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2-2. Col or Codi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2-3. Reservoi rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Constructi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Si ze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Locati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Venti l ati on and Pressuri zati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Li ne Connecti ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Mai ntenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2-4. Strai ners and Fi l ter s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Strai ners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Fi l ters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2-5. Fi l teri ng Materi al and El ements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
2-6. Accumul ators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Spri ng-Loaded Accumul ator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Bag-Type Accumul ator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Pi ston-Type Accumul ator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Mai ntenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
2-7. Pressure Gauges and Vol ume Meter s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Pressure Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Meter s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
2-8. Portabl e Hydraul i c-Ci rcui t Testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
I mproper Operati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
2-9. Ci rcul ator y Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Tubi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Pi pi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Fl exi bl e Hosi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
I nstal l ati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
2-10. Fi tti ngs and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Threaded Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Fl ared Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Fl exi bl e-Hose Coupl i ngs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Reusabl e Fi tti ngs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
2-11. Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
I nternal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
External . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Preventi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
2-12. Seal s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Stati c Seal s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Dynami c Seal s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Packi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Seal Materi al s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
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CHAPTER 3. Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3-1. Pump Cl assi fi cati ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Nonposi ti ve-Di spl acement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Posi ti ve-Di spl acement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Characteri sti cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3-2. Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3-3. Di spl acement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Fi xed-Di spl acement Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Vari abl e-Di spl acement Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3-4. Sl i ppage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3-5. Desi gns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Centri fugal Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Rotary Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Reci pr ocati ng Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3-6. Gear Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
External . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
I nternal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Lobe Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3-7. Vane Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Characteri sti cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Unbal anced Vane Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Bal anced Vane Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Doubl e Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Two-Stage Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3-8. Pi ston Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Radi al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Axi al Pi ston Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3-9. Pump Operati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Over l oadi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Excess Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Cavi tati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Operati ng Probl ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
CHAPTER 4. Hydraulic Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4-1. Cyl i nders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Si ngl e-Acti ng Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Doubl e-Acti ng Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Di fferenti al Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Nondi fferenti al Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Ram-Type Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Pi ston-Type Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Cushi oned Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Lockout Cyl i nders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2 Constructi on and Appl i cati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
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4-3. Mai ntenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
External Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
I nternal Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Creepi ng Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Sl uggi sh Operati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Loose Mounti ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Mi sal i gnment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Lack of Lubri cati on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Abrasi ves on a Pi ston Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Bur rs on a Pi ston Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Ai r Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4-4. Hydraul i c Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Gear -Type Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Vane-Type Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Pi ston-Type Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
CHAPTER 5. Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5-1. Pressure-Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Rel i ef Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Pressure-Reduci ng Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Sequence Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Counter bal ance Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Pressure Swi tches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5-2. Di r ecti onal -Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Poppet Val ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Sl i di ng-Spool Val ve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Check Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Two-Way Val ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Four-Way Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
5-3. Fl ow-Contr ol Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Gate Val ve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Gl obe Val ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Needl e Val ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Restr i ctor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Ori fi ce Check Val ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Fl ow Equal i zer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
5-4. Val ve I nstal l ati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Meter -I n Ci rcui t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Meter -Out Ci rcui t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Bl eed-Off Ci rcui t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Compensated Fl ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
5-5. Val ve Fai l ures and Remedi es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Servi ci ng Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27
Di sassembl i ng Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27
Repai ri ng Val ves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
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5-6. Val ve Assembl y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
5-7. Troubl eshooti ng Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Pressure-Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Di recti onal -Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-32
Vol ume-Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33
CHAPTER 6. Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6-1. Hydraul i c-Ci r cui t Di agrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6-2. Uni ted States of Ameri can Standards I nsti tute (USASI ) Gr aphi cal . . . . . . . 6-1
Symbol s
Reservoi r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Li nes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Cyl i nder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Pressure-Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Fl ow-Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Di recti onal -Control Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Accessor i es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6-3. Typi cal Mobi l e Ci rcui ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Hydraul i c-Li ft Ci r cui t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Power-Steeri ng Ci rcui ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Road-Patr ol -Truck Ci rcui ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
6-4. Troubl eshooti ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Causes of I mproper Operati ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Testi ng a Hydr aul i c Ci rcui t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Compari ng Test Resul ts wi th Speci fi cati ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Sl i ppage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Fl ow and Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Other Condi ti ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Speci fi c Troubl es, Causes, and Sol uti ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
CHAPTER 7. Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7-1. Hydraul i cs and El ectr i ci ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7-2. Troubl eshooti ng El ectri cal Devi ces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Testi ng Devi ces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
7-3. Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Earth Gr ound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Chassi s or Common Gr ound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Zero Reference Poi nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
I sol ati on Between Earth and Chassi s Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
7-4. Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
I nformati on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Practi ces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
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APPENDIX A. Metric Conversion Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendi x-1
GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gl ossar y-1
REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refer ences-1
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ndex-1
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List of Figures and Tables
Figures
Page
Figure 1-1. Basic hydraulic device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Figure 1-2. Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Figure 1-3. Water column. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Figure 1-4. Pump pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Figure 1-5. I nteraction of hydraulic and atmospheric pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Figure 1-6. Force, pressure, and area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Figure 1-7. Pascals Law apparatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Figure 1-8. Laminar and turbulent flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Figure 1-9. Effect of friction on pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Figure 1-10. Bernouillis Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Figure 1-11. Combined effects of friction and velocity changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Figure 2-1. Hydraulic jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Figure 2-2. Motor-reversing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Figure 2-3. Open-center system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Figure 2-4. Open-center system with a series connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Figure 2-5. Open-center system with a series/ parallel connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Figure 2-6. Open-center system with a flow divider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Figure 2-7. Closed-center system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Figure 2-8. Fixed-displacement pump and accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Figure 2-9. Variable-displacement pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Figure 2-10. Closed-center system with charging pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Figure 2-11. Design features of a reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Figure 2-12. Hydraulic-system stainers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Figure 2-13. Full-flow hydraulic filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
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Figure 2-14. Proportional-flow filter
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Figure 2-14. Proportional-flow filterFi g99Fi g99`c`up2 0i i i
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Figure 2-45. Cup seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Figure 2-46. Piston ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Figure 2-47. Face seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Figure 2-48. Compression packing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Figure 3-1. Nonpositive-displacement pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Figure 3-2. Reciprocating-type, positive-displacement pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Figure 3-3. Positive-displacement pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Figure 3-4. Volute pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Figure 3-5. Diffuser pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Figure 3-6. External gear pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Figure 3-7. I nternal gear pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Figure 3-8. Lobe pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Figure 3-9. Unbalanced vane pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Figure 3-10. Balanced vane pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Figure 3-11. Vane-type double pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Figure 3-12. Fluid flow from vane-type double pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Figure 3-13. Vane-type, two-stage pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Figure 3-14. Simplified radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Figure 3-15. Nine-piston radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Figure 3-16. Pintle for a radial piston pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Figure 3-17. Cylinder block for a radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Figure 3-18. Pistons for a radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Figure 3-19. I n-line piston pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Figure 3-20. Bent-axial piston pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Figure 4-1. Single-acting cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Figure 4-2. Double-acting cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Figure 4-3. Nondifferential cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Figure 4-4. Telescoping, ram-type, actuating cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Figure 4-5. Single-acting, spring-loaded, piston-type cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
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Figure 4-6. Double-acting, piston-type cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Figure 4-7. Cushioned, actuating cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Figure 4-8. Applications of cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Figure 4-9. Basic operations of a hydraulic motor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Figure 4-10. Gear-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Figure 4-11. Vane-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Figure 4-12. Pressure differential on a vane-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Figure 4-13. Flow condition in a vane-type pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Figure 4-14. Rocker arms pushing vanes in a pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Figure 4-15. I n-line-axis, piston-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Figure 4-16. Swash plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Figure 4-17. Bent-axis, piston-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Figure 5-1. Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Figure 5-2. Simple relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Figure 5-3. Compound relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Figure 5-4. Pressure-reducing valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Figure 5-5. X-series, pressure-reducing valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Figure 5-6. I nternal construction of an XC-series valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Figure 5-7. Sequence valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Figure 5-8. Application of sequence valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Figure 5-9. Counterbalance valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Figure 5-10. Pressure switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Figure 5-11. Spool valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Figure 5-12. Operation of a simple poppet valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Figure 5-13. Operation of sliding-spool, directional-control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Figure 5-14. Swing-type check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Figure 5-15. Vertical check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Figure 5-16. Spring-loaded check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Figure 5-17. Standard check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Figure 5-18. Restriction check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
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Figure 5-19. Pilot-operated check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Figure 5-20. Pilot-operated check valve, second type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Figure 5-21. Two-way valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Figure 5-22. Flow conditions in a circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
Figure 5-23. Working view of poppet-type, four-way valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Figure 5-24. Schematic of a four-way, directional-control, sliding-spool valve. . . 5-17
Figure 5-25. Closed-center spool valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Figure 5-26. Open-center spool valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Figure 5-27. Shifting spool by hand lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Figure 5-28. Spool shifted by pilot pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Figure 5-29. Solenoid-operated, sliding-spool, directional-control valve. . . . . . . . 5-21
Figure 5-30. Cross section of a gate valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Figure 5-31. Operation of a globe valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Figure 5-32. Sectional view of a needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Figure 5-33. Fixed restrictor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Figure 5-34. Variable restrictor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Figure 5-35. Orifice check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Figure 5-36. Flow equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Figure 5-37. Typical meter-in circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Figure 5-38. Typical meter-out circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Figure 5-39. Spring tester. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
Figure 5-40. Valve inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Figure 5-41. Volume-control valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Figure 5-42. Pressure-control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Figure 5-43. Cartridge-type relief valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Figure 5-44. Readings on a cartridge-type relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Figure 6-1. Graphical-circuit diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Figure 6-2. USASI graphical symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Figure 6-3. Reservoir symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Figure 6-4. Hydraulic line symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
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Figure 6-5. Crossing lines A and B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Figure 6-6. Pump symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Figure 6-7. Motor symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Figure 6-8. Cylinder symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Figure 6-9. Pressure-control-valve symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Figure 6-10. Relief-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Figure 6-11. Sequence-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Figure 6-12. Check-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Figure 6-13. Counterbalance-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Figure 6-14. Pressure-reducing-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Figure 6-15. Flow-control-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Figure 6-16. Unloading-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Figure 6-17. Four-way, directional-control-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Figure 6-18. Mobile directional-control-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Figure 6-19. Fluid-conditioner symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Figure 6-20. Accumulator symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Figure 6-21. Hydraulic-lift circuit in neutral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Figure 6-22. Manual-steering-gear layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Figure 6-23. Power-steering layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Figure 6-24. Semi-integral power-steering system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Figure 6-25. Hydraulic circuit diagram for a road-patrol truck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Figure 6-26. Hydraulic tester connected to a pumps output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Figure 7-1. Common electrical schematic symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Figure 7-2. Comparison of electrical and hydraulic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Figure 7-3. Comparison of electrical and hydraulic circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Figure 7-4. Schematic diagrams illustrating zero reference point . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Figure 7-5. Battery installed between earth ground and chassis ground. . . . . . . 7-11
FM 5-499
xiii
Tables
Page
Table 2-1. Figure colors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Table 5-1. Classifications of directional-control valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Table 6-1. Problems and solutions with pump operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Table 6-2. Problems and solutions with actuating mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Table 6-3. Problems and solutions with heating oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Table 6-4. Problems and solutions with fluid motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Table 6-5. Problems and solutions with accumulator operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Table A-1. Metric conversion chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendi x-1
FM 5-499
xiv
Preface
Thi s fi el d manual (FM) serves as a gui de for personnel who operate and mai ntai n mi l i tar y
equi pment usi ng hydr aul i c-powered control systems. I t i ncl udes general i nformati on cover-
i ng basi c hydraul i cs and descri bes the properti es and characteri sti cs of fl ui ds and several
types of pumps, motors, val ves, and control s. Thi s manual al so deal s wi th pi pi ng, tubi ng,
and hoses used to convey fl ui d under pressure. I t descri bes the functi ons and types of reser-
voi rs, strai ners, fi l ters, and accumul ator s. I t di scusses the purposes and types of seal s and
packi ngs used i n fl ui d power systems.
The contents of thi s manual are appl i cabl e to both nucl ear and nonnucl ear warfare.
The Appendi x contai ns an Engl i sh to metri c measurement conversi on chart.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Acknowl edgment i s grateful l y made to the organi zati ons l i sted bel ow for permi tti ng the use
of copyri ghted materi al i n prepar i ng thi s manual .
Deer e & Company
Mol i ne, I l l i noi s
Hydraulics. "Reproduced by permi ssi on of Deere & Company. c 1997. Deer e & Company. Al l
ri ghts reser ved."
Vi cker s, I nc.
Rochester Hi l l s, Mi chi gan
I ndustrial Hydraulics Manual , Thi rd Edi ti on 1993.
The pr oponent for thi s publ i cati on i s Headquarters (HQ), Uni ted States Army Trai ni ng and
Doctri ne Command (TRADOC). Submi t changes for i mpr ovi ng thi s publ i cati on on Depart-
ment of the Army (DA) Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publ i cati ons and Bl ank
Forms) and forward i t to Commandant, USAES, ATTN: ATSE-TD-D-P, Fort Leonard Wood,
MO 65473-6650.
Unl ess otherwi se stated, mascul i ne nouns and pr onouns do not refer excl usi vel y to men.
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-1
CHAPTER 1
Hydraulic Basics
Hydraulics is the science of transmitting force and/ or motion through the medium of a
confined liquid. I n a hydraulic device, power is transmitted by pushing on a confined liquid.
Figure 1-1 shows a simple hydraulic device. The transfer of energy takes place because a
quantity of liquid is subject to pressure. To operate liquid-powered systems, the operator
should have a knowledge of the basic nature of liquids. This chapter covers the properties of
liquids and how they act under different conditions.
1-1. Pressure and Force. Pr essur e i s for ce exer ted agai nst a speci fi c ar ea (for ce per uni t
area) expr essed i n pounds per square i nch (psi ). Pressure can cause an expansi on, or resi s-
tance to compr essi on, of a fl ui d that i s bei ng squeezed. A fl ui d i s any l i qui d or gas (vapor ).
For ce i s anythi ng that tends to pr oduce or modi fy (push or pul l ) moti on and i s expr essed i n
pounds.
a. Pressure. An exampl e of pressur e i s the ai r (gas) that fi l l s an automobi l e ti r e. As a
ti r e i s i nfl ated, mor e ai r i s squeezed i nto i t than i t can hol d. The ai r i nsi de a ti r e r esi sts the
squeezi ng by pushi ng outward on the casi ng of the ti r e. The outward push of the ai r i s pres-
sur e. Equal pr essur e throughout a confi ned ar ea i s a character i sti c of any pr essur i zed fl ui d.
For exampl e, i n an i nfl ated ti r e, the outwar d push of the ai r i s uni form thr oughout. I f i t
were not, a ti re woul d be pushed i nto odd shapes because of i ts el asti ci ty.
Ther e i s a
major di ffer ence
between a gas and a
l i qui d. Li qui ds ar e
sl i ghtl y compress-
i bl e (Fi gur e 1-2,
page 1-2). When a
confi ned l i qui d i s
pushed on, pressur e
bui l ds up. The
pressur e i s sti l l
tr ansmi tted
equal l y thr oughout
the contai ner . The
fl ui d's behavi or
makes i t possi bl e to
tr ansmi t a push
thr ough pi pes,
around corner s, and
up and down. A
hydr aul i c system
uses a l i qui d
Confined liquid is
subject to pressure
Weight
Figure 1-1. Basic hydraulic device
FM 5-499
1-2 Hydraulic Basics
because i ts near i ncompressi bi l i ty makes the acti on i nstantaneous as l ong as the system i s
ful l of l i qui d.
Pr essure can be created by squeezi ng or pushi ng on a confi ned fl ui d onl y i f ther e i s a
resi stance to fl ow. The two ways to push on a fl ui d ar e by the acti on of a mechani cal pump
or by the wei ght of the fl ui d. An exampl e of pr essure due to a fl ui d's wei ght woul d be i n an
ocean's depths. The water 's wei ght cr eates the pr essur e, whi ch i ncr eases or decr eases,
dependi ng on the depth.
