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# Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

## Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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PART I STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN

1. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS

1.1 Design methods

Steel design may be based on three design theories
(1) Elastic design;
(2) Plastic design; and
(3) Limit state design.

Elastic design is the traditional methods using the permissible stresses. Steel is almost
perfectly elastic up to the yield point.

Plastic theory developed to take account of behaviour past the yield point is based on
finding the load that causes the structure to collapse. Then the working load is the collapse
load divided by a load factor.

Limit state design has been developed to take account of all conditions that can make the
structure become unfit for use in accordance with BS 5950: The Structural Use of Steelwork
in Building. Part 1 Code of Practice for Design in Simple and Continuous Construction:
Hot Rolled Sections.

1.2 Properties of structural steel

Steel is produced in three strength grades 43, 50 and 55.
The stress-strain curves for the three grades of steel are shown in Figure 1.1. Plastic design
is based on the horizontal part of the stress strain shown in Figure 1.2.

1.3 Limit states for steel design

1.3.1 Ultimate limit states

(1) Strength (including general yielding, rupture, buckling and transformation into a
mechanism);
(2) Stability against overturning and sway;
(3) Fracture due to fatigue;
(4) Brittle fracture.

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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When the ultimate limit states are reached, the whole structure or part of it collapses.
1.3.2 Serviceability limit states

(5) Deflection;
(6) Vibration (for example, wind-induced oscillation);
(7) Repairable damage due to fatigue;
(8) Corrosion and durability.

The serviceability limit states, when reached, make the structure or part of it unfit for
normal use but do not indicate that collapse has occurred.

All relevant limit states should be considered, but usually it will be appropriate to design on
the basis of strength and stability at ultimate loading and then check that deflection is not
excessive under serviceability loading.

1.4 Working and factored loads

1.4.1 Working loads

The working loads (also known as the specified, characteristic, unfactored or nominal loads)
are the actual loads the structure is designed to cry. These are normally thought of as the
maximum loads which will not be exceeded during the life of the structure. In statistical
terms, characteristic loads have a 95 per cent probability of not being exceeded. The main
loads on buildings may be classified as:

(1) Dead loads. The weights of floor slabs, roofs, walls, ceilings, partitions, finishes,
services and self-weight of steel. When sizes are known, dead loads can be calculated
from weights of materials or from the manufacturers literature.
(2) Imposed loads. The loads caused by people, furniture, equipment, stock, etc. on
the floors of buildings and snow on roofs. The values of the floor loads used depend
on the use of the building. Imposed loads are given in BS6399: Part 1 for various type
of buildings, or in the Hong Kong Building (Construction) Regulations by the H. K.
Government.
(3) Wind loads. These loads depend on the location and building size. Wind loads are
given in the Hong Kong Code of Practice on Wind Effects (1983).
(4) Dynamic loads. These are caused mainly by cranes.

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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1.4.2 Factored loads (ultimate loads) for the ultimate limit states

Factored loads are used in design calculations for strength and stability.

( ) ( )
f
factor load overall relevant load nominal or working laod Factord =
The overall load factor takes account of the unfavourable deviation of loads and the
reduced probability that various loads acting simultaneously.

It also allows for the uncertainties in the behaviour of materials and of the structure.

Fig. 1.1 Stress-strain diagrams for structural steels

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Fig. 1.2 Compound sections

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Fig. 1.3 Rolled and formed sections

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Fig. 1.4 Built-up section

Fig. 1.5 Cold-rolled section
The
f
factors are given in Table 2 of BS 5950: Part 1 and some of the factors are given
in the following Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Overall load factors
f
(Part of Table 2 of BS5950)

The factored loads should be applied in the most unfavourable manner.

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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1.5 Serviceability limit state of deflection

Deflection under serviceability loads of a building or part should not impair the strength or
efficiency of the structure or its components or cause damage to the finishing.

The serviceability loads used are the unfactored imposed loads except in:
Dead + imposed + wind. Apply 80 per cent of the imposed and wind load.

The most adverse combination of loads should be assumed in defection calculation.

Table 1.2 Deflection limit (part of Table 5 of BS5950)

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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1.6 Design strength of materials
Table 1.3 of BS5950 Design strengths
y
p for steel

For rolled sections the thickness should be taken as the specified flange thickness from
BS4.

Note that the material strength factor
m
, is taken as 1.0 in the code.
Modulus of elasticity
2
mm kN 205 E =

Design methods for buildings

The design of building must be carried out in accordance with one of the methods given
below:

(1) Simple design. The connections of members of the structure are assumed to be pin
jointed for analysis. Bracing or sheer walls are necessary to provide resistance to
horizontal loading.
(2) Rigid design. The connections are assumed to be capable of developing full
continuity (full moment connection). The analysis may be made using either elastic or
plastic methods.

