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# Load Flow Analysis

## ETAP Workshop Notes 1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc.

System Concepts System Concepts
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 2
I V S =
*
Power in Balanced 3-Phase
S t
I V
S S
I V S
LN
=
=
*
1 3
1
3
3

Systems
jQ P
I V
LL
+ =
= 3
L i P F t L di P F t
Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors.
Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.
C t d V lt Lagging Power Factor Leading Power Factor Current and Voltage
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 3
Leading & Lagging Power
F t
ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors
as negative The Power Factor is displayed in percent
Factors
Leading Lagging
as negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.
Leading
Power
Factor
Lagging
Power
Factor
j Q P +
P - jQ P + jQ
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 4
3-Phase Per Unit System
B
B
B
kV 3
kVA
I =

=
=
S
ZI 3 V
VI 3 S
If you have two bases:
Then you may calculate the other two
by using the relationships enclosed in
b k t Th diff t b
B
2
B
B
MVA
) kV (
Z =

=
2
B
B
B
B
V
Z
V 3
S
I
brackets. The different bases are:
I
B
(Base Current)
Z
B
(Base Impedance)
B
t l
I
t l
V

=
B
B
B
S
Z
V
B
(Base Voltage)
S
B
(Base Power)
ETAP selects for LF:
B
actual
pu
Z
I
I
I =
B
actual
pu
S
V
V
V =
se ects o
100 MVA for S
B
which is fixed for the
entire system.
The kV rating of reference point is
B
actual
pu
Z
Z
Z =
B
actual
pu
S
S
S =
g p
used along with the transformer turn
ratios are applied to determine the
base voltage for different parts of the
system.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 5
y
Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch
impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show
the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31
d th X/R 12 14 and the X/R = 12.14
Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is
used by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different
parts of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting
f th tilit kV ti from the utility kV rating.
To determine base voltage use:
1
B
kV
2
B
1
B
kV
2 N
1 N
kV =
2
B
kV
X
Z

## Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find

the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.
2
pu
pu
R
X
1
R
Z
X

=
R
X
x
R
pu
pu
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 6
R

R
) 14 12 ( 065 0 06478 0
06478 . 0
) 14 . 12 ( 1
) 14 . 12 ( 065 . 0
X
2
pu
=
+
=
005336 . 0
14 . 12
06478 . 0
R
pu
= =
The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the
following relation must be used, where n stands for new and o stands for old.
) 3538 . 1 j 1115 . 0 (
100 8 . 13
) 06478 . 0 j 10 33 . 5 (
S V
Z Z
2
3
n
B
2
o
B
o n
+ =

+ =

=

) 3538 . 1 j 1115 . 0 (
5 5 . 13
) 06478 . 0 j 10 33 . 5 (
S V
Z Z
o
B
n
B
pu pu
+

38 . 135 j 15 . 11 Z 100 Z %
pu
+ = =
Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base
impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.
0695 . 4
31 . 3
5 . 13
2 N
1 N
kV
V
utility
B
= =

=
165608 . 0
100
) 0695 . 4 (
MVA
V
Z
2 2
B
B
= = =
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 7
2 N

The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base
) 1 j 1 0 ( Z +
impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain
the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.
8 603 j 38 60 Z 100 Z %
) 0382 . 6 j 6038 . 0 (
1656 . 0
) 1 j 1 . 0 (
Z
Z
Z
B
actual
pu
+ =
+
= =
8 . 603 j 38 . 60 Z 100 Z %
pu
+ = =
The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values
in 100 MVA base
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 8
Load Flow Analysis Load Flow Analysis
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 9
Load Flow Problem
Given
Load Power Consumption at all buses p
Configuration
Power Production at each generator Power Production at each generator
B i R i t Basic Requirement
Power Flow in each line and transformer
Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 10
Load Flow Studies
Determine Steady State Operating Conditions
Voltage Profile
Power Flows
Current Flows
Power Factors
Transformer LTC Settings
Voltage Drops
Generators Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)
Total Generation & Power Demand
Steady State Stability Limits
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 11
MW & Mvar Losses
Size & Determine System
E i t & P t Equipment & Parameters
Cable / Feeder Capacity
Capacitor Size
Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios) g ( )
Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting
Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.
MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings
G t O ti M d (I h / D ) Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)
Generators Mvar Demand
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 12
Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV
Optimize Operating
C diti Conditions
Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits g p
Voltages are Within Rated Insulation Limits
f E i t of Equipment
Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the
Maximum Ratings
System MW & Mvar Losses are Determined
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 13
Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated
Calculation Process
Non-Linear System
Calculated Iteratively Calculated Iteratively
Assume the Load
V lt (I iti l C diti )
Assume V
R
C l I S / V
Voltage (Initial Conditions)
Calculate the Current I
Calc: I = S
load
/ V
R
Calc: Vd = I * Z
Re-Calc V
R
= Vs - Vd
Based on the Current,
Calculate Voltage Drop Vd
Re-Calculate Load Voltage VR
Re-use Load Voltage as initial condition until the
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 14
g
results are within the specified precision.
Load Flow Calculation
M th d Methods
1. Accelerated Gauss-Seidel Method
Low Requirements on initial values,
b t l i d but slow in speed.
3. Fast-Decoupled Method
Two sets of iteration equations: real
power voltage angle,
2. Newton-Raphson Method
Fast in speed, but high requirement on
initial values.
reactive power voltage magnitude.
Fast in speed, but low in solution
precision.
f
First order derivative is used to speed up
calculation.
Better for radial systems and
systems with long lines.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 15
Load Nameplate Data
kVA
Eff PF
HP
Eff PF
kW
kVA
Rated
Rated

