## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Predictive Control Algorithm
**

Thy Selaroth

Department Of Electrical and Energy Engineering

Institute of Technology of Cambodia

Selaroth168@gmail.com

Abstract— This paper presents potential benefits of applying

model predictive control (MPC) Algorithm and Quadratic

program to solving the dynamic economic dispatch problem in

electric power systems. The main objective of the economic

load dispatch problem is to determine the optimal schedule of

output powers of all generating units so as to meet the required

load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying system

equality and inequality constraints. We take Dynamic Economic

Dispatch in 24 hour to implement. Simulation is implemented in

a power system comprising six generators to illustrate potential

benefits from this look-ahead dispatch of both intermittent and

more conventional power plants. For the result of this method,

we compare with the Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch of

Thermal Power System Using Genetic Algorithm by W. M.

Mansour , M. M. Salama, S. M. Abdelmaksoud, H. A. Henry.

The Computational results manifest that the method has a lot of

excellent performances, and it is superior to other methods in

many respects.

I. INTRODUCTION

In power markets there is an increasing need for

improving the representation of high-voltage transmission

networks in order to better support market design alternatives,

price formation mechanisms, and for general operation and

planning decisions. In most cases, this process involves the

definition of more complex mathematical models [1].

With the development of modern power systems,

economic load dispatch (ELD) problem has received an

increasing attention. The primary objective of ELD problem is

to minimize the total generation cost of units while satisfying

all units and system equality and inequality constraints [2]. It

involves meeting the load demand at minimum total fuel cost

while satisfying various unit and system constraints. The

economic dispatch (ED) model is a optimization power

demand , generation limit constraints, ramp rate limits ,and

system loss.

The ED for power systems can be divided into

traditional static ED and DED. The static ED seeks to achieve

an optimal objective for the power system at a specific time,

but will not take into account the intrinsic link between the

systems at different time moments. The DED takes into

account of the coupling effect of system at different time

moments, such as the limit on the generator ramping rate. As

a result, its computation process is more complex than that of

a static optimal dispatch [3].

For this paper we use the model predictive control algorithm

to do the step of Dynamic Economic Dispatch. Each step, we

use the quadratic program to the optimization problem.

MPC has been proposed for the periodic

implementations of the optimal solutions of the DED problem

in .The system loss is a very essential factor to be considered

in the power system analysis. In the present paper we present

the MPC method for the periodic implementations of the

optimal solutions of the DED problem taking into account the

transmission losses. Model predictive control is a receding

horizon optimization based control technique. The basic

concept of MPC is that at each control step, a finite-horizon

optimal control problem is solved but only the first step of

control sequences gets implemented. The state space trajectory

over the prediction horizon is described by a predictive model,

with the initial state being the measured state of the actual

system. After the implementation of the first step, the system

control waits until the next step. With the new measurement,

the optimal control routine is re-run. As a result of this online

optimization, the MPC approach has been successfully applied

to many real-world process control problems [4].

II. ECONOMIC DISPATCH PROBLEM

In the practical case the fuel cost of generator can be

represented as the quadratic form. We will be considering the

operation of generating i units [5].

2

i i i i i i

C a P b P c = + + (1)

The general formula of total power loss in transmission line is

expressed by (from kron’s loss formula)

0 00

1 1 1

g g g

n n n

loss i ij j i i

i j i

P PB P B P B

= = =

= + +

¿¿ ¿

(2)

The total demand power Pd:

1

g

n

i loss

i

P Pd P

=

= +

¿

(3)

The power output of generator should not exceed its rating

nor should be below its rating.

(min) (max) i i i

P P P s s (4)

where Pd is the real power load; Pi is the real power output at

generator bus i; Bij, B0j, B00 are the B-coefficients of the

transmission loss formula;

(min) i

P is the minimal real power

output at generator i;

(max) i

P is the maximal real power output

at generator i;

For this optimization we also us the Lagrange multiplier

1 1

( , , ) ( ) ( ) ( )

g h

m m

j j j

j j

L x f x jh x g x ì µ ì µ

= =

= + +

¿ ¿

(5)

According to the optimization theory, the Kuhn-tucker (KT)

for the optimum point

* * *

( , , ) x ì µ are :

* * *

( , , ) 0

i

L

x

x

ì µ

c

=

c

i=1,2……N (6)

*

( ) 0

j

h x = j=1,2…..

h

m (7)

*

( ) 0

j

g x s j=1,2…..

g

m (8)

* * *

( ) 0, 0

j j j

g x µ µ = > j=1,2…..

g

m (9)

By using the Lagrange multiplier ,the Kuhn-tucker (KT) , and

adding additional terms to include the equality constraints (1)

to (9) we obtain :

( ) ( )

0

( )

( )

