DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

ANALYSIS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES IN TEAMS

Submitted To: Dr. R. P. Raya

PROJECT REPORT

Submitted By
KAMALAKKANNAN G GAURAV KUMAR ARVARIYA SUSHIL SHAKYA

Section – B

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The successful completion of any task would be incomplete without mentioning the names of the persons who helped to make it possible. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude in a few words to all those who helped me in the completion of this project. I convey my sincere thanks to Dr. R. P. RAYA for giving this opportunity to have such a study about Conflict Management. I express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to Team leads Mr. Mohan (CTS), Mr. Sathish Kumar (Wipro) and Mr. Sonu Dass (Syntel Inc.,) for permitting us to conduct the study on their Organization. I sincerely thank my friends for giving timely advice in all the aspects for the success of this project work.

CONTENTS

S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
Executive Summary Introduction

TITLES

Page No. 1 2 3 4 6 9 10 12 15 17 19

The Conflict Management Process Strategies for Conflict Management Ways People Deal with Conflict Objectives Research Methodology Data Analysis Correlation Analysis Conclusion Questionnaire

EXECUTIVE SUMMERY
Cognizant Technology Solutions (CTS) Wipro & Syntel Inc are three (CTS), reputed organization in IT Sector. They provide Software Solutions, BPO works in and around world. These MNC’s are playing a major part in US outsourcing works.

The Objective of the project is to identify and compare the conflict management styles followed in the teams of each company. Computing agement Correlation Analysis on the data collected on their Conflict Management Styles.

If the Conflict is managed in a way that brings out positive effect then the productivity of the organization would be increased. It also increases the self awareness about conflict modes, conflict communication skills, and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment.

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INTRODUCTION
Conflict is a fact of life. Although many people think only of its ugly or unfortunate results, some conflict is actually necessary and good. It all depends on how a particular conflict is handled.

What is Conflict?
“A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affects something that first cares ted, about.” “Conflict occurs when there are two or more competing responses to a single event.” “Is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.” Conflicts must be perceived by the parties to it; whether or not conflict exists is a perception issue. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed that no conflict exist. Conflict can be a serious problem in an organization. It ct can create chaotic conditions that make it nearly impossible for employees to work together on the other hand; conflict also has a well known positive side.

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THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PROC PROCESS What is conflict management?
Conflict may be defined as a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values, or goals. Conflict on teams is inevitable; however, the results of conflict are not predetermined. Conflict might escalate and lead to non-productive results, or conflict can be beneficially resolved and productive lead to quality final products. Therefore, learning to manage conflict is integral to a high high-performance team. Although very few people go looking for conflict, more often than not, conflict results because of miscommunication between people with regard to their needs, ideas, beliefs, goals, or values. Conflict management is the principle that all conflicts cannot necessarily be resolved, but learning how to manage conflicts can decrease the odds of non-productive escalation. Conflict management involves acquiring skills related to conflict resolution, self-awareness about conflict modes, conflict communication skills, awareness and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment.

How do people respond to conflict? Fight or F Flight?
Physiologically we respond to conflict in one of two ways ways—we want to “get away from the conflict” or we are ready to “take on anyone who comes our way.” Think for a moment about when you are in conflict. Do you want to leave or do you want to fight when a conflict presents itself? Neither physiological response is good or bad it’s personal response. What is bad—it’s

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important to learn, regardless of our initial physiological response to conflict, is that we should intentionally choose our response to conflict. entionally Whether we feel like we want to fight or flee when a conflict arises, we can deliberately choose a conflict mode. By consciously choosing a conflict mode instead of to conflict, we are more likely to productively contribute to solving the problem at hand.

STRATEGIES FOR CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Larson and Gray’s list of five strategies for managing dysfunctional conflict provides a good summary of approaches. Mediation: The goal is to identify multiple possible alternatives and to mutually select one that is acceptable to all involved parties and in the interest of project objectives. Arbitration: This strategy requires the project manager to provide a safe and productive opportunity for the conflicted parties to air their disagreements. After careful attention and fully listening to each party, the project manager should formulate, define, and provide a solution to the parties. This strategy is based on the forcing approach to conflict described earlier. Arbitr Arbitration can often be effectively combined with mediation by forcing an initial conflict solution and then allowing the parties to negotiate to a more mutually acceptable alternative.

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Control: Based on the smoothing approach described earlier, this strategy seeks to bring tension and emotions down to a level at which productive discussion and negotiation can occur. Humour is often an effective tool, as well as the use of temporary breaks or time outs in the discussions between conflicted time-outs parties. Acceptance: The decision can be made that the conflict consequences are negligible relative to project objectives and, therefore, require no action. This strategy carries significant risk of later escalation and should be combined with specific plans for monitoring the situation to ensure that the conflict remains at an acceptable level. Elimination: Finally, the elimination strategy is reserved for those conflicts that have become so dysfunctional that the project can no longer tolerate any impacts from them. Often a last resort, elimination involves the removal of the conflicted parties from involvement with the project.