By knowi ng the wei ght of a cubi c foot of water , you can cal cul ate the pr essur e at any
depth. Fi gur e 1-3 shows a col umn of water 1 foot squar e and 10 feet hi gh, whi ch equates to
10 cubi c feet. (One cubi c foot of water wei ghs 52.4 pounds.) The total wei ght of water i n thi s
col umn i s 624 pounds. The wei ght at the bottom cover s 1,445 squar e i nches (1 squar e foot).
Each squar e i nch of the bottom i s subject to 1/144 of the total wei ght, or 4.33 pounds. Thus,
the pr essur e at thi s depth i s 4.33 psi . You can al so cr eate an equal pr essur e of 4.33 psi i n a
l i qui d usi ng the pump and fi gur es shown i n Fi gur e 1-4, page 1-4.
Befor e pr essur e, head was the onl y way to expr ess pr essur e measur ement. I t was
expr essed as feet of water . Today, head i s sti l l the ver ti cal di stance between two l evel s i n a
fl ui d. I n Fi gur e 1-3, the head between the top and bottom of the water i s 10 feet, whi ch i s
equi val ent to 4.33 psi . Ther efor e, each foot of water i s equal to 0.433 psi .
The earth has an atmosphere of ai r extendi ng 50 mi l es up, and thi s ai r has weight. Thi s ai r
cr eates a head of pr essure that i s cal l ed atmospheri c pr essure. A col umn of ai r 1 square i nch i n
cross secti on and the hei ght of the atmospher e woul d wei gh 14.7 pounds at sea l evel . Thus,
the earth's atmospher i c pressur e i s 14.7 psi at sea l evel . The rol e of atmospher i c pressure i n
A gas is compressible
A liquid resists compression
Figure 1-2. Compressibility
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-3
most hydraul i c systems i s si gni fi cant. Fi g-
ure 1-5, page 1-4, shows the i nteracti on of
hydr aul i c and atmospheri c pressur es under
the three sets of condi ti ons l i sted bel ow:
(1) Di agr am A. I n the di agram, the tube
i s open at both ends. When i t i s pl aced i n a
l i qui d, the l i qui d wi l l ri se, i nsi de and out-
si de, i n pr oporti on to the amount of l i qui d
di spl aced by the submer ged tube wal l .
(2) Di agram B. I n the di agram, ends of
the tube ar e cl osed. When pl aced i n a l i qui d,
the l i qui d l evel i n the tube i s for ced down
because the ai r i n the tube must occupy a
space. Ther efor e, the l i qui d i s di spl aced.
The l i qui d l evel outsi de the tube ri ses i n pro-
porti on to the vol ume of the cyl i nder wal l
and the vol ume of the trapped ai r bel ow the
ori gi nal l i qui d l evel . The atmospher i c pr es-
sure (14.7 psi ) on the l i qui d outsi de the tube
i s not heavy enough to for ce the l i qui d i nsi de
the tube upwar d agai nst the pressur e of the
tr apped ai r , whi ch i s mor e than 14.7 psi .
(3) Di agram C. I n the di agram, the
upper end of the tube i s cl osed, but some of
the ai r has been r emoved fr om thi s tube so
that the pr essur e wi thi n the tube i s l ess than
14.7 psi (a par ti al vacuum). A per fect vac-
uum woul d exi st i f al l pr essure wi thi n the
tube coul d be el i mi nated, a condi ti on that
never happens. Because the l i qui d outsi de
the tube i s subject to ful l atmospher i c pr es-
sur e, the l i qui d i s for ced up i nto the tube to
sati sfy the vacuum. How far the l i qui d ri ses
depends on the di ffer ence i n ai r pressur e
between the tr apped ai r and the atmospher e.
b. Force. The rel ati onshi p of force, pres-
sur e, and ar ea i s as fol l ows:
F = PA
wher e
F = force, in pounds
P = pressure, in psi
A =area, in square inches
Figure 1-3. Water column
1 cu ft
weighs
62.4 lb
Total
weight
624 lb
10 ft
4.33 psi
2.165 psi
0.433 psi
1 ft
1 ft
1 ft
144 sq in
FM 5-499
1-4 Hydraulic Basics
Example:
Fi gur e 1-6 shows a pr essur e of 50 psi bei ng
appl i ed to an area of 100 square i nches. The
total force on the area i s
F = PA
F = 50 x 100 = 5,000 pounds
1-2. Pascal's Law. Bl ai se Pascal for mul ated
the basi c l aw of hydraul i cs i n the mi d 17th cen-
tury. He di scovered that pr essure exerted on a
fl ui d acts equal l y i n al l di recti ons. Hi s l aw
states that pressur e i n a confi ned fl ui d i s trans-
mi tted undi mi ni shed i n every di r ecti on and acts
wi th equal for ce on equal areas and at ri ght
angl es to a contai ner 's wal l s.
Fi gur e 1-7 shows the apparatus that Pascal
used to devel op hi s l aw. I t consi sted of two con-
nected cyl i nder s of di ffer ent di ameter s wi th a
l i qui d tr apped between them. Pascal found that
the wei ght of a smal l pi ston wi l l bal ance the
wei ght of a l arger pi ston as l ong as the pi stons
ar eas ar e i n proporti on to the wei ghts. I n the
smal l cyl i nder , a force of 100 pounds on a 1-squar e-
i nch pi ston creates a pr essur e of 100 psi . Accor d-
i ng to Pascal 's Law, thi s pr essure i s transmi tted
undi mi ni shed i n ever y di recti on. I n the l ar ger
A B C
Atmospheric
pressure
Atmospheric
pressure
Figure 1-5. Interaction of hydraulic and atmospheric pressures
Figure 1-4. Pump pressure
Weight
Pump
Area = 10 sq in
Area = 10 sq in
Force = 43.3 lb
Pressure = 4.33 psi
Pressure = 4.33 psi
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-5
cyl i nder , the 100 psi of pr essur e fr om the
smal l cyl i nder i s tr ansmi tted to an ar ea of 5
square i nches, whi ch r esul ts i n a for ce of 500
pounds on the second pi ston. The force has
been mul ti pl i ed 5 ti mesa mechani cal advan-
tage of 5 to 1. Usi ng the same factors, you can
deter mi ne the di stance the pi stons move. For
exampl e, i f the smal l pi ston moves down 10
i nches, the l ar ger pi ston wi l l move up 2
i nches. Use the fol l owi ng to deter mi ne the
di stance:
wher e
F
1
= force of the small piston, in pounds
D
1
= distance the small piston moves, in
inches
D
2
= distance the larger piston moves, in
inches
F
2
= force of the larger piston, in pounds
Example: Deter mi ne D
2

D
2
F
1
D
1

F
2
------------------- =
D
2
F
1
D
1

F
2
------------------- = D
2
100 10
500
--------------------- = D
2
2 in =
5
,
0
0
0

p
o
u
n
d
s
f
o
r
c
e
10
10
5
0

p
s
i
100 sq in
100psi
500 lb
100 lb
P
10
1 sq in
5 sq in
W
2
Figure 1-7. Pascals Law apparatus
Figure 1-6. Force, pressure, and area
FM 5-499
1-6 Hydraulic Basics
1-3. Flow. Fl ow i s the movement of a hydr aul i c fl ui d caused by a di fference i n the pressur e
at two poi nts. I n a hydraul i c system, fl ow i s usual l y pr oduced by the acti on of a hydraul i c
pumpa devi ce used to conti nuousl y push on a hydr aul i c fl ui d. The two ways of measuri ng
fl ow are vel oci ty and fl ow rate.
a. Velocity. Vel oci ty i s the aver age speed at whi ch a fl ui d's par ti cl es move past a gi ven
poi nt, measured i n feet per second (fps). Vel oci ty i s an i mportant consi derati on i n si zi ng the
hydr aul i c l i nes that car ry a fl ui d between the components.
b. Flow Rate. Fl ow r ate i s the measur e of how much vol ume of a l i qui d passes a poi nt i n
a gi ven ti me, measur ed i n gal l ons per mi nute (GPM). Fl ow r ate deter mi nes the speed at
whi ch a l oad moves and, ther efore, i s i mportant when consi der i ng power.
1-4. Energy, Work, and Power. Ener gy i s the abi l i ty to do wor k and i s expressed i n foot-
pound (ft l b). The thr ee for ms of ener gy ar e potenti al , ki neti c, and heat. Wor k measur es
accompl i shments; i t r equi r es moti on to make a for ce do wor k. Power i s the r ate of doi ng
wor k or the r ate of ener gy tr ansfer .
a. Potential Energy. Potenti al ener gy i s ener gy due to posi ti on. An object has potenti al
ener gy i n propor ti on to i ts verti cal di stance above the earth's sur face. For exampl e, water
hel d back by a dam r epr esents potenti al ener gy because unti l i t i s r el eased, the water does
not wor k. I n hydr aul i cs, potenti al ener gy i s a stati c factor . When for ce i s appl i ed to a con-
fi ned l i qui d, as shown i n Fi gur e 1-4 (page 1-4), potenti al ener gy i s pr esent because of the
stati c pr essur e of the l i qui d. Potenti al ener gy of a movi ng l i qui d can be r educed by the heat
ener gy r el eased. Potenti al ener gy can al so be r educed i n a movi ng l i qui d when i t tr ansfor ms
i nto ki neti c ener gy. A movi ng l i qui d can, ther efor e, per for m wor k as a r esul t of i ts stati c
pr essur e and i ts momentum.
b. Kinetic Energy. Ki neti c energy i s the energy a body possesses because of i ts moti on.
The gr eater the speed, the gr eater the ki neti c ener gy. When water i s r el eased fr om a dam, i t
rushes out at a hi gh vel oci ty jet, r epr esenti ng ener gy of moti onki neti c ener gy. The
amount of ki neti c ener gy i n a movi ng l i qui d i s di rectl y proporti onal to the squar e of i ts vel oc-
i ty. Pressure caused by ki neti c energy may be cal l ed vel oci ty pressur e.
c. Heat Energy and Friction. Heat ener gy i s the ener gy a body possesses because of i ts
heat. Ki neti c energy and heat energy are dynami c factors. Pascal 's Law deal t wi th stati c
pressur e and di d not i ncl ude the fr i cti on factor. Fri cti on i s the r esi stance to rel ati ve moti on
between two bodi es. When l i qui d fl ows i n a hydraul i c ci rcui t, fri cti on produces heat. Thi s
causes some of the ki neti c ener gy to be l ost i n the for m of heat ener gy.
Al though fri cti on cannot be el i mi nated enti r el y, i t can be contr ol l ed to some extent. The
thr ee mai n causes of excessi ve fri cti on i n hydraul i c systems ar e
Extr emel y l ong l i nes.
Numer ous bends and fi tti ngs or i mproper bends.
Excessi ve vel oci ty from usi ng undersi zed l i nes.
I n a l i qui d fl owi ng thr ough str ai ght pi pi ng at a l ow speed, the par ti cl es of the l i qui d
move i n strai ght l i nes par al l el to the fl ow di recti on. Heat l oss from fr i cti on i s mi ni mal . Thi s
ki nd of fl ow i s cal l ed l ami nar fl ow. Fi gur e 1-8, di agr am A, shows l ami nar fl ow. I f the speed
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-7
i ncreases beyond a gi ven
poi nt, turbul ent fl ow devel -
ops. Fi gur e 1-8, di agr am B,
shows tur bul ent fl ow.
Fi gur e 1-9 shows the
di fference i n head because
of pr essur e dr op due to fri c-
ti on. Poi nt B shows no fl ow
resi stance (free-fl ow condi -
ti on); the pr essure at poi nt
B i s zer o. The pr essur e at
poi nt C i s at i ts maxi mum
because of the head at
poi nt A. As the l i qui d fl ows
fr om poi nt C to poi nt B,
fr i cti on causes a pr essur e
dr op fr om maxi mum pr es-
sur e to zer o pr essur e. Thi s
i s r efl ected i n a succeed-
i ngl y decreased head at
poi nts D, E, and F.
d. Relationship
Between Velocity and Pres-
sure. Fi gur e 1-10, page 1-8,
expl ai ns Bernoui l l i 's Pr i n-
ci pl e, whi ch states that the
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow
A
B
Figure 1-8. Laminar and turbulent flow
A
B
C
D E F
Figure 1-9. Effect of friction on pressure
FM 5-499
1-8 Hydraulic Basics
stati c pr essure of a movi ng l i qui d vari es i nversel y wi th i ts vel oci ty; that i s, as vel oci ty
i ncr eases, stati c pr essur e decr eases. I n the fi gur e, the for ce on pi ston X i s suffi ci ent to cr eate
a pressur e of 100 psi on chamber A. As pi ston X moves down, the l i qui d that i s forced out of
chamber A must pass through passage C to reach chamber B. The vel oci ty i ncreases as i t
passes thr ough C because the same quanti ty of l i qui d must pass through a narrower ar ea i n
the same ti me. Some of the 100 psi stati c pressur e i n chamber A i s converted i nto vel oci ty
ener gy i n passage C so that a pressure gauge at thi s poi nt regi sters 90 psi . As the l i qui d
passes through C and r eaches chamber B, vel oci ty decr eases to i ts for mer r ate, as i ndi cated
by the stati c pr essur e r eadi ng of 100 psi , and some of the ki neti c ener gy i s conver ted to
potenti al energy.
Fi gure 1-11 shows the combi ned effects of fri cti on and veloci ty changes. As i n Fi gure 1-9,
page 1-7, pr essur e dr ops fr om maxi mum at C to zer o at B. At D, vel oci ty i s i ncr eased, so the
pressur e head decreases. At E, the head i ncreases as most of the ki neti c energy i s gi ven up
to pr essur e ener gy because vel oci ty i s decr eased. At F, the head drops as vel oci ty i ncreases.
e. Work. To do wor k i n a hydraul i c system, fl ow must be pr esent. Wor k, ther efor e,
exer ts a for ce over a defi ni te di stance. I t i s a measur e of for ce mul ti pl i ed by di stance.
f. Power. The standard uni t of power i s horsepower (hp). One hp i s equal to 550 ft l b of
work every second. Use the fol l owi ng equati on to fi nd power:
P =f x d/ t
wher e
P =power, in hp
f = force, in GPM
d = distance, in psi
t = time (1,714)
100 psi
100 psi
90 psi
Chamber A
100 psi
Passage C
Chamber B
X
Figure 1-10. Bernouillis Principle
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-9
F E D
C
B
A
Figure 1-11. Combined effects of friction and velocity changes
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-1
CHAPTER 2
Hydraulic Systems
A hydraulic system contains and confines a liquid in such a way that it uses the laws
governing liquids to transmit power and do work. This chapter describes some basic systems
and discusses components of a hydraulic system that store and condition the fluid. The oil
reservoir (sump or tank) usually serves as a storehouse and a fluid conditioner. Filters,
strainers, and magnetic plugs condition the fluid by removing harmful impurities that could
clog passages and damage parts. Heat exchanges or coolers often are used to keep the oil tem-
perature within safe limits and prevent deterioration of the oil. Accumulators, though techni-
cally sources of stored energy, act as fluid storehouses.
2-1. Basic Systems. The advantages of hydr aul i c systems over other methods of power
tr ansmi ssi on ar e
Si mpl er desi gn. I n most cases, a few pr e-engi neer ed components wi l l r epl ace compl i -
cated mechani cal l i nkages.
Fl exi bi l i ty. Hydr aul i c components can be l ocated wi th consi derabl e fl exi bi l i ty. Pi pes
and hoses i n pl ace of mechani cal el ements vi rtual l y el i mi nate l ocati on probl ems.
Smoothness. Hydraul i c systems ar e smooth and qui et i n oper ati on. Vi br ati on i s kept
to a mi ni mum.
Contr ol . Contr ol of a wi de r ange of speed and for ces i s easi l y possi bl e.