(1 ) 2

2( )

g

n

k k

i i ij i

i j k

i k

i ii

B b B P

P

a B

ì ì

ì

=

÷ ÷ ÷

=

+

¿

(10)

We sum all of power and using Taylor’s series we obtain

( )

0

( )

( ) 2

1 1

(1 ) 2

( )

2( )

g

g g

n

k

i i ii i i ij i n n

i j k i

k

i i i ii

a B B b a B P

P

a B

o

oì ì

=

= =

÷ ÷ ÷

=

+

¿

¿ ¿

(11)

( )

1

g

n

k

loss i

i

P Pd P P

=

A = + ÷

¿

(11)

( )

( )

( )

1

( )

g

k

k

n

k i

i

P

dP

d

ì

ì

=

A

A =

¿

(12)

( 1) ( ) ( ) k k k

ì ì ì

+

= + A (13)

By using this one and consider the

(min) (max) i i i

P P P s s

,

By (10) to (13) we can find the power of all generator.

III. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

Model predictive control is a receding horizon

optimization based control technique. The basic concept of

MPC is that at each control step, a finite-horizon optimal

control problem is solved but only the first step of control

sequences gets implemented. The state space trajectory over

the prediction horizon is described by a predictive model, with

the initial state being the measured state of the actual system.

After the implementation of the first step, the system control

waits until the next step. With the new measurement, the

optimal control routine is re-run. As a result of this online

optimization, the MPC approach has been successfully applied

to many real-world process control problems [6]. The MPC

problem at control step i is

0 1 2

1

0

min , { , , ,..... }

. . ( ), 0,1, 2.... 1

( ) 0, 0,1, 2.... 1

( )

n

U

k k k

k k

J U u u u u

s t x f x u k N

g x u k N

x Z k

+

=

= + = ÷

+ s = ÷

=

(14)

Where N is the prediction horizon, the optimal solution to

the above problem is denoted by

* * * * *

0 1 2

{ , , ,..... }

n

U u u u u = .

Only

*

0

u after this iteration of optimization is implemented.

The process repeats in time.

We can apply MPC to dynamic economic dispatch by

algorithm below [7].

1. input the initial status

1 1 1 1 1

1 2 3

{ , , ,..... }

n

P P P P P =

2. Compute the open loop optimal solution of DED

* * * * *

0 1 2

{ , , ,..... }

n

U u u u u =

And

2 1 *

i i i

P P Tu = +

3. Compute the Close loop optimal solution of (MPC)

*( 1) *( 1) *( 1) *( 1) *( 1)

1 2 3

{ , , ..... }

m m m m m

n

U u u u u

+ + + + +

=

1 *( 1) m m m

i i i

P P Tu

+ +

= +

4. Let m=m+1 and go to step 1

By this algorithm we can optimize cost by the dynamic way.

For making optimization we use the quadratic programming.

IV. QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING

QP is an effective optimization method to find the global

solution if the objective functions is quadratic form and the

constraints are linear. It can be applied to optimization

problems having non quadratic objective and nonlinear

constraints by the approximating the objective to quadratic

function and constraints as linear [8].

The classic objective function of a QP problem is as

follows [9]

1

min( )

2

T

x

X QX CX +

(15)

Subject to the linear inequality and equality and bound

constrains

eq eq

Ax b

A x b

lb X ub

s

=

s s

(16)

where C is an n - dimensional row vector describing the

coefficients of the linear terms in the objective function; Q is

an ( n × n ) symmetrical matrix describing the coefficients of

the quadratic terms or hessian matrix and T in (1) denote the

transposed vector [5]. As in linear programming, the decision

variables are denoted by the n - dimensional column vector x,

and the constraints are defined by an ( m × n ) matrix (A) and

an m - dimensional column vector B of right - hand – side

coefficients. For the real power ED problem, we know that a

feasible solution exists and that the constraint region is

bounded. When the objective function F (x) is strictly convex

for all feasible points, the problem has a unique local

minimum, which is also the global minimum. A sufficient

condition to guarantee strict convexity is for Q to be positive

definite. This is generally true for most of economic dispatch

problems.

To map the ED to QP, the objective function variables are

given by the power generation output vector as follow:

Take

1 *( 1) m m m

i i i

P P Tu

+ +

= + (17)

We optimization every time T =1 Hour

So that (17) will become

1 *( 1) m m m

i i i

P P u

+ +

= + (18)

Operation cost of generating i units is

2 2

1 1 1

(2 )

i i i i i i i i i i i i

C a u P a b u b P c a P

÷ ÷ ÷

= + + + + + (19)

We will optimize

i

u by quadratic programming

The general formula of total power loss in transmission line is

expressed by (from kron’s loss formula)

0 00

1 1 1

g g g

n n n

loss i ij j i i

i j i

P PB P B P B

= = =

= + +

¿¿ ¿

(20)

We suppose that

i

x P = and by (16)

We can get

11 1

1 2 3

1

.....