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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(3) Semi-rigid design. Practical joints are capable of transmitting some moment.
(4) Experimental verification.

In practice, structures are designed to either the simple or rigid methods of design.

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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2. CONNECTIONS

Types of connections

Connections are needed to join two parts together. Some typical connections are shown on
Figure 2.1.

Connections are made by:
Bolting ordinary bolts in clearance holes and friction-grip bolts;
Welding-fillet and butt welds.

2.1 Bolted Connection

2.1.1 Ordinary bolts

Bolts, nuts and washers
The black hexagon head bolt shown in Figure 2.2 with nut and washer is commonly used
structural fastener. The bolts are in two strength grades as specified in BS 4190:

Grade 4.6: Mild steel : Yield stress = 235 N/mm
2

Grade 8.8: High-strength steel : Yield stress = 627 N/mm
2

The main diameters used are:
16, 20, (22), 24, (27) and 30 mm
The sizes shown in brackets are not preferred.

2.1.2 Direct shear joints

Bolts may be arranged to act in single or double shear, as shown in Figure 2.3.

Requirements for bolts in normal conditions are set out in Section 6.2 of BS 5950, Part 1.:
1. Minimum spacing = 2.5 (bolt diameter);
2. Maximum spacing in the direction of stress = 14t
where t is the thickness of the thinner plate connected.
3. Minimum edge and end distance for a rolled, machine-flame ct or planed edge =
1.25D
where D is the hole diameter.
4. Maximum edge distance is = 11t

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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where ( )
0.5
y
p 275 =
Nominal diameters of holes for ordinary bolts
= bolt diameter plus 2 mm for up to 22 mm diameter.
= bolt diameter plus 3 mm for larger diameter bolts.

A shear joint can fall in the following four ways as shown in Figure 2.4:
1. By shear on the bolt shank;
2. By bearing on the member or bolt;
3. By tension in the member;
4. By shear at the end of the member.

2.1.3 Design of bolted connection

(1) Effective area resisting shear
s
A .
Where threads occur in the shear plane:
T s
A A =
where area stress tensile A
T
=

When threads do not occur n the shear plane:
A A
s
=
where diameter. nominal the on based area shank A =

(2) Shear capacity
s
P of a bolt:

s s s
A p P =
where p
s
= shear strength given in Table 32 in the ode. (see Table 2.1).
(Note that long joints are not discussed. Refer to the code.)

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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(3) Bearing capacity should be taken as lesser of

Capacity of the bolt P
bb
= d t p
bb

where d = nominal diameter of the bolt
t = thickness of the connected plate
p
bb
= bearing strength of the bolt given in Table 32 in the code.
(See Table 2.1.)
Capacity of the connected plate:
P
bs
= d t p
bs

bs
p t e 0.5

where p
bs
= bearing strength of the connected parts given in Table
33 in the code. (see Table 2.1.)
e = end distance
Then check on 0.5 e t p
bs
ensures that the plate does not fail by end shear as shown in Fig.
4(c).

Table 2.1 Ordinary bolts in clearance holes (Table 32, 33 BS 5950)

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Fig. 2.1 Typical connections

Fig. 2.2 Hexagon head bolt, nut and washer

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Fig. 2.3 Bolts in single and double shear

Fig. 2.4 Failure modes of a bolted joint

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2.1.4 Direct tension joints

Tension capacity of bolts

Joints with bolts in direct tension are shown in Figure 2.5.:

Tension capacity of an ordinary bolt
P
t
= p
t
A
t

where p
t
= tension strength from Table 32 in the code
= 195 N/mm
2
for Grade 4.6 bolts
= 450 N/mm
2
for Grade 8.8 bolts
A
t
= tensile stress area. (at thread)

Fig. 2.5 Bolts in Tension

Tension values for Grade 4.6 bolts are given in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 Load capacity (Grade 4.6 bolts and Grade of 43 steel)

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2.1.5 Eccentric connections

There are two principal types of eccentrically loaded connections as shown in Figure 2.6:
(1) Bolt group in direct shear and torsion; and
(2) Bolt group in direct shear and tension.

2.1.6 Bolts in direct shear and torsion

In Figure 2.6(a) the moment is applied in the plane of the connection and the bolt group
rotates about its center of gravity. A linear variation of loading due to moment is assumed.
The direct shear is divided equally between the bolts and the side plates re assumed to be
rigid.

In Figure 2.7(a), the load P is applied at an eccentricity e.
The bolts A, B, etc. are at distances r
1
, r
2
, etc. from the centroid of the group.
The coordinates of each bolt are (x
1
,y
1
), (x
2
,y
2
), etc.

Let F
T
= the force due to the moment on bolt A, the farthest bolt.
Then the force on a bolt at r
2
= F
T
r
2
/ r
1

and so on for all the other bolts.