Cost. Hi gh effi ci ency wi th mi ni mum fr i cti on l oss keeps the cost of a power tr ansmi s-
si on at a mi ni mum.
Overl oad protecti on. Automati c val ves guard the system agai nst a breakdown fr om
overl oadi ng.
The mai n di sadvantage of a hydraul i c system i s mai ntai ni ng the preci si on parts when
they ar e exposed to bad cl i mates and di r ty atmospher es. Pr otecti on agai nst r ust, cor r osi on,
di r t, oi l deter i orati on, and other adver se envi r onment i s very i mpor tant. The fol l owi ng
par agraphs di scuss several basi c hydraul i c systems.
a. Hydraulic J ack. I n thi s system (Fi gur e 2-1, page 2-2), a r eser voi r and a system of
val ves has been added to Pascal 's hydraul i c l ever to str oke a smal l cyl i nder or pump conti n-
uousl y and r ai se a l arge pi ston or an actuator a notch wi th each str oke. Di agram A shows
an i ntake str oke. An outl et check val ve cl oses by pr essur e under a l oad, and an i nl et check
val ve opens so that l i qui d from the reservoi r fi l l s the pumpi ng chamber . Di agr am B shows
the pump stroki ng downward. An i nl et check val ve cl oses by pr essure and an outl et val ve
opens. Mor e l i qui d i s pumped under a l arge pi ston to rai se i t. To l ower a l oad, a thi rd val ve
(needl e val ve) opens, whi ch opens an ar ea under a l arge pi ston to the r eser voi r . The l oad
then pushes the pi ston down and for ces the l i qui d i nto the r eser voi r .
b. Motor-Reversing System. Fi gur e 2-2, page 2-3, shows a power -dr i ven pump oper ati ng
a r ever si bl e r otar y motor . A r ever si ng val ve di r ects fl ui d to ei ther si de of the motor and back
FM 5-499
2-2 Hydraulic Systems
to the reservoi r. A r el i ef val ve pr otects the system agai nst excess pr essure and can bypass
pump output to the r eser voi r , i f pr essur e r i ses too hi gh.
c. Open-Center System. I n thi s system, a contr ol -val ve spool must be open i n the center
to al l ow pump fl ow to pass thr ough the val ve and return to the reservoi r . Fi gur e 2-3, page
2-4, shows thi s system i n the neutr al posi ti on. To oper ate sever al functi ons si mul taneousl y,
an open-center system must have the cor r ect connecti ons, whi ch ar e di scussed bel ow. An
open-center system i s effi ci ent on si ngl e functi ons but i s l i mi ted wi th mul ti pl e functi ons.
(1) Ser i es Connecti on. Fi gure 2-4, page 2-4, shows an open-center system wi th a ser i es
connecti on. Oi l fr om a pump i s r outed to the thr ee contr ol val ves i n ser i es. The r etur n fr om
the fi r st val ve i s r outed to the i nl et of the second, and so on. I n neutr al , the oi l passes
through the val ves i n ser i es and r etur ns to the r eservoi r, as the arr ows i ndi cate. When a
contr ol val ve i s oper ated, the i ncomi ng oi l i s di ver ted to the cyl i nder that the val ve ser ves.
Return l i qui d fr om the cyl i nder i s di r ected thr ough the r etur n l i ne and on to the next val ve.
Thi s system i s sati sfactor y as l ong as onl y one val ve i s oper ati ng at a ti me. When thi s
happens, the ful l output of the pump at ful l system pr essure i s avai l abl e to that functi on.
However , i f mor e than one val ve i s oper ati ng, the total of the pr essur es r equi r ed for each
functi on cannot exceed the systems r el i ef setti ng.
Figure 2-1. Hydraulic jack
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-3
Figure 2-2. Motor-reversing system
FM 5-499
2-4 Hydraulic Systems
Figure 2-3. Open-center system
Figure 2-4. Open-center system with a series connection
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-5
(2) Seri es/Paral l el Connecti on. Fi gure 2-5 shows a var i ati on on the ser i es-connected
type. Oi l fr om the pump i s r outed through the contr ol val ves i n ser i es, as wel l as i n paral l el .
The val ves ar e someti mes stacked to al l ow for extr a passages. I n neutr al , a l i qui d passes
thr ough the val ves i n seri es, as the ar r ows i ndi cate. However , when any val ve i s oper ati ng,
the return i s cl osed and the oi l i s avai l abl e to al l the val ves thr ough the paral l el connecti on.
When two or mor e val ves ar e oper ated at once, the cyl i nder that needs the l east pr essur e
wi l l oper ate fi r st, then the cyl i nder wi th the next l east, and so on. Thi s abi l i ty to oper ate two
or more val ves si mul taneousl y i s an advantage over the seri es connecti on.
(3) Fl ow Di vi der . Fi gur e 2-6, page 2-6, shows an open-center system wi th a fl ow di vi der .
A fl ow di vi der takes the vol ume of oi l fr om a pump and di vi des i t between two functi ons. For
exampl e, a fl ow di vi der mi ght be desi gned to open the l eft si de fi r st i n case both control
val ves were actuated si mul taneousl y. Or, i t mi ght di vi de the oi l to both si des, equal l y or by
percentage. Wi th thi s system, a pump must be l ar ge enough to oper ate al l the functi ons
si mul taneousl y. I t must al so suppl y al l the l i qui d at the maxi mum pr essur e of the hi ghest
functi on, meani ng l arge amounts of HP are wasted when operati ng onl y one control val ve.
d. Closed-Center System. I n thi s system, a pump can r est when the oi l i s not r equi r ed to
operate a functi on. Thi s means that a control val ve i s cl osed i n the center, stoppi ng the fl ow
of the oi l fr om the pump. Fi gur e 2-7, page 2-6, shows a cl osed-center system. To oper ate sev-
er al functi ons si mul taneousl y, a cl osed-center system have the fol l owi ng connecti ons:
(1) Fi xed-Di spl acement Pump and Accumul ator. Fi gure 2-8, page 2-7, shows a cl osed-
center system. I n thi s system, a pump of smal l but constant vol ume charges an accumul ator .
Figure 2-5. Open-center system with a series/parallel connection
FM 5-499
2-6 Hydraulic Systems
Figure 2-6. Open-center system with a flow divider
Figure 2-7. Closed-center system
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-7
When an accumul ator i s charged to ful l pr essur e, an unl oadi ng val ve di ver ts the pump fl ow
back to a r eservoi r . A check val ve traps the pressur ed oi l i n the ci rcui t.
When a contr ol val ve i s oper ated, an accumul ator di scharges i ts oi l and actuates a cyl i n-
der . As pr essur e begi ns to dr op, an unl oadi ng val ve di r ects the pump fl ow to an accumul ator
to recharge the fl ow. Thi s system, usi ng a smal l capaci ty pump, i s effecti ve when operati ng
oi l i s needed onl y for a shor t ti me. However , when the functi ons need a l ot of oi l for l onger
per i ods, an accumul ator system cannot handl e i t unl ess the accumul ator i s ver y l ar ge.
(2) Vari abl e-Di spl acement Pump. Fi gure 2-9, page 2-8, shows a cl osed-center system
wi th a var i abl e-di spl acement pump i n the neutr al mode. When i n neutr al , oi l i s pumped
unti l the pr essur e r i ses to a pr edeter mi ned l evel . A pr essur e-regul ati ng val ve al l ows the
pump to shut off by i tsel f and mai ntai n thi s pr essur e to the val ve. When the contr ol val ve i s
oper ati ng, oi l i s di ver ted fr om the pump to the bottom of a cyl i nder . The dr op i n pr essur e
caused by connecti ng the pumps pr essur e l i ne to the bottom of the cyl i nder causes the pump
to go back to wor k, pumpi ng oi l to the bottom of the pi ston and r ai si ng the l oad.
When the val ve moves, the top of the pi ston connects to a r etur n l i ne, whi ch al l ows the
return oi l that was forced fr om the pi ston to return to the r eservoi r or pump. When the val ve
r eturns to neutr al , oi l i s tr apped on both si des of the cyl i nder , and the pr essur e passage fr om
the pump i s dead-ended. After thi s sequence, the pump r ests. Movi ng the spool i n the down-
war d posi ti on di r ects oi l to the top of the pi ston, movi ng the l oad downwar d. The oi l fr om the
bottom of the pi ston i s sent i nto the r eturn l i ne.
Fi gure 2-10, page 2-8, shows thi s cl osed-center system wi th a chargi ng pump, whi ch
pumps oi l fr om the r eser voi r to the vari abl e-di spl acement pump. The chargi ng pump suppl i es
Figure 2-8. Fixed-displacement pump and accumulator
FM 5-499
2-8 Hydraulic Systems
Figure 2-9. Variable-displacement pump
Figure 2-10. Closed-center system with charging pump
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-9
onl y the makeup oi l requi r ed in a system and pr ovi des some i nl et pr essure to make a vari abl e-
di spl acement pump mor e effi ci ent. The r eturn oi l fr om a system's functi ons i s sent di r ectl y
to the i nl et of a vari abl e-di spl acement pump.
Because todays machi nes need mor e hydraul i c power , a cl osed-center system i s mor e
advantageous. For exampl e, on a tr actor , oi l may be r equi r ed for power steer i ng, power
brakes, r emote cyl i nder s, thr ee-poi nt hi tches, l oaders, and other mounted equi pment. I n
most cases, each functi on r equi r es a di ffer ent quanti ty of oi l . Wi th a cl osed-center system,
the quanti ty of oi l to each functi on can be control l ed by l i ne or val ve si ze or by or i fi ci ng wi th
l ess heat bui l d up when compar ed to the fl ow di vi ders necessary i n a comparabl e open-center
system. Other advantages of a cl osed-center system are as fol l ows:
I t does not r equi r e rel i ef val ves because the pump si mpl y shuts off by i tsel f when
standby pr essure i s r eached. The prevents heat bui l dup i n systems where rel i ef
pressur e i s frequentl y reached.
The si ze of the l i nes, val ves, and cyl i nder s can be tai l or ed to the fl ow r equi r ements
of each functi on.
Reser ve fl ow i s avai l abl e, by usi ng a l arger pump, to ensur e ful l hydr aul i c speed at
l ow engi ne revol uti ons per mi nute (rpm). More functi ons can be served.
I t i s more effi ci ent on functi ons such as brakes, whi ch r equi r e for ce but very l i ttl e
pi ston movement. By hol di ng the val ve open, standby pr essure i s constantl y
appl i ed to the brake pi ston wi th no effi ci ency l oss because the pump has returned
to standby.
2-2. Color Coding. I n thi s manual , the fi gures that show oi l -fl ow condi ti ons or paths ar e
pr epar ed wi th i ndustr i al standardi zed col or codes. Tabl e 2-1 l i sts the col or s for the hydrau-
l i c l i nes and passages that ar e i n many of the fi gur es:
2-3. Reservoirs. A r eser voi r stor es a l i qui d that i s not bei ng used i n a hydraul i c system. I t
al so al l ows gases to expel and for ei gn matter to settl e out fr om a l i qui d.
a. Construction. A pr operl y constructed r eservoi r shoul d be abl e to di ssi pate heat from
the oi l , separate ai r fr om the oi l , and settl e out contami nates that ar e i n i t. Reser voi r s r ange
i n constructi on from smal l steel stampi ngs to l arge cast or fabri cated uni ts. The l ar ge tanks
shoul d be sandbl asted after al l the weldi ng is compl eted and then fl ushed and steam cl eaned.
Doi ng so removes wel di ng scal e and scal e l eft from hot-rol l i ng the steel . The i nner sur face
then shoul d be seal ed wi th a pai nt compati bl e wi th the hydraul i c fl ui d. Nonbl eedi ng red
engi ne enamel i s sui tabl e for petrol eum oi l and seal s i n any r esi dual di rt not removed by
fl ushi ng and steam-cl eani ng.
Table 2-1: Figure colors
Line/Passage Color
Operating pressure Red
Exhaust Blue
Intake or drain Green
Metered flow Yellow
FM 5-499
2-10 Hydraulic Systems
b. Shape. Fi gur e 2-11 shows some of the desi gn featur es of a r eser voi r . I t shoul d be
hi gh and narr ow rather than shal l ow and broad. The oi l l evel shoul d be as hi gh as possi bl e
above the openi ng to a pump's sucti on l i ne. Thi s prevents the vacuum at the l i ne openi ng
from causi ng a vortex or whi rl pool effect, whi ch woul d mean that a system i s pr obabl y tak-
i ng i n ai r . Aerated oi l wi l l not pr operl y tr ansmi t power because ai r i s compressi bl e. Aerated
oi l has a tendency to break down and l ose i ts l ubr i cati ng abi l i ty.
c. Size. Reservoi r si zes wi l l vary. However, a reser voi r must be l arge enough so that i t
has a reser ve of oi l wi th al l the cyl i nders i n a system ful l y extended. An oi l reser ve must be
hi gh enough to prevent a vortex at the sucti on l i ne's openi ng. A reservoi r must have suffi -
ci ent space to hol d al l the oi l when the cyl i nders ar e r etr acted, as wel l as al l ow space for
expansi on when the oi l i s hot.
A common-si ze r eser voi r on a mobi l e machi ne i s a 20- or 30-gal l on tank used wi th a 100-
GPM system. Many 10-GPM systems oper ate wi th 2- or 3-gal l on tanks because these mobi l e
systems oper ate i nter mi ttentl y, not constantl y. For stati onary machi ner y, a rul e of thumb i s
that a r eser voi r s si ze shoul d be two to thr ee ti mes a pumps output per mi nute.
A l ar ge si ze tank i s hi ghl y desi rabl e for cool i ng. The l arge surface ar eas exposed to the
outsi de ai r transfer heat from the oi l . Al so, a l arge tank hel ps settl e out the contami nates
and separates the ai r by r educi ng reci rcul ati on.
d. Location. Most mobi l e equi pment r eser voi r s ar e l ocated above the pumps. Thi s
cr eates a fl ooded-pump-i nl et condi ti on. Thi s condi ti on r educes the possi bi l i ty of pump
Figure 2-11. Design features of a reservoir
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-11
cavi tati ona condi ti on where al l the avai l abl e space i s not fi l l ed and often metal par ts wi l l
erode. Fl oodi ng the i nl et al so r educes the vortex tendency at a sucti on pi pe's openi ng.
The l ocati on of a reservoi r affects heat di ssi pati on. I deal l y, al l tank wal l s shoul d be
exposed to the outsi de ai r . Heat moves fr om a hot substance to a col d substance; heat tr ans-
fer i s gr eatest when ther e i s a l ar ge temper atur e di ffer ence. Reser voi r s that ar e bui l t i nto
front-end l oader ar ms are ver y effecti ve i n transferr i ng heat.
e. Ventilation and Pressurization. Most r eser voi r s ar e vented to the atmospher e. A
vent openi ng al l ows ai r to l eave or enter the space above the oi l as the l evel of the oi l goes up
or down. Thi s mai ntai ns a constant atmospheri c pressure above the oi l . A reservoi r fi l ter
cap, wi th a fi l ter el ement, i s often used as a vent.
Some reservoi r s are pressuri zed, usi ng a si mpl e pressure-control val ve rather than a
vented one. A pressur e-control val ve automati cal l y l ets fi l tered ai r i nto a tank but prevents
ai r rel ease unl ess the pr essure reaches a preset l evel . A pr essuri zed reservoi r takes pl ace
when the oi l and ai r i n a tank expand from heat.
f. Line Connections. A pump sucti on and a tank's r etur n l i nes shoul d be attached by
fl anges or by wel ded heavy-duty coupl i ngs. Standard coupl i ngs usual l y ar e not sui tabl e
because they spr ead when wel ded. I f a sucti on l i ne i s connected at the bottom, a coupl i ng
shoul d extend wel l above the bottom, i nsi de the tank; resi dual di rt wi l l not get i n a sucti on
l i ne when a tank or strai ner i s cl eaned. A r etur n l i ne shoul d di scharge near a tank's bottom
al ways bel ow the oi l l evel . A pi pe i s usual l y cut at a 45-degr ee angl e and the fl ow ai med
away from a sucti on l i ne to i mprove ci r cul ati on and cool i ng.