([1,1,1...,1] [ , , ..., ] : :

.....

N

eq N

N NN

B B

A P P P P

B B

(

(

= +

(

(

¸ ¸

00 00 00

01 02 03 0

1 2

[ , , ..., ] [ , ,..., ]

N

N

B B B

B B B B

P P P

+ +

(21)

2

eq loss

b Pd P = + (22)

By (18) So that form (21) will become

11 1

( 1) ( 1)

1 1

1

.....

[ ,..., ] : :

.....

N

m m m m

eq N N

N NN

B B

A P u P u

B B

+ +

(

(

= + +

(

(

¸ ¸

01 02 03 0

[1,1,1...,1] [ , , ..., ]

N

B B B B + +

00 00 00

( 1) ( 1) ( 1)

1 1 2 2

[ , ,..., ]

m m m m m m

N N

B B B

P u P u P u

+ + +

+

+ + +

(23)

( 1)

1 1

11 1

( 1)

( 1) ( 1) 2 2

1 1

1

( 1)

...

[ ,..., ] : :

:

...

m m

N

m m

m m m m

loss N N

N NN

m m

N N

P u

B B

P u

P P u P u

B B

P u

+

+

+ +

+

( +

(

(

+

(

(

= + +

(

(

(

(

¸ ¸

+

(

¸ ¸

( 1)

1 1

( 1)

2 2

01 02 03 0 00

( 1)

[ , , ..., ]

:

m m

m m

N

m m

N N

P u

P u

B B B B B

P u

+

+

+

( +

(

+

(

+

(

(

+

(

¸ ¸

(24)

To find Hessian matrix Q we take

2 2

2

1 1

2 2

2

1

...

: :

...

N

N N

f f

x x x

Q

f f

x x x

( c c

(

c c c

(

(

=

(

c c

(

(

c c c

¸ ¸

(25)

By (19) & (25) Hessian matrix Q is equal

1

.... 0

: :

0 ...

N

a

Q

a

(

(

=

(

(

¸ ¸

(26)

To find C the coefficients of the linear objective function

1 1 1

2 2 2

(2 )

(2 )

:

(2 )

N N N

P a b

P a b

f

P a b

( +

(

+

(

=

(

(

+

(

¸ ¸

(27)

We use the flowing Matlab code formulated to do the

optimization [10]

x=quadprog (H, f, A, b, Aeq, beq, lb, ub)

% solves the the quadratic programming problem:

min 0.5*x'*H*x + f'*x

% while satisfying the constraints

A*x ≤ b

Aeq*x = beq

lb <= x <= ub

V. APPLY FLOW CHART

For this section we will apply the combine Algorithm of

MPC and Quadratic programming

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS

To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a six

unit thermal power generating plant was tested. The proposed

algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB language. The

proposed algorithm is applied to 26 buses, 6 generating units

with generator constraints, ramp rate limits and transmission

losses [21]. The results obtained from the proposed method

will be compared with the outcomes obtained from the

Genetic Algorithm and PSO method in terms of the solution

quality and computation efficiency. The fuel cost data and

ramp rate limits of the six thermal generating units were given

in Table I. The load demand for 24 hours is given in Table II.

B-loss coefficients of six units system is given in Equation

(17). Table III gives the optimal scheduling of all generating

units, power loss and total fuel cost for 24 hours by using PSO

technique. Table IV gives the optimal scheduling of all

generating units, power loss and total fuel cost for 24 hours by

using Genetic Algorithm and Table V gives the optimal

scheduling of all generating units, power loss and total fuel

cost for 24 hours by using the proposed method.

B-loss coefficients of six units system is given in Equation

TABLE III GIVES THE OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF ALL

GENERATING UNITS, POWER LOSS AND TOTAL FUEL COST FOR 24

HOURS BY USING PSO

TABLE IV GIVES THE OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF ALL

GENERATING UNITS, POWER LOSS AND TOTAL FUEL COST FOR 24

HOURS BY USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

TABLE V GIVES THE OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF ALL

GENERATING UNITS, POWER LOSS AND TOTAL FUEL COST FOR 24

HOURS BY USING THE PROPOSED METHOD

Figure 1. Fuel cost of unit 1 versus 24 hr by the three used method

Figure 2. Fuel cost of unit 2 versus 24 hr by the three used method

Figure 3. Fuel cost of unit 3 versus 24 hr by the three used method

Figure 4. Fuel cost of unit 4 versus 24 hr by the three used method

Figure 5. Fuel cost of unit 5 versus 24 hr by the three used method

Figure 6. Fuel cost of unit 6 versus 24 hr by the three used method

Figure 7. Total fuel cost of 6 unit versus 24 hr by the three used

method

VII. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Model

Predictive Control Algorithm is used to solve the DED

problem. The proposed algorithm has been successfully

implemented for solving the DED problem of a power system

consists of 6 units with different constraints such as real power

balance, generator power limits and ramp rate limits. For the

results, some of the generator (1; 4; 6) has the lower cost than

other method while generators (2; 3; 5) are higher. Even

though some are lower and some are high cost, the total cost

of propose method is lower that other methods. it is clear

From the that the total fuel cost obtained by Dynamic

Economic Dispatch Using Model Predictive Control

Algorithm is comparatively less compared to other methods.

Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is

powerful and practical tool for obtaining minimum of total

fuel cost.

REFERENCES

[1] , F. Benhamida , S. Souag , F. Z. Gharbi, R. Belhachem ,A.

Graa “Constrained Dynamic Economical Dispatch”.

[2]. W. M. Mansour, M. M. Salama, S. M. Abdelmaksoud,

H. A. Henry, “Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch of

Thermal Power System Using Genetic Algorithm”.

[3]. A. M. Elaiw , X. Xia and A. M. Shehata “Application

` Of Model Predictive Control To Dynamic Economic

Emission Dispatch With Transmission Losses”

[4]. Hadi Saadat “Power System Analysis”

[5]. Le Xie, Student Member, IEEE, and Marija D. Ili´c,

Fellow, IEEE “Model Predictive Economic

/Environmental Dispatch of Power Systems with

Intermittent Resources

[6]. A.M.Elaiw, X.Xia, and A.M.Shehata” An application of

model predictive control to the dynamic economic

emission with transmission loss

[7]. R.Belhachem, F.Benhamida, S.souag, I.Ziane ,and

Y.salhi “Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Using

Quadratic Programming and Gams

[8]. Jizhong Zhu “Optimization of power system Operation”

[9]. matlab code optimization http://www.mathworks.com

/help/optim/ug/quadprog.html

- DespotisDEA Done in GAMS
- Complexity and Sustainable Development
- GAMS
- Land use change modelling
- Farming Systems and Poverty
- LandUse_VN_LandUsePolicy
- Handy Paper for Submission 2
- Intensification, Political Economy, And the Farming Community; In
- Incorporating Community Objectives in Improved Wetland Management the Use of AHP
- Deterministic Mathematical Modelling
- 03.crumley
- A4_Growth and Yield Models for Uneven-Aged Stands
- Gams Tutorial
- Modelling Sustainability
- Solving-Economic-Load-Dispatch-Using-A-Novel-Method-Based-On-Pso-Algorithm-And-Gams-Software.pdf
- Crossing the Great Divide: Coproduction, Synergy, and Development
- Social choice, uncertainty about external costs and trade-off between intergenerational environmental impacts.
- Guisan 2000 - predictive habitat distribution models in ecology
- Ecological, Economic and Structural Comparison of Renewable Energy
- modelling lifestyle effects on energy demands & related emissions
- 4. Population, Land Use, And Deforestation
- LecturenotesEnv.modelling
- Martinez Et Al in Press AAAI Sustaining Economic Exploitation of Complex Ecosystems in Computational Models of Coupled Human-natural Networks
- Systems&Models (1)
- Beregon Land Use Paper No. 123
- SAL- Mathematics - Computer Algebra Systems - GAMS.pdf
- Water-wastewater management of tapioca starch manufacturing using optimization technique
- sdarticle-1
- convertGAMS
- Modelling system requirements

- Bode Plots
- 1HSM 9543 40-00en IT Application Guide Ed4.pdf
- Forecasting of Chinese Primary Energy Consumption in 2021 with GRU Artificial Neural Network
- Binder 1
- RMS values of rectifier waveforms
- 4_ABB_REF_615_appl_756378_enh
- Time Series and Forecasting
- An Inverter System
- Electricity Newsletter is available in Khmer language only
- Introduction to Inverters
- 101651030-Design-and-Analysis-of-Analog-Filters.pdf
- Pages From L05-Basic of Digital Filter
- 44619448-500-MW-VOLUME-1.pdf
- A complete 1ø system containing three feedback loops
- Binder1 Copy
- Single-phase converter systems containing ideal rectifiers
- Quickbook2010 Khmer
- Thai Yazaki
- LS LV-MV cable
- Realization of an Unmanned Bicycle Robot with Balancer
- Introduction to Digital Filter Theory
- FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
- Realization of an Unmanned Bicycle Robot with Balancer
- Introduction to GIS Using ArcGIS Desktop 10
- modeling power electronic
- Industrial Power Systems Handbook - Donald Beeman
- Machine Electric
- ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????????
- Analog Electronics
- ABB’s world of substation solutions

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading