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System Concepts System Concepts

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 2

I V S =

*

Power in Balanced 3-Phase

S t

I V

S S

I V S

LN

=

=

*

1 3

1

3

3

Systems

jQ P

I V

LL

+ =

= 3

L i P F t L di P F t

Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors.

Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.

C t d V lt Lagging Power Factor Leading Power Factor Current and Voltage

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 3

Leading & Lagging Power

F t

ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors

as negative The Power Factor is displayed in percent

Factors

Leading Lagging

as negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.

Leading

Power

Factor

Lagging

Power

Factor

j Q P +

P - jQ P + jQ

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 4

3-Phase Per Unit System

B

B

B

kV 3

kVA

I =

=

=

S

ZI 3 V

VI 3 S

If you have two bases:

Then you may calculate the other two

by using the relationships enclosed in

b k t Th diff t b

B

2

B

B

MVA

) kV (

Z =

=

2

B

B

B

B

V

Z

V 3

S

I

brackets. The different bases are:

I

B

(Base Current)

Z

B

(Base Impedance)

B

t l

I

t l

V

=

B

B

B

S

Z

V

B

(Base Voltage)

S

B

(Base Power)

ETAP selects for LF:

B

actual

pu

Z

I

I

I =

B

actual

pu

S

V

V

V =

se ects o

100 MVA for S

B

which is fixed for the

entire system.

The kV rating of reference point is

B

actual

pu

Z

Z

Z =

B

actual

pu

S

S

S =

g p

used along with the transformer turn

ratios are applied to determine the

base voltage for different parts of the

system.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 5

y

Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch

impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show

the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31

d th X/R 12 14 and the X/R = 12.14

Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is

used by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different

parts of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting

f th tilit kV ti from the utility kV rating.

To determine base voltage use:

1

B

kV

2

B

1

B

kV

2 N

1 N

kV =

2

B

kV

X

Z

the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

2

pu

pu

R

X

1

R

Z

X

=

R

X

x

R

pu

pu

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 6

R

R

) 14 12 ( 065 0 06478 0

06478 . 0

) 14 . 12 ( 1

) 14 . 12 ( 065 . 0

X

2

pu

=

+

=

005336 . 0

14 . 12

06478 . 0

R

pu

= =

The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the

following relation must be used, where n stands for new and o stands for old.

) 3538 . 1 j 1115 . 0 (

100 8 . 13

) 06478 . 0 j 10 33 . 5 (

S V

Z Z

2

3

n

B

2

o

B

o n

+ =

+ =

=

) 3538 . 1 j 1115 . 0 (

5 5 . 13

) 06478 . 0 j 10 33 . 5 (

S V

Z Z

o

B

n

B

pu pu

+

38 . 135 j 15 . 11 Z 100 Z %

pu

+ = =

Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base

impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

0695 . 4

31 . 3

5 . 13

2 N

1 N

kV

V

utility

B

= =

=

165608 . 0

100

) 0695 . 4 (

MVA

V

Z

2 2

B

B

= = =

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 7

2 N

The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base

) 1 j 1 0 ( Z +

impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain

the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

8 603 j 38 60 Z 100 Z %

) 0382 . 6 j 6038 . 0 (

1656 . 0

) 1 j 1 . 0 (

Z

Z

Z

B

actual

pu

+ =

+

= =

8 . 603 j 38 . 60 Z 100 Z %

pu

+ = =

The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values

in 100 MVA base

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 8

Load Flow Analysis Load Flow Analysis

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 9

Load Flow Problem

Given

Load Power Consumption at all buses p

Configuration

Power Production at each generator Power Production at each generator

B i R i t Basic Requirement

Power Flow in each line and transformer

Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 10

Load Flow Studies

Determine Steady State Operating Conditions

Voltage Profile

Power Flows

Current Flows

Power Factors

Transformer LTC Settings

Voltage Drops

Generators Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)

Total Generation & Power Demand

Steady State Stability Limits

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 11

MW & Mvar Losses

Size & Determine System

E i t & P t Equipment & Parameters

Cable / Feeder Capacity

Capacitor Size

Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios) g ( )

Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting

Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.

MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings

G t O ti M d (I h / D ) Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)

Generators Mvar Demand

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 12

Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV

Optimize Operating

C diti Conditions

Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits g p

Voltages are Within Rated Insulation Limits

f E i t of Equipment

Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the

Maximum Ratings

System MW & Mvar Losses are Determined

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 13

Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated

Calculation Process

Non-Linear System

Calculated Iteratively Calculated Iteratively

Assume the Load

V lt (I iti l C diti )

Assume V

R

C l I S / V

Voltage (Initial Conditions)

Calculate the Current I

Calc: I = S

load

/ V

R

Calc: Vd = I * Z

Re-Calc V

R

= Vs - Vd

Based on the Current,

Calculate Voltage Drop Vd

Re-Calculate Load Voltage VR

Re-use Load Voltage as initial condition until the

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 14

g

results are within the specified precision.

Load Flow Calculation

M th d Methods

1. Accelerated Gauss-Seidel Method

Low Requirements on initial values,

b t l i d but slow in speed.

3. Fast-Decoupled Method

Two sets of iteration equations: real

power voltage angle,

2. Newton-Raphson Method

Fast in speed, but high requirement on

initial values.

reactive power voltage magnitude.

Fast in speed, but low in solution

precision.

f

First order derivative is used to speed up

calculation.

Better for radial systems and

systems with long lines.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 15

Load Nameplate Data

kVA

Eff PF

HP

Eff PF

kW

kVA

Rated

Rated

=

7457 . 0

kW

PF

) kVar ( ) kW ( kVA

2 2

=

+ =

kVA

FLA

kV

kVA

FLA

R t d

Rated

=

3

3

) kV 3 (

kVA

1000 I

kVA

3

kV

kVA

FLA

Rated

=

1

Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %

loading conditions

kV

kVA

1000 I

) kV 3 (

1

=

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 16

loading conditions

Constant Power Loads

In Load Flow calculations induction,

synchronous and lump loads are treated

as constant power loads as constant power loads.

The power output remains constant even

if the input voltage changes (constant

kVA). )

The lump load power output behaves like

a constant power load for the specified %

motor load.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 17

In Load Flow calculations Static Loads Lump Loads

Constant Impedance Loads

In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads

(% static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor

Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance

Loads.

The Input Power increases proportionally to the

square of the Input Voltage.

In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as

capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction.

MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads

because of their operating characteristics.

1996-2008 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 18

Constant Current Loads

The current remains constant even if the

voltage changes.

DC Constant current loads are used to test

Battery discharge capacity Battery discharge capacity.

AC constant current loads may be used to test

UPS systems performance.

DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in

ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for

Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 19

Constant Current Loads

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 20

Generic Loads

Exponential Load

Polynomial Load

Comprehensive Comprehensive

Load

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 21

Generator Operation Modes

Feedback Voltage g

AVR: Automatic Voltage

Regulation

Fixed: Fixed Excitation

(no AVR action) ( )

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 22

Governor Operating Modes

Isochronous: This governor setting allows the

generators power output to be adjusted based on

the system demand.

Droop: This governor setting allows the generator

to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is

fixed.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 23

Isochronous Mode

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 24

Droop Mode

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 25

Droop Mode

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 26

Droop Mode

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 27

Adjusting Steam Flow

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 28

Adjusting Excitation

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 29

In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating

modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.

Swing Mode

Governor is operating in

I h d Isochronous mode

Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control

G i ti i Governor is operating in

Droop Mode

Automatic Voltage Regulator

M C t l Mvar Control

Governor is operating in

Droop Mode

Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR

ti ) action)

PF Control

Governor is operating in

D M d

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 30

Droop Mode

AVR Adjusts to Power Factor

Setting

I th S i M d th lt i k t fi d P & Q In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary

based on the Power Demand

In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q &

i d are varied

In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V &

are varied

If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the

model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 31

model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

Generator Capability Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 32

Generator Capability Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 33

Generator Capability Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 34

Maximum & Minimum

R ti P Reactive Power

Field Winding Heating Limit

Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)

Armature Winding Heating Limit

Steady State Stability Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 35

Armature Winding Heating Limit

Generator Capability Curve

Field Winding

M hi R ti

g

Heating Limit

Machine Rating

(Power Factor

Point)

Steady State Stability Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 36

Generation Categories

Load Flow Loading Page

Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

Load Flow Loading Page

10 Different Generation

Categories for Every

Generator or Power Grid

in the System

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 37

in the System

Power Flow

=

1 1

1

V V

=

2 2

2

V V

V *V V *V V

jQ P I * V S

2

+ = =

*V V

X

V

) ( *COS

X

*V V

j ) ( *SIN

X

*V V

2 1

2

2

2 1

2 1

2 1

2 1

+ =

V

) *COS(

*V V

Q

) ( *SIN

X

V V

P

2

2

2 1

2 1

2 1

2 1

=

=

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 38

X

) COS(

X

Q

2 1

Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are

connected as shown. If V

1

= 100 /0 , V

2

= 100 /30 and X = 0 +j5 connected as shown. If V

1

100 /0 , V

2

100 /30 and X 0 j5

determine the power flow in the system.