What factors can affect our conflict modes?
· Gender · Self-concept · Expectations · Situation · Position (Power) · Practice · Determining the best mode · Communication skills · Life experiences

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The Conflict Management Process

WAYS PEOPLE DEAL WITH CONFLICT
There is no one best way to deal with conflict. It depends on the current situation. Here are the major ways that people use to deal with conflict. The Turtle (WITHDRAWING) Turtles withdraw into their shells to avoid conflicts. They give up their personal goals and relationships. They stay away from the issues over which the conflict is taking place and from the persons they are in conflict with. Turtles believe it is hopeless to try and resolve conflicts. They feel helpless. They believe it is easier to withdraw (physically and psychologically) from a conflict than to face it.

The Shark (FORCING) Sharks try to overpower opponents by forcing them to accept their solutions to the conflict.
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Their goals are highly important to them and
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relationships of minor importance. They seek to achieve their goals at all costs. They are not concerned with the needs of others. They do not care if needs others like or accept them. Sharks assume that conflicts are either won or lost and they want to be the winner. This gives them a sense of pride and achievement. Losing gives them a sense of weakness, inadequacy and failure. They try and win by attacking, overpowering, overwhelming and intimidating others.

The Teddy Bear (SMOOTHING) To teddy bears the relationship is of great importance while their own goals are of little importance. Teddies want to be accepted and liked by other people. They think that conflict should be avoided in favour of harmony and that people cannot discuss conflicts without damaging relationships. They are afraid that if a conflict continues, someone will get hurt and that could ruin the relationship. They give up their goals to preserve the relationship. They like to elationship. smooth things over.

The Fox (COMPROMISING) Foxes are moderately concerned with their own goals and their relationships with others. They give up part of their own goals an persuade and others in a conflict to give up part of theirs. They seek a conflict solution in which both sides gain something - the middle ground between two extreme positions. They compromise; they will give up a part of their goal and relationship in order to find agreement for the common good. er

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The Owl (CONFRONTING) Owls highly value their own goals and relationships. They view conflicts as problems to be solved and seek a solution that achieves both their own and the other person's goals. Owls see conflicts as a means of improving conflicts They try to begin a relationships by reducing tension between two people.

discussion that identifies the conflict as a problem to be solved. By seeking solutions that satisfy everyone, owls maintain the relationship. They are not happy until a solution is found that both satisfies everyone’s goals and resolves the tensions and negative feelings that may have been present.

Conflict Management Style Withdrawal / Avoidance Smoothing / Accommodating Compromising Forcing / Competing Problem Solving / Collaboration Some Conflicts they face while executing a task: a) Role conflict b) Conflict in Selection of Ideas c) Conflict in resource scarcity

Productivity Temporary (Fails to Resolve)

Provides Resolution

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OBJECTIVES  The main objective of the study is to find the conflict resolution strategies followed in 3 reputed concerns  Other objectives of the study are compare the strategies with other 2 companies of the same sector  Suggesting ways to handle the conflict efficiently

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research design: A research design is basic frame work or plan for a study that guides the collection of data and analysis of the data. The research design adopted here is Descriptive. Descriptive research: Descriptive studies, as their name implies, are designed to describe something (Conflict Resolution Strategies) Strategies). Sampling plan: Data Researcher design : : Primary data Survey method Questionnaire Personal / E-mail / Telephonic mail

Researcher instrument : Method of contact Sampling method: Judgement Sampling Sampling Unit The Project Team :

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Sampling Area Three IT Companies in different location location. Cognizant, Coimbatore Syntel Inc., Chennai Wipro, Mysore

Sample Size
15 Team members 3 Team Leads SCOPE & LIMITATIONS of the study Scope of the study Conflict in a team is directly proportional to the productivity of a concern. Addressing those conflicts in a structured way will enhance the efficiency of the functioning of the team. So study must be made in order to increase the competitiveness of the firm in the fast changing market. changing

Limitations of the Study he  The study was carried out with only 3 Teams  Sample size is limited to 15 Team members and 3 Team Leads due mple 15 to time constrains.

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DATA ANALYSIS:
Conflict Management Style followed by a Team in COGNIZANT

10.00%

WITHDRAWING
40.00%

FORCING SMOOTHING
50.00%

COMPROMISING CONFRONTING

Description:  Team Lead falls under COMPROMISING Category  Resolution process is well facilitated under a Compromising Person

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Conflict Management Style followed by a Team in SYNTEL INC. SYNTEL

25%
WITHDRAWING

50%

FORCING SMOOTHING

25%

COMPROMISING CONFRONTING

Description:  Team lead falls under CONFRONTING type.  Confronting type values both resolving and relationships.  Negotiation of conflicts with the concern is his strategy (as per interaction with him him)

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Conflict Management Style followed by a Team in WIPRO

14.28%

14.28%

WITHDRAWING FORCING SMOOTHING COMPROMISING CONFRONTING
71.42%

Description:  Team lead is partially Confronting and Smoothing  As per the category the leader might be valuing relationship a bit more  Negotiating conflict along with smoothing is the overall strategy of the team.