A baffl e pl ate i s used to separate a sucti on l i ne fr om a r etur n l i ne. Thi s causes the
return oi l to ci r cul ate around an outer wal l for cool i ng before i t gets to the pump agai n. A
baffl e pl ate shoul d be about two-thi r ds the hei ght of a tank. The l ower cor ner s are cut di ag-
onal l y to al l ow ci rcul ati on. They must be l arger i n area than a sucti on l i ne's cross secti on.
Otherwi se the oi l l evel between a r etur n and a sucti on si de mi ght be uneven. Baffl i ng al so
prevents oi l from sl oshi ng ar ound when a machi ne i s movi ng. Many l arge r eservoi rs ar e
cross-baffl ed to pr ovi de cool i ng and pr event sl oshi ng.
g. Maintenance. Mai ntenance procedures i ncl ude drai ni ng and cl eani ng a r eservoi r. A
tank shoul d have a di shed bottom that i s fi tted wi th a dr ai n pl ug at i ts l owest poi nt; a pl ug
fi tti ng shoul d be fl ushed wi th the i nsi de of a tank to al l ow for ful l dr ai nage. On l ar ge tanks,
access pl ates may be bol ted on the ends for easy removal and servi ci ng. A reservoi r shoul d
have a si ght gauge or di psti ck for checki ng the oi l l evel to prevent damage fr om l ubri cati on
l oss.
The str ai ner s on a pump's sucti on l i ne may not r equi r e as much mai ntenance. However ,
an el ement i n a fi l ter i n a r etur n l i ne wi l l requi re regul ar changi ng. Therefor e, that fi l ter
shoul d not be i nsi de a reservoi r. When a r eservoi r i s pr essuri zed by compressed ai r, moi s-
tur e can become a mai ntenance pr obl em. A tank shoul d have a water tr ap for moi stur e
r emoval ; i t shoul d be pl aced wher e i t can be i nspected dai l y.
2-4. Strainers and Filters. To keep hydraul i c components performi ng corr ectl y, the
hydr aul i c l i qui d must be kept as cl ean as possi bl e. Forei gn matter and ti ny metal par ti cl es
fr om nor mal wear of val ves, pumps, and other components ar e goi ng to enter a system.
Str ai ner s, fi l ter s, and magneti c pl ugs ar e used to r emove for ei gn par ti cl es fr om a hydr aul i c
FM 5-499
2-12 Hydraulic Systems
l i qui d and ar e effecti ve as safeguar ds agai nst contami nati on. Magneti c pl ugs, l ocated i n a
r eser voi r , ar e used to r emove the i ron or steel par ti cl es fr om a l i qui d.
a. Strainers. A strai ner i s the pri mary fi l ter i ng system that removes l ar ge par ti cl es of
for ei gn matter fr om a hydr aul i c l i qui d. Even though i ts scr eeni ng acti on i s not as good as a
fi l ter's, a strai ner offer l ess resi stance to fl ow. A strai ner usual l y consi sts of a metal frame
wr apped wi th a fi ne-mesh wi re screen or a screeni ng el ement made up of varyi ng thi ckness
of speci al l y processed wi r e. Strai ners ar e used to pump i nl et l i nes (Fi gur e 2-11, page 2-10)
wher e pr essur e dr op must be kept to a mi ni mum.
Fi gur e 2-12 shows a str ai ner i n thr ee possi bl e arr angements for use i n a pump i nl et
l i ne. I f one str ai ner causes excessi ve fl ow fr i cti on to a pump, two or mor e can be used i n par -
al l el . Str ai ner s and pi pe fi tti ngs must al ways be bel ow the l i qui d l evel i n the tank.
b. Filters. A fi l ter r emoves smal l for ei gn par ti cl es fr om a hydr aul i c fl ui d and i s most
effecti ve as a safeguar d agai nst contami nates. Fi l ter s ar e l ocated i n a r eser voi r , a pr essur e
l i ne, a return l i ne, or i n any other l ocati on where necessary. They are cl assi fi ed as ful l fl ow
or propor ti onal fl ow.
(1) Ful l -Fl ow Fi l ter (Fi gure 2-13). I n a ful l -fl ow fi l ter , al l the fl ui d enteri ng a uni t
passes thr ough a fi l teri ng el ement. Al though a ful l -fl ow type provi des a mor e posi ti ve fi l ter -
i ng acti on, i t offers gr eater resi stance to fl ow, par ti cul arl y when i t becomes di rty. A hydrau-
l i c l i qui d enters a ful l -fl ow fi l ter through an i nl et port i n the body and fl ows ar ound an
Oil level
Pump intake
connection
Oil level
Pipe joints submerged
Disconnect union to remove
strainers for cleaning
Access opening should be provided so strainers may be
removed for cleaning without draining tank
Figure 2-12. Hydraulic-system strainers
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-13
el ement i nsi de a bowl . Fi l teri ng
occurs as a l i qui d passes thr ough
the el ement and i nto a hol l ow cor e,
l eavi ng the di rt and i mpur i ti es on
the outsi de of the el ement. A fi l -
ter ed l i qui d then fl ows from a hol -
l ow cor e to an outl et por t and i nto
the system.
A bypass r el i ef val ve i n a body
al l ows a l i qui d to bypass the el e-
ment and pass di rectl y through an
outl et por t when the el ement
becomes cl ogged. Fi l ter s that do
not have a bypass rel i ef val ve have
a contami nati on i ndi cator. Thi s
i ndi cator wor ks on the pr i nci pl e of
the di ffer ence i n pr essur e of a fl ui d
as i t enters a fi l ter and after i t
l eaves an el ement. When contami -
nati ng par ti cl es col l ect on the el e-
ment, the di fferenti al pr essur e
acr oss i t i ncr eases. When a pr es-
sur e i ncr ease r eaches a speci fi c
val ue, an i ndi cator pops out, si gni -
fyi ng that the el ement must be
cl eaned or repl aced.
(2) Proporti onal -Fl ow Fi l ters
(Fi gur e 2-14). Thi s fi l ter oper ates
on the ventur i pri nci pl e i n whi ch a
tube has a nar r owi ng thr oat (ven-
tur i ) to i ncr ease the vel oci ty of
fl ui d fl owi ng thr ough i t. Fl ow
thr ough a ventur i throat causes a
pr essur e dr op at the nar r owest
poi nt. Thi s pr essure decr ease
causes a sucki ng acti on that dr aws
a porti on of a l i qui d down around a
car tri dge through a fi l ter el ement
and up i nto a ventur i thr oat. Fi l -
ter i ng occurs for ei ther fl ow di rec-
ti on. Al though onl y a por ti on of a
l i qui d i s fi l ter ed duri ng each cycl e,
constant reci rcul ati on through a
system eventual l y causes al l of a
l i qui d to pass thr ough the el ement.
Repl ace the el ement accor di ng to
appl i cabl e regul ati ons and by
doi ng the fol l owi ng:
Figure 2-13. Full-flow hydraulic filter
Figure 2-14. Proportional-flow filter
FM 5-499
2-14 Hydraulic Systems
Rel i eve the pr essur e.
Remove the bowl fr om the fi l ter s body.
Remove the fi l ter el ement fr om the body, usi ng a sl i ght r ocki ng moti on.
Cl ean or r epl ace the el ement, dependi ng on i ts type.
Repl ace al l ol d O-ri ng packi ngs and backup washers.
Rei nstal l the bowl on the body assembl y. Do not ti ghten the bowl excessi vel y;
check the appropr i ate regul ati ons for speci fi cati ons, as some fi l ter el ements requi r e
a speci fi c tor que.
Pr essuri ze the system and check the fi l ter assembl y for l eaks.
2-5. Filtering Material and Elements. The general cl asses of fil ter materi al s are mechani -
cal, absorbent inacti ve, and absorbent active.
Mechani cal fi l ters contai n cl osel y woven metal scr eens or di scs. They general l y
r emove onl y fai rl y coar se par ti cl es.
Absor bent i nacti ve fi l ters, such as cotton, wood pul p, yar n, cl oth, or resi n, r emove
much smal l er par ti cl es; some r emove water and water -sol ubl e contami nants. The
el ements often ar e tr eated to make them sti cky to attr act the contami nantsfound
i n hydraul i c oi l .
Absor bent acti ve materi al s, such as char coal and Ful l er's Earth (a cl ayl i ke mate-
ri al of ver y fi ne parti cl es used i n the pur i fi cati on of mi neral or vegetabl e-base oi l s),
ar e not recommended for hydr aul i c systems.
The three basi c types of fi l ter el ements ar e sur face, edge, and depth.
A surface-type el ement i s made of cl osel y woven fabr i c or treated paper. Oi l fl ows
through the pores of the fi l ter materi al , and the contami nants are stopped.
An edge-type fi l ter i s made up of paper or metal di scs; oi l fl ows through the spaces
between the di scs. The fi neness of the fi l trati on i s determi ned by the cl oseness of
the di scs.
A depth-type el ement i s made up of thi ck l ayer s of cotton, fel t, or other fi ber s.
2-6. Accumulators. Li ke an el ectr i cal stor age batter y, a hydr aul i c accumul ator stor es
potenti al power, i n thi s case l i qui d under pressur e for futur e conversi on i nto useful wor k.
Thi s wor k can i ncl ude oper ati ng cyl i nder s and fl ui d motor s, mai ntai ni ng the r equi r ed sys-
tem pr essur e i n case of pump or power fai l ur e, and compensati ng for pr essur e l oss due to
l eakage. Accumul ators can be empl oyed as fl ui d di spensers and fl ui d bar ri er s and can pro-
vi de a shock-absorbi ng (cushi oni ng) acti on.
On mi l i tar y equi pment, accumul ators are used mai nl y on the l i ft equi pment to pr ovi de
posi ti ve cl ampi ng acti on on the heavy l oads when a pumps fl ow i s di ver ted to l i fti ng or other
operati ons. An accumul ator acts as a safety devi ce to prevent a l oad fr om bei ng dr opped i n
case of an engi ne or pump fai l ur e or fl ui d l eak. On l i fts and other equi pment, accumul ator s
absorb shock, whi ch r esul ts from a l oad starti ng, stoppi ng, or r eversal .
a. Spring-Loaded Accumulator. Thi s accumul ator i s used i n some engi neer equi pment
hydraul i c systems. I t uses the energy stor ed in spri ngs to create a constant force on the l i qui d
contai ned i n an adjacent ram assembl y. Fi gure 2-15 shows two spri ng-l oaded accumul ators.
The l oad char acter i sti cs of a spri ng are such that the energy storage depends on the
for ce r equi r ed to compr ess s spri ng. The fr ee (uncompr essed) l ength of a spr i ng r epr esents
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-15
zer o ener gy stor age. As a spr i ng i s compr essed to the maxi mum i nstal l ed l ength, a mi ni -
mum pr essur e val ue of the l i qui d i n a ram assembl y i s establ i shed. As l i qui d under pr essur e
enter s the ram cyl i nder, causi ng a spri ng to compress, the pr essure on the l i qui d wi l l ri se
because of the i ncreased l oadi ng requi red to compress the spri ng.
b. Bag-Type Accumulator. Thi s accumul ator (Fi gur e 2-16, page 2-16) consi sts of a
seaml ess hi gh-pressur e shel l , cyl i ndri cal i n shape, wi th domed ends and a syntheti c r ubber
bag that separates the l i qui d and gas (usual l y ni trogen) wi thi n the accumul ator. The bag i s
ful l y encl osed i n the upper end of a shel l . The gas system contai ns a hi gh-pressure gas
val ve. The bottom end of the shel l i s seal ed wi th a speci al pl ug assembl y contai ni ng a l i qui d
por t and a safety featur e that makes i t i mpossi bl e to di sassembl e the accumul ator wi th
pressur e i n the system. The bag i s l arger at the top and taper s to a smal l er di ameter at the
bottom. As the pump forces l i qui d i nto the accumul ator shel l , the l i qui d pr esses agai nst the
bag, reduces i ts vol ume, and i ncr eases the pr essur e, whi ch i s then avai l abl e to do wor k.
c. Piston-Type Accumulator. Thi s accumul ator consi sts of a cyl i nder assembl y, a pi ston
assembl y, and two end-cap assembl i es. The cyl i nder assembl y houses a pi ston assembl y and
i ncor por ates pr ovi si ons for securi ng the end-cap assembl ies. An accumul ator contai ns a
free-fl oati ng pi ston wi th l i qui d on one si de of the pi ston and precharged ai r or ni trogen on
the other si de (Fi gur e 2-17, page 2-16). An incr ease of li qui d vol ume decreases the gas vol ume
and i ncr eases gas pr essure, whi ch pr ovi des a wor k potential when the l i qui d is al l owed to di s-
charge.
d. Maintenance. Befor e r emovi ng an accumul ator for repai r s, r el i eve the i nternal pr es-
sure: i n a spri ng-l oaded type, r el i eve the spr i ng tensi on; i n a pi ston or bag type, rel i eve the
gas or l i qui d pr essure.
MULTIPLE SPRINGS SINGLE SPRING
Spring
Spring
Piston
Packing Ram
assembly
Ram
Cylinder
To hydraulic
system
To hydraulic
system
Figure 2-15. Spring-loaded accumulator
FM 5-499
2-16 Hydraulic Systems
Gas valve
Gas bag
Shell
Plug
assembly
Liquid inlet
Gas charging inlet
Compressed
gas
Liquid
Spring-loaded
check valve
(normally open)
PRECHARGED
POSITION
FULLY CHARGED
POSITION
STATIC
POSITION
Figure 2-16. Bag-type accumulator
Hydraulic liquid port Hydraulic liquid port
Barrell assembly
End cap
assembly
Packing and
backup ring
Lubrication passage
Piston assembly
Gas port
Figure 2-17. Piston-type accumulator
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-17
2-7. Pressure Gauges and Volume
Meters. Pr essure gauges are used i n
l i qui d-power ed systems to measur e
pr essur e to mai ntai n effi ci ent and safe
oper ati ng l evel s. Pr essur e i s mea-
sured i n psi . Fl ow measurement may
be expr essed i n uni ts of rate of fl ow
GPM or cubi c feet per second (cfs). I t
may al so be expr essed i n ter ms of total
quanti tygal l ons or cubi c feet.
a. Pressure Gauges. Fi gur e 2-18
shows a si mpl e pr essur e gauge. Gauge
r eadi ngs i ndi cate the fl ui d pr essur e set
up by an opposi ti on of for ces wi thi n a
system. Atmospheri c pressure i s neg-
l i gi bl e because i ts acti on at one pl ace i s
bal anced by i ts equal acti on at another
pl ace i n a system.
b. Meters. Measuri ng fl ow
depends on the quanti ti es, fl ow rates, and types of l i qui d i nvol ved. Al l l i qui d meter s (fl ow-
meters) are made to measur e speci fi c l i qui ds and must be used onl y for the pur pose for
whi ch they wer e made. Each meter i s tested and cal i brated.