=
7457 . 0
kW
PF
) kVar ( ) kW ( kVA
2 2
=
+ =
kVA
FLA
kV
kVA
FLA
R t d
Rated

=
3
3
) kV 3 (
kVA
1000 I
kVA
3

kV
kVA
FLA
Rated
=
1
Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %
loading conditions
kV
kVA
1000 I
) kV 3 (
1
=

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 16
loading conditions
Constant Power Loads
In Load Flow calculations induction,
synchronous and lump loads are treated
as constant power loads as constant power loads.
The power output remains constant even
if the input voltage changes (constant
kVA). )
The lump load power output behaves like
a constant power load for the specified %
motor load.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 17
In Load Flow calculations Static Loads Lump Loads
Constant Impedance Loads
In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads
(% static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor
Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance
Loads.
The Input Power increases proportionally to the
square of the Input Voltage.
In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as
capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction.
MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads
because of their operating characteristics.
1996-2008 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 18
Constant Current Loads
The current remains constant even if the
voltage changes.
DC Constant current loads are used to test
Battery discharge capacity Battery discharge capacity.
AC constant current loads may be used to test
UPS systems performance.
DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in
ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for
Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 19
Constant Current Loads
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 20
Generic Loads
Exponential Load
Polynomial Load
Comprehensive Comprehensive
Load
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 21
Generator Operation Modes
Feedback Voltage g
AVR: Automatic Voltage
Regulation
Fixed: Fixed Excitation
(no AVR action) ( )
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 22
Governor Operating Modes
Isochronous: This governor setting allows the
generators power output to be adjusted based on
the system demand.
Droop: This governor setting allows the generator
to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is
fixed.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 23
Isochronous Mode
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 24
Droop Mode
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 25
Droop Mode
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 26
Droop Mode
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 27
Adjusting Steam Flow
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 28
Adjusting Excitation
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 29
In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating
modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.
Swing Mode
Governor is operating in
I h d Isochronous mode
Automatic Voltage Regulator
Voltage Control
G i ti i Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
Automatic Voltage Regulator
M C t l Mvar Control
Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR
ti ) action)
PF Control
Governor is operating in
D M d
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 30
Droop Mode
AVR Adjusts to Power Factor
Setting
I th S i M d th lt i k t fi d P & Q In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary
based on the Power Demand
In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q &
i d are varied
In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V &
are varied
If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the
model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 31
model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)
Generator Capability Curve
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 32
Generator Capability Curve
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 33
Generator Capability Curve
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 34
Maximum & Minimum
R ti P Reactive Power
Field Winding Heating Limit
Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)
Armature Winding Heating Limit
Steady State Stability Curve
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 35
Armature Winding Heating Limit
Generator Capability Curve
Field Winding
M hi R ti
g
Heating Limit
Machine Rating
(Power Factor
Point)
Steady State Stability Curve
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 36
Generation Categories
Load Flow Loading Page
Generator/Power Grid Rating Page
Load Flow Loading Page
10 Different Generation
Categories for Every
Generator or Power Grid
in the System
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 37
in the System
Power Flow

=
1 1
1
V V

=
2 2
2
V V
V *V V *V V
jQ P I * V S
2

+ = =
*V V
X
V
) ( *COS
X
*V V
j ) ( *SIN
X
*V V
2 1
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1

+ =
V
) *COS(
*V V
Q
) ( *SIN
X
V V
P
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
=
=

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 38
X
) COS(
X
Q
2 1

Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are
connected as shown. If V
1
= 100 /0 , V
2
= 100 /30 and X = 0 +j5 connected as shown. If V
1
100 /0 , V
2
100 /30 and X 0 j5
determine the power flow in the system.
68 2 j 10 I
5 j
) 50 j 6 . 86 ( 0 j 100
X
V V
I
2 1
+ +
=

=
I
268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 ( 100 I V
68 . 2 j 10 I
*
1
+ = + =
=
268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 )( 50 j 6 . 86 ( I V
268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 ( 100 I V
*
2
1
= + + =
+ +
var 536 5 35 . 10 X | I |
2 2
= =
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 39
The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This
machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and
1
Power Flow
1
g pp y g p
absorbing reactive power from machine M1.
S
0
V E ( )
X
sin

( )
V E ( )
cos

( )
V
2

1
X

( )
X
2
2
0

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 40
Real Power Flow
Reactive Power Flow
Bus Voltage
ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways
kV value
P t f N i l B kV Percent of Nominal Bus kV
5 13 kV 8 13 kV
For Bus4:
% 83 . 97 100 %
5 . 13
= =
=
Calculated
Calculated
kV
kV
V
kV 8 . 13
min
=
al No
kV
minal No
kV
03 4 = kV 16 4 = kV
For Bus5:
% 85 . 96 100 %
03 . 4
min
= =
=
al No
Calculated
Calculated
kV
kV
V
kV 16 . 4
min
=
al No
kV
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 41
minal No
kV
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 42
Lump Load Negative
L di Loading
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 43
Load Flow Adjustments
Transformer Impedance
Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation
tolerance tolerance
Reactor Impedance
Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance
Overload Heater
Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance
Transmission Line Length
Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length djust a s ss o e peda ce based o poss b e e gt
variation tolerance
Cable Length
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 44
Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance
Load Flow Study Case
Adj t t P
Adjustments applied
Adjustment Page
Individual
Global
Temperature Correction
Cable Resistance
Transmission Line
Resistance
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 45
Allowable Voltage Drop
NEC d ANSI C84 1 NEC and ANSI C84.1
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 46
Load Flow Example 1
Part 1 Part 1
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis
Slide 47
Load Flow Example 1
Part 2 Part 2
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 48
Load Flow Alerts
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 49
Equipment Overload Alerts
Bus Alerts Monitor Continuous Amps p
Cable Monitor Continuous Amps
Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps
Line Monitor Line Ampacity
f O Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output
UPS/Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps
Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 50
Protective Device Alerts
Protective Devices Monitored parameters % Condition reported
Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad
High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad
Fuses Rated Current OverLoad
Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad
SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 51
If the Auto Display
feature is active, the
Alert View Window will
appear as soon as the
L d Fl l l ti Load Flow calculation
has finished.
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 52
Advanced LF Topics Advanced LF Topics
Load Flow Convergence
Voltage Control
Mvar Control Mvar Control
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 53
Load Flow Convergence
Negative Impedance
Zero or Very Small Impedance
Widely Different Branch Impedance Values
Long Radial System Configurations
B d B V lt I iti l V l Bad Bus Voltage Initial Values
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 54
Voltage Control
Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be
fixed for proper equipment operation and fixed for proper equipment operation and
insulation ratings be met.
Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions: Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:
Transformer Replacement
Capacitor Addition
Transformer Tap Adjustment
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 55
p j
Under-Voltage Example
Create Under Voltage
Condition
Method 2 - Shunt
Capacitor
Change Syn2 Quantity to 6.
(Info Page, Quantity Field)
Run LF
Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8
300 kvar 3 Banks
Voltage is improved
Run LF
Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under
Voltage Condition)
Voltage is improved
Method 3 - Change Tap
Place LTC on Primary of T6
Method 1 - Change Xfmr
Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8
MVA ill ti li ht
y
Select Bus8 for Control Bus
Select Update LTC in the
Study Case
MVA, will notice slight
improvement on the Bus8 kV
Too Expensive and time
Study Case
Run LF
Bus Voltage Comes within
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 56
consuming
g
specified limits
Mvar Control
Vars from Utility
Add Switch to CAP1
Method 2 Add Capacitor
Close Switch
Open Switch
Run LF
Run Load Flow
Var Contribution from the
Utilit d
Method 1 Generator
Change Generator from
Utility reduces
Method 3 Xfmr MVA
Change Generator from
Voltage Control to Mvar
Control
Set Mvar Design Setting to 5
Method 3 Xfmr MVA
Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA
Will notice decrease in the Set Mvar Design Setting to 5
Mvars
Will notice decrease in the
contribution from the Utility
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 57
Panel Systems Panel Systems yy
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 58
Panel Boards
They are a collection of branch circuits
feeding system loads
Panel System is used for representing power
and lighting panels in electrical systems and lighting panels in electrical systems
Click to drop once on OLV Click to drop once on OLV
Double-Click to drop multiple panels
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 59
Representation
A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as
an internal or external load
Advantages:
1. Easier Data Entry

2. Concise System
Representation
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 60
Pin Assignment
Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel
ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 61
Assumptions
V
rated
(internal load) = V
rated
(Panel Voltage)
Note that if a 1 Phase load is connected to a 3 Note that if a 1-Phase load is connected to a 3-
Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel
circuit is (1/3) times the rated panel voltage circuit is (1/3) times the rated panel voltage
The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire
panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel
There are no losses in the feeders connecting a
load to the panel load to the panel
Static loads are calculated based on their rated
lt
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 62
voltage
Line-Line Connections
Load Connected Between Two Phases of a
3-Phase System
A
B
C
A
B
C
Load
I
BC
I
C
=-I
BC
LoadB
I
B
=I
BC
Angle by which load current I
BC
lags the load voltage =
Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C:
S
BC
= V
BC
.I
BC
P
BC
= V
BC
.I
BC
.cos
Q
BC
= V
BC
.I
BC
.sin
For load connected to phase B
SB = VB.IB
PB = VB.IB.cos ( - 30)
QB = VB.IB.sin ( - 30)
BC BC BC
Q ( )
And, for load connected to phase C
SC = VC.IC
PC = VC.IC.cos ( + 30)
QC C C ( )
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 63
QC = VC.IC.sin ( + 30)
Info Page
NEC Selection
A, B, C from top to bottom or
left to right from the front of
the panel the panel
Phase B shall be the highest
voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4-
wire delta connected system
(midpoint grounded)
3-Phase 4-Wire Panel
3-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1 Ph 3 Wi P l 1-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1-Phase 2-Wire Panel
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 64
Rating Page
Intelligent kV Calculation
If a 1-Phase panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus p
having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the
default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732
=) 0.277 kV
For IEC, Enclosure Type
is Ingress Protection
(IPxy), where IP00 means
no protection or shielding
on the panel on the panel
Select ANSI or IEC
B k F f Breakers or Fuses from
Main Device Library
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 65
Schedule Page
Ci it N b ith Circuit Numbers with
Standard Layout
Circuit Numbers with
C l L t
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 66
Column Layout
Description Tab
Fi t 14 l d it i th li t b d NEC 1999 First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999
Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined
Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total
panel load p
External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the
element type
For External links the load status is determined from the connected loads
demand factor status demand factor status
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 67
Rating Tab
Enter per phase VA, W, or
Amperes for this load Amperes for this load.
For example, if total Watts
for a 3-phase load are
1200 enter Was 400 1200, enter W as 400
(=1200/3)
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 68
Loading Tab
For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category
For both internal and external loads, Amp values are
calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 69
Protective Device Tab
Library Quick Pick -
LV Circuit Breaker LV Circuit Breaker
(Molded Case, with
Thermal Magnetic Trip
Device) or
Library Quick Pick
Fuse will appear
depending on the
Type of protective Type of protective
device selected.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 70
Feeder Tab
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 71
Action Buttons
Copy the content of the selected
row to clipboard. Circuit number,
Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link
and State are not copied and State are not copied.
Paste the entire content (of the Paste the entire content (of the
copied row) in the selected row.
This will work when the Link
Type is other than space or
unusable, and only for fields
which are not blocked. which are not blocked.
Blank out the contents of the entire
selected row.
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 72
Summary Page
Continuous Load Per Phase and Total
Non-Continuous Load Per Phase and Total
Connected Load Per Phase and Total (Continuous + Non-Continuous Load)
Code Demand Per Phase and Total
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 73
Output Report
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 74
Panel Code Factors
The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999
Code demand load depends on Panel Code Factors
The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999
Code demand load calculation for internal loads are done
for each types of load separately and then summed up for each types of load separately and then summed up
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 75