68 2 j 10 I

5 j

) 50 j 6 . 86 ( 0 j 100

X

V V

I

2 1

+ +

=

=

I

268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 ( 100 I V

68 . 2 j 10 I

*

1

+ = + =

=

268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 )( 50 j 6 . 86 ( I V

268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 ( 100 I V

*

2

1

= + + =

+ +

var 536 5 35 . 10 X | I |

2 2

= =

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 39

The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This

machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and

1

Power Flow

1

g pp y g p

absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

S

0

V E ( )

X

sin

( )

V E ( )

cos

( )

V

2

1

X

( )

X

2

2

0

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 40

Real Power Flow

Reactive Power Flow

Bus Voltage

ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways

kV value

P t f N i l B kV Percent of Nominal Bus kV

5 13 kV 8 13 kV

For Bus4:

% 83 . 97 100 %

5 . 13

= =

=

Calculated

Calculated

kV

kV

V

kV 8 . 13

min

=

al No

kV

minal No

kV

03 4 = kV 16 4 = kV

For Bus5:

% 85 . 96 100 %

03 . 4

min

= =

=

al No

Calculated

Calculated

kV

kV

V

kV 16 . 4

min

=

al No

kV

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 41

minal No

kV

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 42

Lump Load Negative

L di Loading

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 43

Load Flow Adjustments

Transformer Impedance

Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation

tolerance tolerance

Reactor Impedance

Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

Overload Heater

Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance

Transmission Line Length

Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length djust a s ss o e peda ce based o poss b e e gt

variation tolerance

Cable Length

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 44

Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance

Load Flow Study Case

Adj t t P

Adjustments applied

Adjustment Page

Individual

Global

Temperature Correction

Cable Resistance

Transmission Line

Resistance

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 45

Allowable Voltage Drop

NEC d ANSI C84 1 NEC and ANSI C84.1

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 46

Load Flow Example 1

Part 1 Part 1

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis

Slide 47

Load Flow Example 1

Part 2 Part 2

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 48

Load Flow Alerts

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 49

Equipment Overload Alerts

Bus Alerts Monitor Continuous Amps p

Cable Monitor Continuous Amps

Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps

Line Monitor Line Ampacity

f O Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output

UPS/Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps

Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 50

Protective Device Alerts

Protective Devices Monitored parameters % Condition reported

Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad

High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad

Fuses Rated Current OverLoad

Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad

SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 51

If the Auto Display

feature is active, the

Alert View Window will

appear as soon as the

L d Fl l l ti Load Flow calculation

has finished.

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 52

Advanced LF Topics Advanced LF Topics

Load Flow Convergence

Voltage Control

Mvar Control Mvar Control

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 53

Load Flow Convergence

Negative Impedance

Zero or Very Small Impedance

Widely Different Branch Impedance Values

Long Radial System Configurations

B d B V lt I iti l V l Bad Bus Voltage Initial Values

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 54

Voltage Control

Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be

fixed for proper equipment operation and fixed for proper equipment operation and

insulation ratings be met.

Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions: Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:

Transformer Replacement

Capacitor Addition

Transformer Tap Adjustment

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 55

p j

Under-Voltage Example

Create Under Voltage

Condition

Method 2 - Shunt

Capacitor

Change Syn2 Quantity to 6.

(Info Page, Quantity Field)

Run LF

Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8

300 kvar 3 Banks

Voltage is improved

Run LF

Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under

Voltage Condition)

Voltage is improved

Method 3 - Change Tap

Place LTC on Primary of T6

Method 1 - Change Xfmr

Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8

MVA ill ti li ht

y

Select Bus8 for Control Bus

Select Update LTC in the

Study Case

MVA, will notice slight

improvement on the Bus8 kV

Too Expensive and time

Study Case

Run LF

Bus Voltage Comes within

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 56

consuming

g

specified limits

Mvar Control

Vars from Utility

Add Switch to CAP1

Method 2 Add Capacitor

Close Switch

Open Switch

Run LF

Run Load Flow

Var Contribution from the

Utilit d

Method 1 Generator

Change Generator from

Utility reduces

Method 3 Xfmr MVA

Change Generator from

Voltage Control to Mvar

Control

Set Mvar Design Setting to 5

Method 3 Xfmr MVA

Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA

Will notice decrease in the Set Mvar Design Setting to 5

Mvars

Will notice decrease in the

contribution from the Utility

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 57

Panel Systems Panel Systems yy

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 58

Panel Boards

They are a collection of branch circuits

feeding system loads

Panel System is used for representing power

and lighting panels in electrical systems and lighting panels in electrical systems

Click to drop once on OLV Click to drop once on OLV

Double-Click to drop multiple panels

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 59

Representation

A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as

an internal or external load

Advantages:

1. Easier Data Entry

2. Concise System

Representation

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 60

Pin Assignment

Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel

ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 61

Assumptions

V

rated

(internal load) = V

rated

(Panel Voltage)

Note that if a 1 Phase load is connected to a 3 Note that if a 1-Phase load is connected to a 3-

Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel

circuit is (1/3) times the rated panel voltage circuit is (1/3) times the rated panel voltage

The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire

panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel

There are no losses in the feeders connecting a

load to the panel load to the panel

Static loads are calculated based on their rated

lt

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 62

voltage

Line-Line Connections

Load Connected Between Two Phases of a

3-Phase System

A

B

C

A

B

C

Load

I

BC

I

C

=-I

BC

LoadB

I

B

=I

BC

Angle by which load current I

BC

lags the load voltage =

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C:

S

BC

= V

BC

.I

BC

P

BC

= V

BC

.I

BC

.cos

Q

BC

= V

BC

.I

BC

.sin

For load connected to phase B

SB = VB.IB

PB = VB.IB.cos ( - 30)

QB = VB.IB.sin ( - 30)

BC BC BC

Q ( )

And, for load connected to phase C

SC = VC.IC

PC = VC.IC.cos ( + 30)

QC C C ( )

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 63

QC = VC.IC.sin ( + 30)

Info Page

NEC Selection

A, B, C from top to bottom or

left to right from the front of

the panel the panel

Phase B shall be the highest

voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4-

wire delta connected system

(midpoint grounded)

3-Phase 4-Wire Panel

3-Phase 3-Wire Panel

1 Ph 3 Wi P l 1-Phase 3-Wire Panel

1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 64

Rating Page

Intelligent kV Calculation

If a 1-Phase panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus p

having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the

default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732

=) 0.277 kV

For IEC, Enclosure Type

is Ingress Protection

(IPxy), where IP00 means

no protection or shielding

on the panel on the panel

Select ANSI or IEC

B k F f Breakers or Fuses from

Main Device Library

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 65

Schedule Page

Ci it N b ith Circuit Numbers with

Standard Layout

Circuit Numbers with

C l L t

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 66

Column Layout

Description Tab

Fi t 14 l d it i th li t b d NEC 1999 First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999

Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined

Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total

panel load p

External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the

element type

For External links the load status is determined from the connected loads

demand factor status demand factor status

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 67

Rating Tab

Enter per phase VA, W, or

Amperes for this load Amperes for this load.

For example, if total Watts

for a 3-phase load are

1200 enter Was 400 1200, enter W as 400

(=1200/3)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 68

Loading Tab

For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category

For both internal and external loads, Amp values are

calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 69

Protective Device Tab

Library Quick Pick -

LV Circuit Breaker LV Circuit Breaker

(Molded Case, with

Thermal Magnetic Trip

Device) or

Library Quick Pick

Fuse will appear

depending on the

Type of protective Type of protective

device selected.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 70

Feeder Tab

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 71

Action Buttons

Copy the content of the selected

row to clipboard. Circuit number,

Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link

and State are not copied and State are not copied.

Paste the entire content (of the Paste the entire content (of the

copied row) in the selected row.

This will work when the Link

Type is other than space or

unusable, and only for fields

which are not blocked. which are not blocked.

Blank out the contents of the entire

selected row.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 72

Summary Page

Continuous Load Per Phase and Total

Non-Continuous Load Per Phase and Total

Connected Load Per Phase and Total (Continuous + Non-Continuous Load)

Code Demand Per Phase and Total

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 73

Output Report

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 74

Panel Code Factors

The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999

Code demand load depends on Panel Code Factors

The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999

Code demand load calculation for internal loads are done

for each types of load separately and then summed up for each types of load separately and then summed up

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 75

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