I n a nutati ng-pi TJ 0 -1.2 TD 0.007 Tc [(r ead)-15(i )22(n)-15(g)-12(s)-8( )22(i )-11(n)-4(d)7(i )-15(cate t)7(h)-15(e)18( )-11(f)11(l )-15(ui d pr )-15(essu)-15(r e set )]TJ 0 -1.178 TD 0.004 Tc -0.015 Tw [(u)-7(p)0( )-15(by)-18( a)-18(n)-7( )-33(o)26(p)-22(posi ti )-18(on)-18( of )-18(for )-18(ces )-15(wi )-18(th)-18(i )19(n)-18( )-22(a)-7( )]TJ T* -0.001 Tw [(sys)-18(t)15(e)-7(m)-18(.)-18( )25( A)-18(t)-7(m)-18(osph)-18(er i )-18(c pr ess)-18(u)-7(r e i s n)-18(eg-)]TJ 0 -1.2 TD -0.071 Tw [(l )10(i )10(g)-18(i )8(b)-18(l e b)-18(eca)-18(u)-7(s)-9(e)-9( i ts )-23(acti )-18(o)15(n)-7( )-33(a)-7(t)-7( on)-18(e)-18( pl )-18(ac)-18(e)15( )-33(i s )]TJ 0 -1.178 TD 0.012 Tc -0.046 Tw [(b)13(a)-10(l )20(a)20(n)-10(c)-11(ed )10(b)16(y)-10( i )-6(t)23(s)-14( e)23(q)-10(ua)16(l )-10( a)12(c)-10(t)23(i )-6(o)12(n)-10( at )10(a)-10(n)1(o)23(t)12(h)-10(er )]TJ T* 0.007 Tc -0.003 Tw [(p)7(l )7(a)-15(c)5(e)5( i )5(n)-15( a sy)-15(stem.)]TJ 2 -1.844 TD 0.011 Tc 0 Tw (b. )Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.4 0 TD 0.002 Tc [(M)-10(e)-21(ter )-20(s)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 3.133 0 TD -0.025 Tw [(.)-19( )-22(M)-19(e)-8(a)-19(s)10(u)-19(r )6(i )-19(n)-8(g )-25(fl ow)-19( )]TJ -6.533 -1.178 TD 0.005 Tc 0 Tw [(depen)-17(ds on)-17( the q)-17(u)-6(a)16(n)-17(ti ti es, fl )-17(ow r a)-17(t)16(e)-10(s)-17(,)16( )5(an)-1(osph-17( )27l o)15(n)-7( )-33(a)-7(t)-Tw ( )5(an)[(( )3(( )5(anc -0( for to(,)16(asu)-17( )]-15(by)-17(-13ca(fl ow)-a)-18(n)6)-a)-18i s )]a7( )16(6( )5(an)-1(osph-17( )272 TD 0.012 10(i )1[(( -7( )o)te t)723(d-25(fl sc to (9(17(l )1o)TJ T-b)-1216(6( )5(an)-ph-17( )122 TD 0.a(t)162-33(a)wi )-1.00 i Tw [(s2-3w r a)2-3e(s2-3w-15(c(6( )56.722 027(m)-17(easu)-( )14l o)15(n)ha)-17(n)-17 be u)15(8(g em.)]TJ 722 .005 Tc 0 Tw 6( at )10(a)-1Tt )]TJ 0 e(d-s(r e set6('r )-14 0.001f)11(l )-ovem)-9(e)-68(e)15(t)-18( )7th)-18(i )19(n)-18( )-[]TJ ate-14di 0 -1.17* 0.00.001f) fl )-u)-11(a)16(n)8(osph)-18(er i )-18(c pr e220(s)]TJa)5(d)-14cou0.003 Tw td)-15(e)19r at
FM 5-499
2-18 Hydraulic Systems
2-8. Portable Hydraulic-Circuit Testers. Hydr aul i c power i s an effi ci ent method of
del i ver i ng HP by pumpi ng a fl ui d through a cl osed system. I f the amount of fl ow or the pr es-
sur e unknowi ngl y decr eases, the amount of HP del i ver ed to a wor ki ng uni t wi l l be r educed,
and a system wi l l not per for m as i t shoul d.
a. Testers. Por tabl e hydr aul i c-ci r cui t tester s (Fi gur e 2-20) are l i ghtwei ght uni ts you
can use to check or troubl eshoot a hydraul i c-power ed system on the job or i n a mai ntenance
shop. Connect a tester i nto a system's ci r cui t to deter mi ne i ts effi ci ency. Cur rentl y, sev-
eral hydr aul i c-ci r cui t testers ar e on the mar ket. Oper ati ng procedures may var y on di ffer-
ent tester s. Ther efor e, you must fol l ow the oper ati ng di r ecti ons furni shed wi th a tester to
check or troubl eshoot a ci r cui t accuratel y.
b. I mproper Operation. When a hydraul i c system does not oper ate pr oper l y, the tr oubl e
coul d be one of the fol l owi ng:
The pump that propel s the fl ui d may be sl i ppi ng because of a wor n or an i mprop-
erl y set spri ng i n the r el i ef val ve.
The fl ui d may be l eaki ng around the control val ves or past the cyl i nder packi ng.
Si nce hydr aul i c systems ar e confi ned, i t i s di ffi cul t to i denti fy whi ch component i n a sys-
tem i s not wor ki ng pr oper l y. Measur e the fl ow, pr essur e, and temper atur e of a l i qui d at
gi ven poi nts i n a system to i sol ate the mal functi oni ng uni t. I f thi s does not wor k, take the
system apar t and check each uni t for worn par ts or bad packi ng. Thi s type of i nspecti on can
be costl y from the standpoi nt of mai ntenance ti me and downti me of the power system.
2-9. Circulatory Systems. Pi pes and fi tti ngs, wi th thei r necessary seal s, make up a ci rcu-
l ator y system of l i qui d-powered equi pment. Properl y sel ecti ng and i nstal l i ng these compo-
nents ar e very i mportant. I f i mpr operl y
sel ected or i nstal l ed, the r esul t woul d be
ser i ous power l oss or harmful l i qui d con-
tami nati on. The fol l owi ng i s a l i st of some
of the basi c r equi r ements of a ci rcul atory
system:
Li nes must be strong enough to con-
tai n s l i qui d at s desi red worki ng
pressur e and the sur ges i n pr essur e
that may devel op i n s system.
Li nes must be strong enough to sup-
por t the components that ar e
mounted on them.
Ter mi nal fi tti ngs must be at al l junc-
ti ons wher e par ts must be r emoved
for r epai r or r epl acement.
Li ne suppor ts must be capabl e of
dampi ng the shock caused by pr es-
sure surges.
Li nes shoul d have smooth i nter i ors
to r educe turbul ent fl ow.
Li nes must have the cor r ect si ze for
the requi r ed l i qui d fl ow.
Portable tester
series
Figure 2-20. Portable hydraulic-circuit
tester
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-19
Li nes must be kept cl ean by r egul ar fl ushi ng or purgi ng.
Sour ces of contami nants must be el i mi nated.
The thr ee common types of l i nes i n l i qui d-power ed systems ar e pi pes, tubi ng, and fl exi -
bl e hose, whi ch ar e al so r efer r ed to as r i gi d, semi ri gi d, and fl exi bl e l i ne.
a. Tubing. The two types of tubi ng used
for hydraul i c l i nes ar e seaml ess and el ectri c
wel ded. Both are sui tabl e for hydr aul i c sys-
tems. Seaml ess tubi ng i s made i n l ar ger si zes
than tubi ng that i s el ectr i c wel ded. Seaml ess
tubi ng i s fl ar ed and fi tted wi th thr eaded com-
pr essi on fi tti ngs. Tubi ng bends easi l y, so
fewer pi eces and fi tti ngs ar e requi red. Unl i ke
pi pe, tubi ng can be cut and fl ar ed and fi tted i n
the fi el d. Gener al l y, tubi ng makes a neater ,
l ess costl y, l ower-mai ntenance system wi th
fewer fl ow r estr i cti ons and l ess chances of
l eakage. Fi gur e 2-21 shows the pr oper
method of i nstal l i ng tubi ng.
Knowi ng the fl ow, type of fl ui d, fl ui d
vel oci ty, and system pressur e wi l l hel p deter-
mi ne the type of tubi ng to use. (Nomi nal
di mensi ons of tubi ng ar e gi ven as fr acti ons i n
i nches or as dash numbers. A dash number
represents a tubes outsi de di ameter [OD] i n
si xteenths of an i nch.) A systems pressur e
deter mi nes the thi ckness of the vari ous tubi ng wal l s. Tubi ng above 1/2 i nch OD usual l y i s
i nstal l ed wi th ei ther fl ange fi tti ngs wi th metal or pr essur e seal s or wi th wel ded joi nts. I f
joi nts ar e wel ded, they shoul d be str ess-r el i eved.
b. Piping. You can use pi pi ng that i s thr eaded wi th scr ewed fi tti ngs wi th di ameter s up
to 1 1/4 i nches and pr essur es of up to 1,000 psi . Wher e pr essur es wi l l exceed 1,000 psi and
requi red di ameter s are over 1 1/4 i nches, pi pi ng wi th wel ded, fl anged connecti ons and
socket-wel ded si ze ar e speci fi ed by nomi nal i nsi de di ameter (I D) di mensi ons. The thr ead
r emai ns the same for any gi ven pi pe si ze r egardl ess of wal l thi ckness. Pi pi ng i s used eco-
nomi cal l y i n l ar ger -si zed hydr aul i c systems wher e l ar ge fl ow i s carr i ed. I t i s par ti cul ar l y
sui ted for l ong, per manent str ai ght l i nes. Pi pi ng i s taper -thr eaded on i ts OD i nto a tapped
hol e or fi tti ng. However, i t cannot be bent. I nstead, fi tti ngs ar e used wherever a joi nt i s
requi red. Thi s r esul ts i n addi ti onal costs and an i ncr eased chance of l eakage.
c. Flexible Hosing. When fl exi bi l i ty i s necessary i n l i qui d-power ed systems, use hose.
Exampl es woul d be connecti ons to uni ts that move whi l e i n oper ati on to uni ts that ar e
attached to a hi nged por ti on of the equi pment or ar e i n l ocati ons that ar e subjected to sever e
vi brati on. Fl exi bl e hose i s usual l y used to connect a pump to a system. The vi br ati on that i s
set up by an oper ati ng pump woul d ul ti matel y cause ri gi d tubi ng to fai l .
(1) Rubber Hose. Rubber hose i s a fl exi bl e hose that consi sts of a seaml ess, syntheti c
rubber tube cover ed wi th l ayer s of cotton br ai d and wi r e br ai d. Fi gur e 2-22, page 2-20,
shows cut-away vi ews of typi cal rubber hose. An i nner tube i s desi gned to wi thstand mater i al
Right Wrong
Figure 2-21. Method of installing tubing
FM 5-499
2-20 Hydraulic Systems
passi ng through i t. A brai d, whi ch may con-
si st of sever al l ayer s, i s the deter mi ni ng factor
i n the str ength of a hose. A cover i s desi gned
to wi thstand exter nal abuse.
When i nstal l i ng fl exi bl e hose, do not twi st
i t. Doi ng so r educes i ts l i ft and may cause i ts
fi tti ngs to l oosen. An i denti fi cati on stri pe that
r uns al ong the hose l ength shoul d not spi ral ,
whi ch woul d i ndi cate twi sti ng (Fi gur e 2-23).
Pr otect fl exi bl e hose fr om chafi ng by wr appi ng
i t l i ghtl y wi th tape, when necessary.
The mi ni mum bend r adi us for fl exi bl e
hose vari es accor di ng to i ts si ze and constr uc-
ti on and the pr essur e under whi ch a system
wi l l oper ate. Consul t the appl i cabl e publ i ca-
ti ons that contai n the tabl es and gr aphs whi ch show the mi ni mum bend radi i for the di ffer -
ent types of i nstal l ati ons. Bends that ar e too shar p wi l l r educe the bur sti ng pressur e of
fl exi bl e hose consi der abl y bel ow i ts rated val ue.
Do not i nstal l fl exi bl e hose so that i t wi l l be subjected to a mi ni mum of fl exi ng duri ng
operati on. Never stretch hose ti ghtl y between two fi tti ngs. When under pr essure, fl exi bl e
hose contr acts i n l ength and expands i n di ameter .
(2) Tefl on -Type Hose. Thi s i s a fl exi bl e hose that i s desi gned to meet the requi re-
ments of hi gher operati ng pr essures and temperatures i n today's fl ui d-power ed systems.
The hose consi sts of a chemi cal resi n that i s pr ocessed and pul l ed i nto a desi r ed-si ze tube
Figure 2-22. Flexible rubber hose
RIGHT
WRONG
Figure 2-23. Installing flexible hose
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-21
shape. I t i s cover ed wi th stai nl ess-steel wi r e that i s brai ded over the tube for str ength and
pr otecti on. Tefl on-type hose wi l l not absor b moi stur e and i s unaffected by al l fl ui ds used i n
todays fl ui d-power ed systems. I t i s nonfl ammabl e; however , use an asbestos fi r e sl eeve
where the possi bi l i ty of an open fl ame exi sts.
Careful l y handl e al l Tefl on-type hose dur i ng r emoval or i nstal l ati on. Shar p or excessi ve
bendi ng wi l l ki nk or damage the hose. Al so, the fl exi bl e-type hose tends to for m i tsel f to the
i nstal l ed posi ti on i n a ci rcul atory system.
d. I nstallation. Fl ari ng and br azi ng ar e the most common methods of connecti ng tub-
i ng. Prepari ng a tube for i nstal l ati on usual l y i nvol ves cutti ng, fl ari ng, and bendi ng. After
cutti ng a tube to the corr ect l ength, cut i t squar el y and careful l y r emove any i nternal or
external burr s.
I f you use fl are-type fi tti ngs, you must fl ar e the tube. A fl are angl e shoul d extend 37
degr ees on each si de of the center l i ne. The ar eas outer edge shoul d extend beyond the max-
i mum sl eeve's I D but not i ts OD. Fl ar es that ar e too shor t ar e l i kel y to be squeezed thi n,
whi ch coul d r esul t i n l eaks or br eaks. Fl ar es that ar e too l ong wi l l sti ck or jam dur i ng
assembl y.
Keep the l i nes as shor t and fr ee of bends as possi bl e. However , bends ar e pr efer r ed to
el bows or shar p tur ns. Try not to assembl e the tubi ng i n a strai ght l i ne because a bend
tends to el i mi nate str ai n by absor bi ng vi brati on and compensati ng for temper atur e expan-
si on and contracti on.
I nstal l al l the l i nes so you can remove them wi thout di smantl i ng a ci rcui ts components
or wi thout bendi ng or spr i ngi ng them to a bad angl e. Add suppor ts to the l i nes at fr equent
i nter val s to mi ni mi ze vi br ati on or movement; never wel d the l i nes to the suppor ts. Si nce
fl exi bl e hose has a tendency to shor ten when subjected to pr essur e, al l ow enough sl ack to
compensate for thi s pr obl em.
Keep al l the pi pes, tubes, or fi tti ngs cl ean and fr ee fr om scal e and other for ei gn matter .
Cl ean i r on or steel pi pes, tubes, and fi tti ngs wi th a boi l er -tube wi r e br ush or wi th com-
mer ci al pi pe-cl eani ng equi pment. Remove r ust and scal e fr om shor t, str ai ght pi eces by
sandbl asti ng them, as l ong as no sand par ti cl es wi l l r emai n l odged i n bl i nd hol es or pockets
after you fl ush a pi ece. I n the case of l ong pi eces or pi eces bent to compl ex shapes, r emove
r ust and scal e by pi ckl i ng (cl eani ng metal i n a chemi cal bath). kl i n s fl (l )15ehn0(o)0e6(e)-(e)-1hornl te 1(i )1e7(asec)-20i g be16( )-19( ]TJ e6(eceth)-1c [(e)-9( -19(nn)-18e)28( l )-19l )8(ae)17(m6-15(18(g)e-16(e-(e)-)-18(e-16(p)9(l ),)15(e17(em1-19(s)1( e6( )]ec)-2)-18(e8 TD 1m)-1o)15(e0.002)-19(7(d)-e0(u)-eth)-ti cl )e10( ) -19(18(l l e-8(d l )-1(m)-1eby)-1m6-159(n)-ekl i )-e-(e)8(ed e( (cp)9(l -18(i e19(i )m1-19 h)-1em)-19]ec)-oc)-1e(a)-1 1mtn
FM 5-499
2-22 Hydraulic Systems
Figure 2-24. Threaded-pipe connectors
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-23
Standar d pi pe thr eads ar e taper ed sl i ghtl y
to ensure ti ght connecti ons.
To pr event sei zi ng (thr eads sti cki ng),
appl y a pi pe-thr ead compound to the
thr eads. Keep the two end thr eads fr ee of
the compound so that i t wi l l not contami nate
the fl ui d. Pi pe compound, when i mproperl y
appl i ed, may get i nsi de the l i nes and har m
the pumps and the contr ol equi pment.
b. Flared Connectors. The common con-
nectors used i n ci rcul atory systems consi st
of tube l i nes. These connector s pr ovi de safe,
strong, dependabl e connecti ons wi thout hav-
i ng to thr ead, wel d, or sol der the tubi ng. A
connector consi sts of a fi tti ng, a sl eeve, and
a nut (see Fi gure 2-25).
Fi tti ngs ar e made of steel , al umi num al l oy, or br onze. The fi tti ngs shoul d be of a mate-
ri al that i s si mi l ar to that of a sl eeve, nut, and tubi ng. Fi tti ngs ar e made i n uni ons, 45- and
90-degr ee el bows, Ts, and vari ous other shapes. Fi gur e 2-26, page 2-24, shows some of the
most common fi tti ngs used wi th fl ar ed connector s.
Fi tti ngs are avai l abl e i n many di fferent thread combi nati ons. Uni ons have tube connec-
ti ons on each end; el bows have tube connecti ons on one end and a mal e pi pe thr ead, femal e
pi pe thread, or a tube connecti on on the opposi te end; crosses and Ts have several di fferent
combi nati ons.
Tubi ng used wi th fl ar ed connector s must be fl ar ed befor e bei ng assembl ed. A nut fi ts
over a sl eeve and, when ti ghtened, dr aws the sl eeve and tubi ng fl ar e ti ghtl y agai nst a mal e
fi tti ng to form a seal . A mal e fi tti ng has a cone-shaped surface wi th the same angl e as the
i nsi de of a fl ar e. A sl eeve suppor ts the tube so that vi br ati on does not concentr ate at the
edge of a fl ar e but that i t does di str i bute the sheari ng acti on over a wi der ar ea for added
strength. Ti ghten the tubi ng nuts wi th a torque wrench to the val ue speci fi ed i n appl i cabl e
regul ati ons.
I f an al umi num al l oy fl ar ed connector l eaks after ti ghteni ng to the speci fi ed tor que, do
not ti ghten i t fur ther . Di sassembl e the l eaki ng connector and cor r ect the faul t. I f a steel
connector l eaks, you may ti ghten i t 1/6 tur n beyond the speci fi ed tor que i n an attempt to
stop the l eak. I f you ar e unsuccessful , di sassembl e i t and r epai r i t.
Fl ared connector s wi l l l eak i f
A fl ar e i s di stor ted i nto the nut threads.
A sl eeve i s cracked.
A fl ar e i s cr acked or spl i t.
A fl ar e i s out-of-round.
A fl ar e i s eccentri c to the tubes OD.
A fl are's i nsi de i s r ough or scr atched.
A fi tti ng cone i s rough or scr atched.
Fitting
Nut
Sleeve
Tubing
Figure 2-25. Flared-tube connector
FM 5-499
2-24 Hydraulic Systems
Figure 2-26. Flared-tube fittings
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-25
The thr eads of a fi tti ng or
nut are di rty, damaged, or
broken.
c. Flexible-Hose Couplings. I f
a hose assembl y i s fabri cated wi th
fi el d attachabl e coupl i ngs (Fi gure
2-27), use the same coupl i ngs when
fabri cati ng the r epl acement assem-
bl y, as l ong as the fai l ure (l eak or
break) di d not occur at a coupl i ng.
I f fai l ure occurr ed at a coupl i ng,
di scar d i t.
When measur i ng a r epl ace-
ment hose assembl y for scr ew-on
coupl i ngs, measur e fr om the edge
of a r etai ni ng bol t (Fi gur e 2-28).
Pl ace the hose i n hose bl ocks and
then i n a bench vi ce (Fi gur e 2-29).
Use the fr ont or r ear por ti on of a
hacksaw bl ade for cutti ng. (I f you
use the mi ddl e porti on of a bl ade, i t coul d twi st and break.) For effecti ve cutti ng, a bl ade
shoul d have 24 or 32 teeth per i nch. To r emove an ol d coupl i ng on a hose assembl y that i s
fabri cated wi th permanentl y attached coupl i ngs, you just di scard the enti re assembl y (see
Fi gur e 2-30, page 2-26).
d. Reusable Fittings. To use a ski ved fi tti ng (Fi gure 2-31, page 2-26), you must stri p
(ski ve) the hose to a l ength equal to that fr om a notch on a fi tti ng to the end of the fi tti ng. (A
notch on a femal e porti on of a fi tti ng i n Fi gur e 2-31 i ndi cates i t to be a ski ved fi tti ng.) To
assembl e a conductor usi ng ski ved fi tti ngs
Straight 45bent tube
90bent tube
long drop
90bent tube
short drop
Figure 2-27. Field-attachable couplings
Measure from edge
of hex
Length
measurement
Measure from edge
of retaining bolt
Figure 2-28. Hose-length measurement
Figure 2-29. Hose cutting
FM 5-499
2-26 Hydraulic Systems
Figure 2-30. Permanently attached couplings
Figure 2-31. Skived fitting
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-27
Deter mi ne the l ength of the ski ve.
Make a cut ar ound the hose wi th a shar p kni fe. Make sur e that you cut compl etel y
thr ough the r ubber cover of the hose.
Cut l engthwi se to the end of the hose (Fi gure 2-32). Li ft the hose fl ap and r emove
i t wi th pl i ers.
Repeat the pr ocess on the opposi te end of the hose.
Pl ace the femal e porti on of the fi tti ng i n a bench vi ce (Fi gure 2-33) and secur e i t i n
pl ace.
Lubri cate the ski ved por ti on of the hose wi th hose l ubr i cant (hydraul i c fl ui d or
engi ne oi l , i f necessary).
I nser t the hose i nto the femal e socket and turn the hose countercl ockwi se unti l i t
bottoms on the shoul der of the femal e socket, then back off 1/4 turn.
Pl ace the femal e socket i n an upr i ght posi ti on (Fi gur e 2-34, page 3-28) and i nsert
the mal e ni ppl e i nto the femal e socket.
Turn the mal e ni ppl e cl ockwi se (Fi gur e 2-35, page 3-28) unti l the hex i s wi thi n 1/32
i nch of the femal e socket.
Repeat the above pr ocess on the opposi te end of the hose.
When assembl i ng conductors usi ng nonski ved-type fi tti ngs, fol l ow the above proce-
dur es. However , do not ski ve a hose. Nonski ved fi tti ngs do not have a notch on the femal e
porti on of a fi tti ng (Fi gure 2-36, page 2-28).
Fi gur e 2-37, page 2-28, di agram A, shows a femal e hose coupl i ng. One end of the hose
has a spi r al r i dge (cour se thr ead) that provi des a gri ppi ng acti on on the hose. The other end
(smal l end) has machi ne thr eads i nto whi ch the mal e, fi xed or swi vel ni ppl e, i s i nser ted.
Fi gur e 2-37, di agram B shows the mal e adapter , and di agram C shows the mal e and the
femal e swi vel body. These fi tti ngs contai n a fi xed or swi vel hex-nut connector on one end.
The opposi te end i s taper ed and has machi ne thr eads that mate wi th the thr eads i n a femal e
fi tti ng. Wi th a l ong taper i nser ted i nto a hose and screwed i nto a femal e coupl i ng, the taper
Figure 2-32. Trimming a hose Figure 2-33. Female portion of a fitting
FM 5-499
2-28 Hydraulic Systems
Figure 2-34. Male and female portions
of a fitting
Figure 2-35. Tightening a fitting
Figure 2-36. Nonskived fitting
Female hose
coupling
A
Male
adapter
B
(Male and female)
swivel body
C
Figure 2-37. Fittings
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-29
tends to expand a hose, for ci ng i t agai nst the
i nsi de di ameter of a femal e fi tti ng.
Fi gure 2-38 shows the assembl y of a
cl amp-type coupl i ng. I f you use thi s coupl i ng,
do not ski ve the hose. Lubr i cate the I D of a
hose and the OD of a stem. Cl amp a hose stem
i n a bench vi ce and i nstal l a hose. Turn the
hose counter cl ockwi se unti l i t bottoms agai nst
the shoul der of the stem (Fi gur e 2-38, di agram
A). I f you do not have a vi ce, for ce the stem
i nto the hose by pushi ng or str i ki ng the stem
wi th a wooden bl ock. Pl ace the cl amp hal ves i n
posi ti on (Fi gure 2-38, di agram B) and draw
them together wi th a vi ce or wi th extr a l ong
bol ts unti l the standard bol ts protrude far
enough to gri p the nuts. Remove the extra l ong
bol ts and pl ace retai ni ng bol ts through the
cl amp. Ti ghten the nuts unti l you get the
requi r ed torque (Fi gure 2-38, di agram C).
NOTE: You may have to
retighten the bolts after the
hose assembly has been operat-
ing about 10 to 20 hours. Use
clamp-type couplings on hose
assemblies with diameters of 1
inch or greater. Use reusable
screw-type fittings on hose
assemblies with diameters less
than 1 inch.
2-11. Leakage. Any hydraul i c system wi l l
have a cer tai n amount of l eakage. Any l eakage
wi l l r educe effi ci ency and cause power l oss.
Some l eakage i s bui l t i n (pl anned), some i s not.
Leakage may be i nternal , external , or both.
a. I nternal. Thi s type of l eakage (nonposi -
ti ve) must be bui l t i nto hydr aul i c components
to l ubri cate val ve spool s, shafts, pi stons, bear-
i ngs, pumpi ng mechani sms, and other movi ng
par ts. I n some hydraul i c val ves and pump and
motor compensator contr ol s, l eakage paths ar e
bui l t i n to pr ovi de preci se contr ol and to avoi d
hunti ng (osci l l ati on) of spool s and pi stons. Oi l
i s not l ost i n i nter nal l eakage; i t r eturns to a r eser voi r through r etur n l i nes or speci al l y pr o-
vi ded dr ai n passages.
Too much i nter nal l eakage wi l l sl ow down actuator s. The power l oss i s accompani ed by
the heat gener ated at a l eakage path. I n some i nstances, excess l eakage i n a val ve coul d
cause a cyl i nder to dr i ft or even cr eep when a val ve i s supposedl y i n neutr al . I n the case of
A
B
C
Figure 2-38. Assembly of clamp-type
coupling
FM 5-499
2-30 Hydraulic Systems
fl ow or pressur e-control val ves, l eakage can often r educe effecti ve control or even cause con-
tr ol to be l ost.
Normal wear i ncr eases i nternal l eakage, whi ch provi des l arger fl ow paths for the l eak-
i ng oi l . An oi l that i s l ow i n vi scosi ty l eaks mor e r eadi l y than a heavy oi l . Ther efor e an oi l s
vi scosi ty and vi scosi ty i ndex are i mportant consi derati ons i n pr ovi di ng or preventi ng i nter-
nal l eakage. I nter nal l eakage al so i ncr eases wi th pr essur e, just as hi gher pr essur e causes a
gr eater fl ow thr ough an ori fi ce. Operati ng above the r ecommended pr essures adds the dan-
ger of excessi ve i nternal l eakage and heat generati on to other possi bl e harmful effects.
A bl own or ruptured i nternal seal can open a l arge enough l eakage path to di vert al l of a
pump's del i very. When thi s happens, everythi ng except the oi l fl ow and heat generati on at a
l eakage poi nt can stop.
b. External. External l eakage can be hazardous, expensi ve, and unsi ghtl y. Faul ty
i nstal l ati on and poor mai ntenance ar e the pri me causes of external l eakage. Joi nts may
l eak because they were not put together proper l y or because shock and vi brati on i n the l i nes
shook them l oose. Addi ng suppor ts to the l i nes pr events thi s. I f assembl ed and i nstal l ed
corr ectl y, components sel dom l eak. However, fai l ur e to connect drai n l i nes, excessi ve pres-
sures, or contami nati on can cause seal s to bl ow or be damaged, r esul ti ng i n exter nal l eakage
fr om the components.
c. Prevention. Pr oper i nstal l ati on, control of operati ng condi ti ons, and pr oper mai nte-
nance hel p prevent l eakage.
(1) I nstal l ati on. I nstal l i ng pi pi ng and tubi ng accor di ng to a manufactur er 's recommen-
dati ons wi l l pr omote l ong l i fe of external seal s. Vi brati on or stresses that resul t fr om
i mpr oper i nstal l ati on can shake l oose connecti ons and cr eate puddl es. Avoi d pi nchi ng, cock-
i ng, or i ncor r ectl y i nstal l i ng seal s when assembl i ng the uni ts. Use any speci al tool s that the
manufacturer recommends for i nstal l i ng the seal s.
(2) Operati ng Condi ti ons. To ensur e correct seal l i fe, you must control the operati ng
condi ti ons of the equi pment. A shaft seal or pi ston-r od seal exposed to moi stur e, sal t, di r t, or
any other abrasi ve contami nate wi l l have a shor tened l i fe span. Al so, oper ator s shoul d
al ways tr y to keep thei r l oads wi thi n the r ecommended l i mi ts to pr event l eakage caused by
excessi ve pressur es.
(3) Mai ntenance. Regul ar fi l ter and oi l changes, usi ng a hi gh-qual i ty hydr aul i c oi l , add
to seal l i fe. Usi ng i nfer i or oi l coul d wear on a seal and i nter fer e wi th desi r abl e oi l pr oper ti es.
Pr oper mai ntenance prevents i mpur i ty deposi ts and ci rcul ati ng i ngr edi ents that coul d wear
on a dynami c seal .
Never use addi ti ves wi thout approval fr om the equi pment and oi l suppl i ers. Lubr i ca-
ti on can be cri ti cal to a seal 's l i fe i n dynami c appl i cati ons. Syntheti cs do not absorb much oi l
and must be l ubri cated qui ckl y or they wi l l r ub. Leather and fi ber do absor b oi l . Manufac-
turers recommend soaki ng a seal over ni ght i n oi l before i nstal l i ng i t. Do not i nstal l a seal
dry. Al ways coat i t i n cl ean hydraul i c oi l before i nstal l i ng i t.
2-12. Seals. Seal s ar e packi ng mater i al s used to pr event l eaks i n l i qui d-power ed systems.
A seal i s any gasket, packi ng, seal ri ng, or other par t desi gned speci fi cal l y for seal i ng. Seal -
i ng appl i cati ons are usual l y stati c or dynami c, dependi ng i f the parts bei ng seal ed move i n
r el ati on to one another . Seal i ng keeps the hydraul i c oi l fl owi ng i n passages to hol d pr essur e
and keep for ei gn mater i al s fr om getti ng i nto the hydr aul i c passages. To prevent l eakage,
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-31
use a posi ti ve seal i ng method, whi ch
i nvol ves usi ng actual seal i ng par ts or
mater i al s. I n most hydr aul i c compo-
nents, you can use nonposi ti ve seal i ng
(l eakage for l ubri cati on) by fi tti ng the
par ts cl osel y together . The str ength
of an oi l fi l m that the par ts sl i de
agai nst provi des an effecti ve seal .
a. Static Seals. Pi pe-threaded
seal s, seal ri ngs used wi th tube fi t-
ti ngs, val ve end-cap seal s, and other
seal s on nonmovi ng parts are stati c
seal s. Mounti ng gaskets and seal s
are stati c, as ar e seal s used i n maki ng
connecti ons between components. A
stati c seal or gasket i s pl aced between
par ts that do not move i n r el ati on to
each other . Fi gure 2-39 shows some
typi cal stati c seal s i n fl anged connec-
ti ons.
b. Dynamic Seals. I n a dynami c
seal i ng appl i cati on, ei ther a reci pro-
cati ng or a r otar y moti on occur s between the two
par ts bei ng seal ed; for exampl e, a pi ston-to-bar -
rel seal i n a hydraul i c cyl i nder or a dri ve-shaft
seal i n a pump or motor .