The moment of resistance of the bolt group:
..... .......... /r r r F /r r r F r F M
1 3 3 T 1 2 2 T 1 T R
+ + =
.....) .......... r r r )( /r F (
3
3
2
2
2
1 1 T
+ + =

=
2
1 T
r ) /r F (

+ = ) x )( /r F (
2 2
1 T
y
= applied moment = P. e

The load F
T
due to moment on the maximum loaded bolt A is
( )

+ =
2 2
1 T
y x / r e P F

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The load F
S
due to direct shear is
F
S
= P/ (No. of bolts)

The resultant load F
R
on bolt A can be found graphically, as shown in Figure 2.7(b).
The algebraic formula can be derived by referring to Figure 2.7(c).

Resolve the load F
T
vertically and horizontally to give
Vertical load on bolt A = F
S
+ F
T
cos
Horizontal load on bolt A = F
T
sin

Resultant load on bolt A
[ ]
0.5
2
T S
2
T R
) cos F (F ) sin (F F + + =
[ ]
0.5
T S
2
T
2
S
cos F 2F F F + + =

The size of bolt required can then be determined from the maximum load on the bolt.

Fig. 2.6 Eccentrically loaded connections

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Fig. 2.7 Bolt group in direct shear and torsion

2.1.7 Bolts in direct shear and tension

In Figure 2.6(b) the bolts are in combined shear and tension
The following must be satisfied:

S S
P F

T T
P F
1.4 /P F /P F
T T S S
+

where P
S
= shear capacity of the bolt
= p
S
A
S

F
S
=Factored applied shear
P
T
= tension capacity
= p
t
A
T

F
T
= factored applied tension

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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The bearing capacity checks must also be satisfactory.

Approximate method:

A bracket subjected to a factored load P at an eccentricity e is shown in Figure 2.9(a).
The center of rotation is assumed to be at the bottom bolt in the group. The loads vary
linearly as shown on the figure, with the maximum load F
T
in the top bolt.

The moment of resistance of the bolt group is:
M
R
= 2 [F
T
y
1
+ F
T
y
2
2
/ y
1
+]
= (2 F
T
/ y
1
) [y
1
2
+ y
2
2
+]
= (2 F
T
/ y
1
) y
2

= P e

The maximum bolt tension is:

F
T
= P e y
1
/ (2 y
2
)

The vertical shear per bolt:

F
S
= P / (No. of bolts)

A bolt size is assumed and checked for combined shear and tension as described above.

Fig. 2.8 Interaction diagram: bolts in shear and tension

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Fig. 2.9 Bolts in direct shear and tension: approximate analysis

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Example 2.1

The joint shown in Figure 2.10 is subjected to a tensile working dead load of 85 kN and a
tensile working imposed load of 95 kN. All data regarding the member and joint are shown
in the figure. The steel is Grade 43 and the bolt Grade 4.6. The gross area of the angles is
12.7 cm2 per angle. Check the joint.

Factored load = (1.4 x 85) + (1.6 x 95) = 271 kN (Table 1 & 2 of BS 5950)

Strength of bolts.

Bolts A and B are in double shear, 8mm and 10mm bearing thickness
Bolts C and D are in single shear, 8mm bearing thickness

Single shear capacity on threads (Table 1 & 2 for 20-mm diameter bolts)
P
S
= p
S
A
S

= 160 x 245 = 39200 = 39.2 kN

Double shear capacity on threads
= 2 P
S
= 2 x 39.2 = 78.4 kN

Bearing capacity of bolts on 10 mm splice plate
P
bb
= d t p
bb

= 20 x 10 x 460 = 92000 N = 92 kN

Bearing capacity of plate on 10 mm splice plate with 30 mm end distance
Baring strength p
bs
= 460 N/mm
2
from Table 2.1:
P
bs
= d t p
bs
= 20 x 10 x 460 = 92000 N = 92 kN
0.5 e t p
bs
= 0.5 x 30 x 10 x 460 = 69000 N = 69 kN
i.e. P
bs
= 69 kN

Bearing capacity of bolts on 8 mm cover plate or angle
P
bb
= d t p
bb

= 20 x 8 x 460 = 73600 N = 73.6 kN

Bearing capacity of plate on 8 mm cover plate or angle with 30 mm end distance
Baring strength p
bs
= 460 N/mm
2
from Table 2.1:
P
bs
= d t p
bs
= 20 x 8 x 460 = 73600 N = 73.6 kN

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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0.5 e t p
bs
= 0.5 x 30 x 8 x 460 = 55200 N = 55.2 kN
i.e. P
bs
= 69 kN

Bolt capacity of bolts A and B (2 bolts)
Critical values are: double shear for bolt A (= 78.4), end sher in 10mm plate for bolt B (=
69)
Bolt capacity of bolts C and D (4 bolts)
Critical values are: single shear for bolts C and D (= 39.2)

Total bolt capacity two bolts are in double shear and four in single shear
= (78.4) + 69 + (4 x 39.2) = 304.2 kN

Strength of the angles. (Refer to tension member design notes)

Gross area = 12.7 cm
2
per angle.

The angles are connected through both legs.
Net area = 2 (1270 2 x 22 x 8) = 1836 mm
2

Design strength p
y
= 275 N/mm
2
(Table 1.3)

Capacity P
t
= A
e
p
y

= 275 x 1636 / 10
3
= 504.9 kN 271 kN O.K.

Splice plate and cover plate (Refer to tension member design notes)

Effective area A
e
= K
e (net are)

= 1.2 [(95 22) 10 + (140 44) 8] = 1798 mm
2

gross area = 2070 mm
2

Capacity P
t
= A
e
p
y

= 275 x 11798 = 494300 N = 494.3 kN 271 kN O.K.

The splice is adequate to resist the applied load.

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Fig. 2.10 Double-angle splice

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Example 2.2

Check that the joint shown in Figure 2.11 is adequate. All data required are given in the
figure.
All bolts: grade 4.6, all steel: grade 43.

Factored Load = (1.4 x 60) + (1.6 x 80) = 212 kN
Moment N = (212 x 525) / 10
3
= 111.3 kNm

Bolt group x
2
= 12 x 250
2
= 750 x 10
3

y
2
= 4 (35
2
+ 105
2
+ 175
2
) = 171.5 x 10
3

x
2
+y
2
= 921.5 x 10
3

Cos = 250 / 305.16 = 0.819

Bolt A is the bolt with the maximum load:

Load due to moment
F
T
= P e r
1
/ (x
2
+y
2
)
= (111.3 x 10
3
x 305.16) / (921.5 x 10
3
) = 36.85 kN

Load due to shear
F
S
= P / (No. of bolts)
= 212 / 12 = 17.67 kN

Resultant load on bolt
F
R
= [F
S
2

+ F
T
2
+ 2 F
S
F
T
cos ]
0.5

= [17.67
2

+ 36.85
2
+ (2 x 17.67 x 36.85 x 0.819)]
0.5

= 52.31 kN

Single-shear value of 24 mm diameter ordinary bolt on the threads
P
S
= p
S
A
S

= 160 x 353 = 56400 N = 56.4 kN 52.31 kN O.K.

Universal column flange thickness = 17.3 mm
Side-plate thickness = 15 mm
Minimum end distance = 45 mm

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Bearing capacity of the bolt
P
bb
= d t p
bb

= 24 x 15 x 460 / 10
3

= 165.5 kN 52.31 kN O.K.

Bearing capacity of the plate
P
bs
= d t p
bs

= 24 x 15 x 460 / 10
3
= 166 kN
0.5 e t p
bs

= 0.5 x 45 x 15 x 460 / 10
3
= 155 kN

use P
bs
= 155 kN
52.31 kN O.K.

The strength of the joint is controlled by the single shear value of the bolt.

Overall joint capacity = single-shear capacity of the bolt
= P
S
= 56.4 kN 52.31 kN

The joint is satisfactory.

Fig. 2.11 Example: bolt group in direct shear and torsion

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Structural Steel Design, Structural Dynamics

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Example 2.3

A bolded bracket connection subjected to a ultimate load of 143 kN is shown in Figure
2.12.
Check the adequacy of the connection.
All bolts: grade 4.6, all steel: grade 43.

Strength of bolts: (Table 2.2 for 20-mm diameter bolts)

Single shear capacity on threads
P
S
= p
S
A
S
= 160 x 245 = 39200 = 39.2 kN

Tension capacity
P
T
= p
t
A
T
= 195 x 245 = 47.8 kN

Conditions: F
S
P
S
and F
T
P
T

F
S
/ P
S
+ F
T
/ P
T
1.4

Use approximate method of analysis for conservative results.

y
2
= (90
2
+ 180
2
+ 270
2
) = 113.5 x 10
3
mm
2

The maximum bolt tension is at bolts y1 from the lowest bolts:
F
T
= P e y
1
/ (2y
2
)
= 143 x 200 x 270 / (2 x 113.5 x 10
3
)
= 34 kN P
T
O.K.

The vertical shear per bolt:
F
S
= P / No. of bolts
= 143 / 8 = 17.9 kN P
S
O.K.

F
S
/ P
S
+ F
T
/ P
T
1.4
F
S
/ P
S
+ F
T
/ P
T
= 17.9 / 39.2 + 34 / 47.8
= 0.457 + 0.17 = 1.17
1.4 O.K.

ry. satisfacto is connection The