force . .
A
B
C
D
B
C
A B
C D
Basics: Diagonal Tension and Compression:
Shear
force V
AC extends to AC.
So there is a tensile strain
in direction AC.
I f stress is high enough,
tensile fracture could occur.
Also BD contracts to BD.
So there is a compressive
strain in direction BD.
I f stress is high enough,
crushing could occur.
Prestressing can inhibit both of these potential failures.
Consider first hold-up enhancement . . .
Shear strength design
P
x
M
V
P
v
P
h
q
x
= e
x
P
P
h
= P
P
v
= Pq
x
Forces on concrete - length
of beam from support to x.
Components of prestress
force P, at x from support.
The vertical component P
v
= Pq
x
is a vertical force which
holds-up the right hand concrete, hence enhances the shear
strength in this case.
[This is not always the case, e.g. in continuous beams.]
Hold-up enhancement of shear resistance :
Now consider inclined web crushing . . .
Shear strength design
INCLINED WEB CRUSHING
Just as for reinforced concrete, diagonal web crushing provides an upper
bound to the crushing capacity of a prestressed section. Except for the
hold-up force, the prestress does not increase the web crushing capacity.
The inclined web capacity is conservatively estimated by
V
u.max
= 0.2 f
c
b
v
d
o
+ P
v
b
w
Grouted
duct
d
d
Note the terms:
b
v
= b
w
- 0.5 Sd
d
and b
w
= web width.
For grouted duct - for ungrouted =1.0
d
0
= distance from compression face to
outermost tendon or rebar, but not less
than 0.8D.
P
v
= hold-up force.
I f f V
u.max
< V*, then change
of design may be needed.
web-shear web-shear
flexure -
shear
flexure -
shear
flexure
flexure
Types of Cracking -
actual and potential:
We have already dealt with flexure (bending) cracking. Now we must
address the two types of diagonal cracking called flexure-shear and
web-shearcracking, and the ultimate shear resistance.
We can expect these patterns of cracking to be inhibited by
prestress, but by how much?
Lets see . . .
flexure -
shear
INCLINED WEB FRACTURE
Inclined Web Fracture:
Flexure-Shear Resistance: V
ucf
This must be considered wherever a flexural crack, perhaps caused by a
previous loading, or by shrinkage, or any other reason, may occur. Hence we
must consider every section along the length of the beam. In reality, we
concentrate on selected sections and several intermediate sections.
The flexure-shear resistance is designated V
ucf
, and is one of the two values
of V
uc
to be estimated.
V
ucf
is comprised of two additive resistances:
1. the shear force at the section when a crack at the section just starts to
open (termed initiating force V
0
), and
2. the force required to allow a diagonal crack to fully propagate from
the flexural crack (termed propagating force V
p
).
V
ucf
is also augmented by the hold-up force P
v
So
. . . V
ucf
- P
v
= V
0
+ V
p
i.e. V
ucf
= P
v
+ V
o
+ V
p
P
v
= P e
x
as before. V
o
is explained thus :
UBMD and M
o
diagram
USFD
x
M*
M
o
(M
dec
)
V*
At section x from support :
M* is factored design moment
M
o
is decompression moment
V* is factored shear force
corresponding to M*
So V
0
is a simple proportion
of V* :
V
0
= ( M
0
/ M*) V*
. . . which leaves V
p
to be explained . . .
Inclined Web Fracture : Flexure-shear
. . . V
p
is estimated by the beta formula from
reinforced concrete, with some modifications :
V
p
= b
1
b
2
b
3
b
v
d
o
{( A
st
+ A
pt
) f
c
/ ( b
v
d
o
)}
1/ 3
b
1
= depth factor.
b
2
= axial load factor, but not including prestress ! !
b
3
= support factor.
b
v
allows for reduction due to ducts, if any.
A
st
+ A
pt
includes both tendons and rebars which are in
the tensile zone at ultimate load.
So now we have it all:
Flexural shear Resistance V
ucf
= P
v
+ V
o
+ V
p
of which all terms have been explained.
Inclined Web Failure : Flexure-shear
Near the supports of simply supported beams, web-shear crackingmay occur
before flexure-shear cracking. This possibility is very serious indeed, since
sudden fracture, without warning, could ensue. So, quite separately from
consideration of flexure-shear, we must examine web-shear, but only at sections
where tensile cracking is not expected to exist at ultimate load.
We do this by examining the principal tensile stress in the web:
RECTANGULAR
SECTION
b
w
y
Bending
stress
s
y
Shear
stress
t
y
GENERAL
PRISMATIC
SECTION
b
w
y s
y
t
y
s
y
=
P/A + Pey / I - My / I
and
t
y
= V Q / (I b
w
)
A note about Q
. . .