(1) O-Ri ng (Fi gur e 2-40). An O-ri ng i s a
posi ti ve seal that i s used i n stati c and dynami c
appl i cati ons. I t has r epl aced the fl at gasket on
hydr aul i c equi pment. When bei ng i nstal l ed,
an O-ri ng i s squeezed at the top and bottom i n
i ts gr oove and agai nst the mati ng par t. I t i s
capabl e of seal i ng ver y hi gh pr essur e. Pr essur e
for ces the seal agai nst the si de of i ts gr oove,
and the r esul t i s a posi ti ve seal on thr ee si des.
Dynami c appl i cati ons of an O-ri ng ar e usual l y
l i mi ted to reci procati ng par ts that have rel a-
ti vel y shor t moti on.
To r emove an O-ri ng seal , you need a spe-
ci al tool made of soft i ron or al umi num or a
brass rod (Fi gure 2-41, page 2-32). Make sur e
that the tool s edges ar e fl at and that you pol i sh
any burrs and rough sur faces.
(2) Backup Ri ng (Fi gure 2-42, page 2-32).
Usual l y, made of sti ff nyl on, you can use a
backup ri ng wi th an O-ri ng so that i t i s not
BASIC FLANGE JOINTS
Gasket
Simple
METAL-TO-METAL JOINTS
Tongue-and groove
Tongue-and groove
Figure 2-39. Static seals
No
pressure
Pressure
Figure 2-40. O-ring placement
FM 5-499
2-32 Hydraulic Systems
forced i nto the space between the mati ng
parts. A combi nati on of hi gh pressur e and
cl earance between the parts coul d cal l for a
backup ri ng.
(3) Lathe-Cut Seal . Thi s seal i s l i ke an O-
ri ng but i s squar e i n cross-secti on rather than
round. A l athe-cut ri ng i s cut fr om extruded
tubes, whi l e an O-ri ng must be i ndi vi dual l y
mol ded. I n many stati c appl i cati ons, r ound-
and squar e-secti on seal s ar e i nter changeabl e, i f
made fr om the same mater i al .
(4) T-Ri ng Seal (Fi gure 2-43). Thi s seal i s
rei nforced wi th back-up ri ngs on each si de. A T-
ri ng seal i s used i n reci procati ng dynami c appl i -
cati ons, parti cul arl y on cyl i nder pi stons and
ar ound pi ston r ods.
(5) Li p Seal (Fi gur e 2-44). Thi s a dynami c
seal used mai nl y on r otati ng shafts. A seal i ng
l i p pr ovi des a posi ti ve seal agai nst l ow pr es-
sur e. A l i p i s i nstal l ed towar d the pr essur e
sour ce. Pr essur e agai nst a l i p bal l oons i t out to
ai d i n seal i ng. Very hi gh pr essure, however ,
can get past thi s ki nd of seal because i t does not
have the backup suppor t that an O-r i ng has.
Someti mes, doubl e-l i p seal s ar e
used on the shafts of r eversi bl e pumps
or motor s. Rever si ng a uni t can gi ve
an al ternati ng pressure and vacuum
condi ti on i n the chamber adjacent to a
seal . A doubl e-l i p seal , therefore, pre-
vents oi l from getti ng out or ai r and
di r t fr om getti ng i n.
(6) Cup Seal (Fi gur e 2-45). Thi s i s
a posi ti ve seal that i s used on hydraul i c
cyl i nder pi stons and seal s much l i ke a
l i p seal . A cup seal i s backed up so that
i t can handl e ver y hi gh pr essur es.
(7) Pi ston Ri ng (Fi gur e 2-46). A
pi ston ri ng i s used to seal pressur e at
the end of a reci pr ocati ng pi ston. I t
hel ps keep fr i cti on at a mi ni mum i n a
hydraul i c cyl i nder and offers l ess resi s-
tance to movement than a cup seal . A
pi ston ri ng i s used i n many compl ex
components and systems to seal fl ui d
passages l eadi ng from hol l ow r otati ng
Surface must be smooth and
free from scratches.
Corners must not be dented
or bumped.
0.005 radius desired.
Flatten as shown and polish
off burrs and edges.
Figure 2-41. O-ring removal tool
O ring
Pressure
Back-up ring
Figure 2-42. Backup ring
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-33
shafts. I t i s fi ne for hi gh pressures but may not pr ovi de a posi ti ve seal . A posi ti ve seal i s
mor e l i kel y to occur when pi ston r i ngs are pl aced si de by si de. Often, a pi ston ri ng i s
desi gned to al l ow some l eakage for l ubri cati on.
(8) Face Seal (Fi gur e 2-47, page 2-34). Thi s seal has two smooth, fl at el ements that run
together to seal a rotati ng shaft. One el ement i s metal l i c and the other i s nonmetal l i c. The
el ements ar e attached to a shaft and a body so that one face i s stati onar y and the other tur ns
agai nst i t. One el ement i s often spri ng-l oaded to take up wear . A face seal i s used pr i mar i l y
when ther e i s hi gh speed, pr essur e, and temper atur e.
c. Packing. Packi ng i s a type of twi sted or woven fi ber or soft metal str ands that ar e
packed between the two par ts bei ng seal ed. A packi ng gl and suppor ts and backs up the
packi ng. Packi ng (Fi gur e 2-48) can be ei ther stati c or dynami c. I t has been and i s used as a
rotati ng shaft seal , a r eci pr ocati ng pi ston-r od seal , and a gasket i n many stati c appl i cati ons.
I n stati c appl i cati ons, a seal i s r epl aci ng a packi ng. A compressi on packi ng i s usual l y
pl aced i n a coi l or l ayer ed i n a bor e and compressed by ti ghteni ng a fl anged member. A
mol ded packi ng i s mol ded i nto a pr eci se cross-secti onal form, such as a U or V. Sever al
Seal
Back-up ring
Figure 2-43. T-ring seal
Spring
lip
High
pressure
Seal housing
Figure 2-44. Lip seal
Cylinder
Cup seals
Piston
Figure 2-45. Cup seal
Piston
Seal ring
Cylinder
barrel
O ring
Figure 2-46. Piston ring
FM 5-499
2-34 Hydraulic Systems
packi ngs can be used together , wi th a backup
that i s spri ng-l oaded to compensate for wear .
d. Seal Materials. The earl i est seal i ng
materi al s for hydr aul i c components wer e
mai nl y l eather, cork, and i mpregnated fi ber s.
Curr entl y, most seal i ng materi al s i n a hydr au-
l i c system ar e made fr om syntheti c mater i al s
such as ni tri l e, si l i cone, and neoprene.
(1) Leather Seal s. Leather i s sti l l a good
seal i ng mater i al and has not been compl etel y
r epl aced by el astomer s. I t i s tough, r esi sts
abrasi on, and has the abi l i ty to hol d l ubri cat-
i ng fl ui ds i n i ts fi ber s. I mpregnati ng l eather
wi th syntheti c r ubber i mproves the l eather 's
seal i ng abi l i ty and r educes i ts fr i cti on.
Leather's di sadvantages are that i t tends to
squeal when i t i s dry, and i t cannot stand hi gh
temper atur es.
(2) Ni tri l e Seal s. Ni tr i l e i s a compar a-
ti vel y tough mater i al wi th excel l ent wear abi l -
i ty. I ts composi ti on vari es to be compati bl e
wi th petr ol eum oi l s, and i t can easi l y be
mol ded i nto di ffer ent seal shapes. Some
ni tr i l e seal s can be used, wi thout di ffi cul ty, i n
temper atur es r angi ng fr om -40 degr ees Fahr-
enhei t to +230 F.
(3) Si l i cone Seal s. Si l i cone i s an el as-
tomer that has a much wi der temper atur e
r ange than some ni tr i l e seal s have. Si l i cone
cannot be used for reci procati ng seal s because
i t i s not as tough. I t tear s, el ongates, and
abrades fai rl y easi l y. Many l i p-type shaft
seal s made fr om si l i cone are used i n extreme
temperatur e appl i cati ons. Si l i cone O-ri ngs ar e
used for stati c appl i cati ons. Si l i cone has a ten-
dency to swel l si nce i t absor bs a fai r vol ume of
oi l whi l e runni ng hot. Thi s i s an advantage, i f
the swel l i ng i s not objecti onabl e, because a seal can r un dry for a l onger ti me at star t-up.
(4) Neoprene. At ver y l ow temper atur es, neopr ene i s compati bl e wi th petr ol eum oi l .
Above 150 degr ees, i t has a habi t of cooki ng or vul cani zi ng, maki ng i t l ess useful .
(5) Nyl on. Nyl on i s a pl asti c (al so known as fl uoro-el astomer ) that combi nes fl uori ne
wi th a syntheti c rubber . I t i s used for backup ri ngs, has seal i ng materi al s i n speci al appl i ca-
ti ons, and has a very hi gh heat r esi stance.
Housing
Sealing face
Preloading
spring
Shaft
High pressure
Low pressure
Figure 2-47. Face seal
Compression
packings
Pressure
Figure 2-48. Compression packing
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-1
CHAPTER 3
Pumps
Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric
motor) into hydraulic (pressure) energy. The pressure energy is used then to operate an actu-
ator. Pumps push on a hydraulic fluid and create flow.
3-1. Pump Classifications. Al l pumps cr eate fl ow. They oper ate on the di spl acement
pri nci pl e. Fl ui d i s taken i n and di spl aced to another poi nt. Pumps that di schar ge l i qui d i n a
conti nuous fl ow ar e nonposi ti ve-di spl acement type. Pumps that di scharge vol umes of l i qui d
separ ated by peri ods of no di scharge are posi ti ve-di spl acement type.
a. Nonpositive-Displacement Pumps. Wi th thi s pump, the vol ume of l i qui d del i ver ed for
each cycl e depends on the resi stance offer ed to fl ow. A pump pr oduces a force on the l i qui d
that i s constant for each parti cul ar speed of the pump. Resi stance i n a di scharge l i ne pro-
duces a for ce i n the opposi te di recti on. When these forces are equal , a l i qui d i s i n a state of
equi l i bri um and does not fl ow.
I f the outl et of a nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pump i s compl etel y cl osed, the di scharge
pr essur e wi l l ri se to the maxi mum for a pump oper ati ng at a maxi mum speed. A pump wi l l
churn a l i qui d and pr oduce heat. Fi gure 3-1 shows a nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pump. A
water wheel pi cks up the fl ui d and moves i t.
b. Positive-Displacement Pumps. Wi th thi s pump, a defi ni te vol ume of l i qui d i s del i v-
ered for each cycl e of pump operati on, regardl ess of resi stance, as l ong as the capaci ty of the
power uni t dri vi ng a pump i s not exceeded. I f an outl et i s compl etel y cl osed, ei ther the uni t
dri vi ng a pump wi l l stal l or somethi ng wi l l break. Ther efore, a posi ti ve-di spl acement-type
pump requi res a pr essure regul ator or pr essure-r el i ef val ve i n the system. Fi gure 3-2, page
3-2, shows a r eci pr ocati ng-type, posi ti ve-di spl acement pump.
Fi gure 3-3, page 3-2, shows
another posi ti ve-di spl acement
pump. Thi s pump not onl y creates
fl ow, but i t al so backs i t up. A
seal ed case around the gear traps
the fl ui d and hol ds i t whi l e i t
moves. As the fl ui d fl ows out of
the other si de, i t i s seal ed agai nst
backup. Thi s seal i ng i s the posi -
ti ve par t of di spl acement. Wi th-
out i t, the fl ui d coul d never
over come the r esi stance of the
other parts i n a system.
c. Characteristics. The thr ee
contrasti ng characteri sti cs i n the
Figure 3-1. Nonpositive-displacement pump
FM 5-499
3-2 Pumps
operati on of posi ti ve- and nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pumps are as fol l ows:
Nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pumps pr ovi de a smooth, conti nuous fl ow; posi ti ve-
di spl acement pumps have a pul se wi th each str oke or each ti me a pumpi ng cham-
ber opens to an outl et por t.
Pr essur e can r educe a nonposi ti ve pumps del i ver y. Hi gh outl et pr essur e can
stop any output; the l i qui d si mpl y r eci r cul ates i nsi de the pump. I n a posi ti ve-
di spl acement pump, pr essur e affects the output onl y to the extent that i t
i ncr eases i nter nal l eakage.
Nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pumps, wi th the i nl ets and outl ets connected hydr aul i -
cal l y, cannot create a vacuum suffi ci ent for sel f-pri mi ng; they must be star ted
wi th the i nl et l i ne ful l of l i qui d and fr ee of ai r . Posi ti ve-di spl acement pumps often
ar e sel f-pr i mi ng when star ted properl y.
3-2. Performance. Pumps are usual l y rated accor di ng to thei r vol umetr i c output and pr es-
sure. Vol umetri c output (del i very rate or capaci ty) i s the amount of l i qui d that a pump can
del i ver at i ts outl et por t per uni t of ti me at a gi ven dr i ve speed, usual l y expr essed i n GPM or
cubi c i nches per mi nute. Because changes i n pump dri ve affect vol umetri c output, pumps
ar e someti mes r ated accor di ng to di spl ace-
ment, that i s the amount of l i qui d that
they can del i ver per cycl e or cubi c i nches
per r evol uti on.
Pr essur e i s the for ce per uni t ar ea of a
l i qui d, usual l y expr essed i n psi . (Most of
the pressur e i n the hydraul i c systems cov-
ered i n thi s manual i s created by resi s-
tance to fl ow.) Resi stance i s usual l y
caused by a restri cti on or obstr ucti on i n a
path or fl ow. The pressur e devel oped i n a
system has an effect on the vol umetri c
output of the pump suppl yi ng fl ow to a
system. As pr essur e i ncreases, vol umetri c
output decr eases. Thi s dr op i n output i s
caused by an i ncr ease i n i nter nal l eakage
(sl i ppage) fr om a pump's outl et si de to i ts
i nl et si de. Sl i ppage i s a measur e of a
pumps effi ci ency and usual l y i s expressed
i n percent. Some pumps have gr eater
i nter nal sl i ppage than other s; some
pumps ar e r ated i n ter ms of vol umetr i c
output at a gi ven pr essur e.
3-3. Displacement. Di spl acement i s the
amount of l i qui d transfer red from a
pumps i nl et to i ts outl et i n one r evol uti on
or cycl e. I n a r otary pump, di spl acement
i s expr essed i n cubi c i nches per r evol uti on
and i n a r eci pr ocati ng pump i n cubi c
i nches per cycl e. I f a pump has mor e than
Figure 3-2. Reciprocating-type, positive-
displacement pump
Figure 3-3. Positive-displacement pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-3
one pumpi ng chamber, i ts di spl acement i s equal to the di spl acement of one chamber mul ti -
pl i ed by the number of chamber s. Di spl acement i s ei ther fi xed or var i abl e.
a. Fixed-Displacement Pump. I n thi s pump, the GPM output can be changed onl y by
varyi ng the dri ve speed. The pump can be used i n an open-center systema pumps output
has a fr ee-fl ow path back to a reservoi r i n the neutr al condi ti on of a ci rcui t.
b. Variable-Displacement Pump. I n thi s pump, pumpi ng-chamber si zes can be changed.
The GPM del i ver y can be changed by movi ng the di spl acement control , changi ng the dri ve
speed, or doi ng both. The pump can be used i n a cl osed-center systema pump conti nues to
operate agai nst a l oad i n the neutral condi ti on.
3-4. Slippage. Sl i ppage i s oi l l eaki ng fr om a pressure outl et to a l ow-pressur e area or back
to an i nl et. A drai n passage al l ows l eaki ng oi l to r etur n to an i nl et or a r eser voi r . Some sl i p-
page i s desi gned i nto pumps for l ubri cati on purposes. Sl i ppage wi l l i ncrease wi th pressur e
and as a pump begi ns to wear . Oi l fl ow through a gi ven or i fi ce si ze depends on the pressur e
dri p. An i nternal l eakage path i s the same as an ori fi ce. Therefor e, i f pressur e i ncreases,
mor e fl ow wi l l occur through a l eakage path and l ess from an outl et port. Any i ncr ease i n
sl i ppage i s a l oss of effi ci ency.