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CORRELATION ANALYSIS
No. of Companies 1 2 3 Xi 3.3 3.3 3 Yi 3.75 3 3 (X i

- X)

(Yi

- Y)

(X i-

X)

2

(Yi )2 (Yi0.25 0.0625 0.0625

Y

(Xi- )(Yi- ) -0.075 0.0375 -0.075

X Y

-0.15 -0.15 0.3

0.5 -0.25 -0.25

0.0225 0.0225 0.09

Total

10.35

9.75

0

0

0.135

0.375

-0.1125

Value of Cognizant = 3.3 , Xi = Company 1 Value of Syntel Value of Wipro = 3.7 , Yi = company 2 = 3.0

X = Mean of Xi , Y = Mean of Yi

r (Pearson’s coefficient of correlation) earson’s

=

(Xi- )(Yi- )

X Y
2

[√Σ (Xi - X) ] [√Σ (Xi - Y) ]
2

r (Pearson’s coefficient of correlation) earson’s
Ho : r = 0 ( the two variables are not associated.)
H1 : r ≠ 0 (the two variables are associated.)
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= - 0.5

The combination of the hypotheses to test the significance of r is shown below :

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The value of the t static to test the significance of r is computed below:

r

[√((1- r2) / ( n-2))] ]

The calculated value of t static (- 0.57) is less than table t static (12.706) Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted .This means that the correlation coefficient of the problem is not significant. Hence the association . between the two variables is not significant.

INFERENCE From the above calculation the following styles are obtained:

There is no Correlation between the conflict management styles followed by any two teams.

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CONCLUSION
The teams which we had taken as Sample Size are Successful in their Organization. The Conflict Management Techniques followed by all the three teams are different. There is no single solution to conflicts. Each one of them is unique and has to be handled d differently. But there are some general rules or approaches to a conflict.  You need a wide variety of ways to deal with those who disagree with you if you want to be effective.  You sometimes need to change your style or approach to work with the person who disagrees with you.  Using collaboration or compromise as often as possible makes for more effective decision making.

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RECOMMENDATION
Managers should:  Monitor employees work to assist them to understand and coordinate their actions.  Encourage employees to approach you when they cannot solve difficulties with co-workers on their own. workers  Clear the air with regular meetings that give employees a chance to discuss their grievances.  Provide a suggestion box, check it frequently, and personally reply to all singed suggestions.  Offer as much information as possible about decisions to minimize confusion and resentment.  Use employee surveys to identify potential conflicts that have n yet not surfaced.  Listen carefully to employees to prevent misunderstanding. employees

“In an Alliance there is always a give and take policy In policy”
- by Kamal Nath

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CONFLICT STYLES QUESTIONNAIRE
How do you act in conflicts? The proverbs listed below can be thought of as some of the different strategies for resolving conflict. Read each of the proverbs and using the following scale score how typical each is of your actions when in conflict. 1 - Never does this, 2 - seldom do this, 3 - sometimes do this 4 - frequently his, do this, 5 - usually do this SCORE 1. It is easier to refrain than to retreat from a quarrel 2. If you cannot make a person think as you do, make him or her do as you think 3. Soft words win hard hearts 4. You scratch my back, I'll scratch yours 5. Come now and let us reason together 6. When two quarrel, the person who keeps silent first is the most praiseworthy 7. Might overcomes right 8. Smooth words make smooth ways 9. Better half a loaf than no bread at all 10. Truth lies in knowledge, not in majority opinion 11. He who fights and runs away lives to fight another day 12. He hath conquered well that hath made his enemies flee 13. Kill your enemies with kindness

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14. A fair exchange brings no quarrel 15. No person has the final answer but every person has a piece to contribute 16. Stay away from people who disagree with you 17. Fields are won by those who believe in winning 18. Kind words are worth much and cost little 19. Tit for tat is fair play 20. Only the person who is willing to give up their monopoly on truth can profit from the truths that others hold 21. Avoid quarrelsome people as they will only make your life miserable 22. A person who will not flee will make others flee 23. Soft words ensure harmony 24. One gift for another makes good friends 25. Bring your conflicts into the open and face them directly; only then will the best solution be discovered 26. The best way of handling conflicts is to avoid them 27. Put your foot down where you mean to stand 28. Gentleness will triumph over anger 29. Getting part of what you want is better than not getting anything at all 30. Frankness, honesty and trust will move mountains 31. There is nothing so important you have to fight for it 32. There are two kinds of people in the world, the winners and the losers 33. When one hits you with a stone, hit him or her with a piece of cotton 34. When both give in halfway, a fair settlement is achieved 35. By digging and digging, the truth is discovered

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