Inclined Web Failure : Web-shear resistance: V
ucw
. . . Q is the second moment of area, taken about the
centroidal axis, of the area lying beyond the level being
considered, for example :
Centroidal axis
To estimate t at centroidal axis:
A
y
Q = A y
Centroidal axis
To estimate t at junction of
web and tensile flange :
A
y
Q = A y
The appropriate Q is then used in t
y
= V Q / (I b
V
)
Web-shear resistance: V
ucw
t
q = angle of principal plane to the horizontal - remember that there is no shear
stress on a principal plane - and
s
1
= principal stress (+ = compression) on this plane.
Forces on triangle
a b
c
q
t . 1
t tan q
s tan q
s
1
cos q
s
1
s
1
tan q
M
V
P
P
t
t
t
s
s
q
unit
element
a b
c
Stresses on unit element
SH=0: s tan q - t - s
1
tan q = 0
SV=0: - t tan q - s
1
= 0
Eliminate tan q : t
2
= s
1
2
- s s
1
Web shear crack occurs when s
1
reaches 0.33(f
c
)
0.5
So V
t
= I b
v
t / Q where t
2
= s
1
2
- s s
1
in which s
1
= - 0.33 (f
c
)
0.5
Web-shear resistance
Mohrs Circle representation :
t
t
s s
0
0
s
s
1
Direct
stress
s / 2
t
Shear stress
+ = compression,
- = tension
0
Unit element
subjected to stress s
horizontally, and 0
vertically.
s
1
is maximum
principal tensile stress
at tensile fracture.
So t is shear stress
corresponding to
maximum principal
tensile stress.
This solves to t
2
= s
1
2
- s s
1
, as before. (s
1
is negative!)
Note how the maximum shear strength is enhanced by the
magnitude of s : higher s => higher t.
Web-shear resistance
But at what depth y does the highest principal tensile stress
occur ? Consider these diagrams :
Bending
stress s
Shear
stress t
y
y
It is not apparent at which
depth y the combination
of shear stress and
compressive stress are
critical. So . . .
For rectangular web, we
check at centroidal axis,
and . . .
For general section, we
check at both centroidal
axis, and at flange to
web intersection, and
adopt the most critical
value.
Inclined Web Failure : Web-shear
Calculate V*
at section
Calculate V
u.max
V* > fV
u.max
?
yes
Change section
no
P
v
(hold-upforce) +
V
o
(crack initiation force) +
V
p
(crack propagation force)
= V
ucf
M* > M
cr
?
yes
V
uc
= V
ucf
no
P
v
(hold-up force) +
min V
t
(centroidal)
V
t
(flange-web junction)
= V
ucw
{
}
V
uc
= min V
ucf
V
ucw
CONCRETE
CONTRIBUTION
TO SHEAR
STRENGTH
flexure-
shear
web-
shear
This logic chart
shows how to
calculate V
uc
{ }
Can we use stirrups to
increase shear capacity as
for reinforced concrete ?
Yes, and in the same manner !
Remember that stirrups are always
required if the beam, whether
reinforced or prestressed, is deeper
than 750 mm.
Recall the truss model which
describes how stirrups act as
vertical members, in conjunction
with horizontal chords . . .
d
0
s
How shear steel works :
Stirrups act as vertical tension members in the fictitious truss.
Stirrups also hold the crack closed, up to their yield capacity.
So we design thus: f V
u
>= V*
which means f (V
uc
+ V
us
) >= V*
from which f V
us
>= V* - f V
uc
STEEL CONTRIBUTION
TO SHEAR STRENGTH
Beam: V* <= f V
uc
AND
D <= max (250mm, b
v
/2)
yes
No shear
steel required
no
V* <= 0.5 f V
uc
Slab : V* <= f V
uc
yes
no
yes
D > 750 mm
no
no
0.5 f V
uc
< V* <= f V
u.min
yes
Provide minimum
steel, using
s
max
= min(0.75D, 500mm)
yes
no
Provide calculated
steel, using
s
max
= min(0.5D, 300 mm)
Steel contribution to
shear strength
This logic chart shows how to
select shear steel and spacing :
Shear Steel Contribution to Shear strength :
V
us
= (A
sv
f
sy.f
d
0
/s) cot q
v
For design purposes, we commonly use the following form to
select the required stirrups:
A
sv
/ s > = V
us
/ (f
sy.f
d
0
cot q
v
)
Remember there are limitations on the spacing s of stirrups.
Also q
v
lies between 30
o
and 45
o
, as given by
q
v
= 30
o
+ (V* - f V
u.min
) / (fV
u.max
- f V
u.min
) 15
o
A
sv.min
= 0.35 b
v
s / f
sy.f
where f
sy.f
in MPa.
. . . and of course V
u
= V
uc
+ V
us
SUMMARY
Design to ensure that shear failure does not occur
under the loading that produces ultimate bending failure.
Check for web crushing i.e. ensure V* <= f V
u.max
Check for diagonal tension fracture i.e.
V* <= f {V
uc
+ V
us
}
V
uc
is V
ucf
if section is cracked by ultimate moment or
{V
ucf
, V
ucw
}
min
otherwise.
Always use shear steel if D > 750 mm. This includes
longitudinal steel top and bottom.
f = 0.7 for all shear calculations.