3-5. Designs. I n most rotar y hydraul i c pumps (Fi gur e 3-3), the desi gn i s such that the
pumpi ng chamber s i ncr ease i n si ze at the i nl et, thereby cr eati ng a vacuum. The chambers
then decr ease i n si ze at the outl et to push fl ui d i nto a system. The vacuum at the i nl et i s
used to cr eate a pressure di fference so that fl ui d wi l l fl ow from a reser voi r to a pump. How-
ever , i n many systems, an i nl et i s charged or super charged; that i s, a posi ti ve pr essur e
rather than a vacuum i s cr eated by a pr essuri zed r eser voi r , a head of fl ui d above the i nl et, or
even a l ow-pr essure-chargi ng pump. The essenti al s of any hydraul i c pump are
A l ow-pressur e i nl et port, whi ch carr ys fl ui d from the reservoi r .
A hi gh-pressur e outl et port connected to the pressure l i ne.
Pumpi ng chamber(s) to carry a fl ui d from the i nl et to the outl et port.
A mechani cal means for acti vati ng the pumpi ng chamber(s).
Pumps may be cl assi fi ed accor di ng to the speci fi c desi gn used to cr eate the fl ow of a l i q-
ui d. Most hydraul i c pumps ar e ei ther centr i fugal , r otary, or r eci pr ocati ng.
a. Centrifugal Pump. Thi s pump general l y i s used where a l arge vol ume of fl ow i s
requi red at rel ati vel y l ow pressur es. I t can be connected i n seri es by feedi ng an outl et of one
pump i nto an i nl et of another . Wi th thi s arrangement, the pumps can devel op fl ow agai nst
hi gh pr essur es. A centr i fugal pump i s a nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pump, and the two most
common types ar e the vol ute and the di ffuser .
(1) Vol ute Pump (Fi gur e 3-4, page 3-4). Thi s pump has a ci rcul ar pumpi ng chamber
wi th a centr al i nl et por t (sucti on pi pe) and an outl et por t. A r otati ng i mpel l er i s l ocated i n a
pumpi ng chamber . A chamber between the casi ng and the center hub i s the vol ute. Li qui d
enter s a pumpi ng chamber through a centr al i nl et (or eye) and i s tr apped between the whi rl -
i ng i mpel l er bl ades. Centr i fugal for ce thr ows a l i qui d outwar d at a hi gh vel oci ty, and a con-
tour of a casi ng di r ects a movi ng l i qui d through an outl et por t.
(2) Di ffuser Pump (Fi gur e 3-5). Si mi l ar to a vol ute type, a di ffuser pump has a ser i es of
stati onary bl ades (the di ffuser) that curve i n the opposi te di recti on from whi r l i ng i mpel l er
FM 5-499
3-4 Pumps
bl ades. A di ffuser reduces the vel oc-
i ty of a l i qui d, decreases sl i ppage, and
increases a pump's abi l i ty to devel op
fl ow agai nst resi stance.
b. Rotary Pump. I n thi s posi ti ve-
di spl acement-type pump, a r otary
moti on carr i es a l i qui d from a pumps
i nl et to i ts outl et. A r otary pump i s
usual l y cl assi fi ed accor di ng to the
type of el ement that actual l y tr ans-
mi ts a l i qui d, that i s, a gear -, vane-,
or pi ston-type r otar y pump.
c. Reciprocating Pump. A r eci p-
rocati ng pump depends on a reci pro-
cati ng moti on to transmi t a l i qui d
fr om a pumps i nl et to i ts outl et. Fi g-
ure 3-2, page 3-2, shows a si mpl i fi ed
reci procati ng pump. I t consi sts of a
cyl i nder that houses a r eci pr ocati ng
pi ston, Fi gur e 3-2, 1; an i nl et val ve,
Fi gur e 3-2, 2; and an outl et val ve, Fi g-
ur e 3-2, 3, whi ch di r ect fl ui d to and
fr om a cyl i nder . When a pi ston moves
to the l eft, a par ti al vacuum that i s
created dr aws a bal l off i ts seat, al l ow-
i ng a l i qui d to be drawn through an
i nl et val ve i nto a cyl i nder . When a
pi ston moves to the ri ght, a bal l
r eseats and cl oses an i nl et val ve.
However , the for ce of a fl ow unseats a
bal l , al l owi ng a fl ui d to be forced out
of a cyl i nder thr ough an outl et val ve.
3-6. Gear Pumps. Gear pumps ar e
external , i nter nal , or l obe types.
a. External. Fi gur e 3-6 shows
the operati ng pr i nci pl e of an external
gear pump. I t consi sts of a dr i vi ng
gear and a dri ven gear encl osed i n a cl osel y fi tted housi ng. The gear s r otate i n opposi te
di r ecti ons and mesh at a poi nt i n the housi ng between the i nl et and outl et por ts. Both sets
of teeth pr oject outwar d fr om the center of the gear s. As the teeth of the two gear s separate,
a parti al vacuum forms and dr aws l i qui d through an i nl et port i nto chamber A. Li qui d i n
chamber A i s tr apped between the teeth of the two gear s and the housi ng so that i t i s car r i ed
through two separate paths ar ound to chamber B. As the teeth agai n mesh, they pr oduce a
force that dr i ves a l i qui d through an outl et por t.
Figure 3-4. Volute pump
Figure 3-5. Diffuser pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-5
b. I nternal. Fi gure 3-7
shows an i nter nal gear
pump. The teeth of one gear
pr oject outwar d, whi l e the
teeth of the other gear pr oject
i nward towar d the center of
the pump. One gear wheel
stands i nsi de the other . Thi s
type of gear can r otate, or be
rotated by, a sui tabl y con-
structed compani on gear. An
external gear i s di rectl y
attached to the dri ve shaft of
a pump and i s pl aced off-cen-
ter i n r el ati on to an i nternal
gear . The two gear s mesh on
one si de of a pump chamber ,
between an i nl et and the di s-
char ge. On the opposi te si de
of the chamber , a cr escent-
shaped form stands i n the
space between the two gear s to pr ovi de a cl ose tol er ance.
The r otati on of the i nter nal gear by a shaft causes the exter nal gear to r otate, si nce the
two are i n mesh. Ever ythi ng i n the chamber r otates except the cr escent, causi ng a l i qui d to
be tr apped i n the gear spaces as they pass the cr escent. Li qui d i s carri ed fr om an i nl et to the
di schar ge, where i t i s for ced out of a pump by the gear s meshi ng. As l i qui d i s car ri ed away
Figure 3-6. External gear pump
Figure 3-7. Internal gear pump
FM 5-499
3-6 Pumps
from an i nl et si de of a pump, the pressur e
i s di mi ni shed, and l i qui d i s for ced i n fr om
the suppl y sour ce. The si ze of the cr escent
that separates the i nternal and exter nal
gear s deter mi nes the vol ume del i very of
thi s pump. A smal l crescent al l ows mor e
vol ume of a l i qui d per revol uti on than a
l ar ger cr escent.
c. Lobe. Fi gur e 3-8 shows a l obe
pump. I t di ffers from other gear pumps
because i t uses l obed el ements i nstead of
gear s. The el ement dri ve al so di ffer s i n a
l obe pump. I n a gear pump, one gear
dri ves the other . I n a l obe pump, both el e-
ments ar e dri ven through sui tabl e external
gear i ng.
3-7. Vane Pumps. I n a vane-type pump,
a sl otted r otor spl i ned to a dr i ve shaft
r otates between cl osel y fi tted si de pl ates
that are i nsi de of an el l i pti cal - or ci r cul ar-shaped r i ng. Pol i shed, hardened vanes sl i de i n
and out of the rotor sl ots and fol l ow the ri ng contour by centri fugal force. Pumpi ng cham-
ber s ar e for med between succeedi ng vanes, car ryi ng oi l fr om the i nl et to the outl et. A par ti al
vacuum i s cr eated at the i nl et as the space between vanes i ncr eases. The oi l i s squeezed out
at the outl et as the pumpi ng chamber s si ze decr eases.
Because the nor mal wear poi nts i n a vane pump ar e the vane ti ps and a r i ngs sur face,
the vanes and ri ng ar e speci al l y har dened and ground. A vane pump i s the onl y desi gn that
has automati c wear compensati on bui l t i n. As wear occurs, the vanes si mpl y sl i de far ther
out of the r otor sl ots and conti nue to fol l ow a ri ngs contour . Thus effi ci ency r emai ns hi gh
throughout the l i fe of the pump.
a. Characteristics. Di spl acement of a vane-type pump depends on the wi dth of the ri ng
and r otor and the throw of the cam ri ng. I nterchangeabl e ri ngs are desi gned so a basi c
pump conver ts to sever al di spl acements. Bal anced desi gn vane pumps al l ar e fi xed di spl ace-
ment. An unbal anced desi gn can be bui l t i n ei ther a fi xed- or vari abl e-di spl acement pump.
Vane pumps have good effi ci ency and durabi l i ty i f oper ated i n a cl ean system usi ng the cor -
r ect oi l . They cover the l ow to medi um-hi gh pr essur e, capaci ty, and speed r anges. Package
si ze i n rel ati on to output i s smal l . A vane pump i s general l y qui et, but wi l l whi ne at hi gh
speeds.
b. Unbalanced Vane Pumps. I n the unbal anced desi gn, (Fi gur e 3-9), a cam ri ngs shape
i s a true ci rcl e that i s on a di ffer ent centerl i ne from a rotors. Pump di spl acement depends
on how far a rotor and ri ng ar e eccentri c. The advantage of a true-ci rcl e ri ng i s that control
can be appl i ed to vary the eccentri ci ty and thus vary the di spl acement. A di sadvantage i s
that an unbal anced pr essur e at the outl et i s effecti ve agai nst a smal l ar ea of the r otor s edge,
i mposi ng si de l oads on the shaft. Thus ther e i s a l i mi t on a pumps si ze unl ess very l arge
heari ngs and heavy supports are used.
c. Balanced Vane Pumps. I n the bal anced desi gn (Fi gur e 3-10), a pump has a stati on-
ar y, el l i pti cal cam r i ng and two sets of i nter nal por ts. A pumpi ng chamber i s for med
Figure 3-8. Lobe pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-7
between any two vanes twi ce
i n each revol uti on. The two
i nl ets and outl ets ar e 180
degr ees apar t. Back pr es-
sur es agai nst the edges of a
r otor cancel each other .
Recent desi gn i mprovements
that al l ow hi gh operati ng
speeds and pressur es have
made thi s pump the most
uni ver sal i n the mobi l e-
equi pment fi el d.
d. Double Pumps. Vane-
type doubl e pumps (Fi gur e 3-
11, page 3-8) consi st of two
separ ate pumpi ng devi ces.
Each i s contai ned i n i ts own r espec-
ti ve housi ng, mounted i n tandem, and
dri ven by a common shaft. Each pump
al so has i ts own i nl et and outl et por ts, whi ch may be combi ned by usi ng mani fol ds or pi pi ng.
Desi gn vari ati ons are avai l abl e i n whi ch both cartri dges are contai ned wi thi n one body. An
addi ti onal pump i s someti mes attached to the head end to suppl y auxi l i ary fl ow r equi r e-
ments.
Doubl e pumps may be used to pr ovi de fl ui d fl ow for two separate ci rcui ts or combi ned
for fl ow requi rements for a si ngl e ci rcui t. Combi ni ng pump del i ver i es does not al ter the
maxi mum pr essur e r ati ng of ei ther car tr i dge. Separate ci rcui ts r equi r e separ ate pr essur e
contr ol s to l i mi t maxi mum pr essur e i n each ci r cui t.
Fi gur e 3-12, page 3-8, shows an
i nstal l ati on i n whi ch doubl e pumps
are used to provi de fl ui d fl ow for oper-
ati on of a cyl i nder i n rapi d advance
and feed. I n ci rcui t B, two rel i ef
val ves are used to contr ol pumpi ng
oper ati on. I n ci rcui t A, one r el i ef val ve
and one unl oadi ng val ve ar e used to
control pumpi ng operati ons. I n both
ci r cui ts, the del i veri es of the pump
car tri dges ar e combi ned after passi ng
thr ough the val ves. Thi s combi ned
fl ow i s di r ected to a four -way val ve
and to the r est of the ci rcui t.
I n ci rcui t B, an upper r el i ef val ve
i s vented when a cyl i nder r od r eaches
and tr i ps a pi l ot val ve. A vented r el i ef
val ve di rects the del i very of a shaft-
end pump car tr i dge fr eel y back to a
tank. Another r el i ef val ve contr ol s the
maxi mum pr essur e of a ci r cui t. An
Figure 3-10. Balanced vane pump
Figure 3-9. Unbalanced vane pump
FM 5-499
3-8 Pumps
Head
Packing
Body
Bearing
Flange
Head
Bushing
Ring
Rotor
Bushing
Shaft
Flange
Gasket
Bearing
Packing
Gaskets
Bushing Ring Rotor
Bushing
Figure 3-11. Vane-type double pump
A
CIRCUIT USING REMOTE-
CONTROLLED UNLOADING VALVE
B
CIRCUIT USING VENTING-
TYPE RELIEF VALVE
Figure 3-12. Fluid flow from vane-type double pumps
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-9
unl oadi ng val ve and a rel i ef val ve i n ci rcui t A do the same operati on. The output of both
pump car tr i dges combi nes to suppl y fl ui d for a r api d advance por ti on of a cycl e. When the
output of one ci r cui t r eturns to the tank, after r eachi ng a cer tai n poi nt i n the cycl e, the other
ci r cui t compl etes the advance por tion of a cycl e. Both pump outputs are then combi ned for rapi d
return.
e. Two-Stage Pumps. Two-stage pumps consi st of two separate pump assembl i es con-
tai ned i n one housi ng. The pump assembl i es are connected so that fl ow from the outl et of
one i s di r ected i nter nal l y to the i nl et of the other . Si ngl e i nl et and outl et por ts ar e used for
system connecti ons. I n constructi on, the pumps consi st of separate pumpi ng cartri dges
dri ven by a common dr i ve shaft contai ned i n one housi ng. A di vi di ng val ve i s used to equal -
i ze the pr essure l oad on each stage and corr ect for mi nor fl ow di ffer ences from ei ther car -
tr i dge.
I n oper ati on, devel opi ng
fl ui d fl ow for each cartri dge
i s the same as for si ngl e
pumps. Fi gure 3-13 shows
fl ui d fl ow i n a vane-type,
two-stage pump. Oi l from a
reservoi r enters a pumps
i nl et port and passes to the
outl ets of the fi r st-stage
pump cartri dge. (Passages i n
a pumps body carr y the di s-
char ge from thi s stage to an
i nl et of the second stage.)
Outl et passages i n the sec-
ond stage di r ect the oi l to an
outl et por t of the pump. Pas-
sage U connects both cham-
ber s on the i nl et si de of a
second-stage pump and
assur es equal pressur e i n
both chamber s. (Pressur es
ar e those that ar e i mposed on
a pump from external
sources.)
A di vi di ng val ve (see Fi gur e 3-13) consi sts of sl i di ng pi stons A and B. Pi ston A i s
exposed to outl et pressure through passage V. Pi ston B i s exposed to the pressur e between
stages through passage W. The pi stons r espond to mai ntai n a pressur e l oad on a fi rst-stage
pump equal to hal f the outl et pr essur e at a second-stage pump. I f the di scharge fr om the
fi r st stage exceeds the vol ume that can be accepted at the second stage, a pr essur e r i se
occurs i n passage W. The unbal anced force acti ng on pi ston B causes the pi stons to move i n
such a manner that excess oi l fl ows past pi ston B through passage Y to the i nl et chamber of
a fi r st-stage car tri dge. Fl ui d thr ottl i ng across pi ston B i n thi s manner mai ntai ns pr essure
i n passage V.
I f the di schar ge from a fi rst-stage pump i s l ess than the vol ume requi red at a second-
stage pump, a reduced pressur e occurs at pi ston B. An unbal anced force acti ng on pi ston A
Figure 3-13. Vane-type, two-stage pump
FM 5-499
3-10 Pumps
causes the pi stons to move so that oi l fl ows past pi ston A i nto passages X and W to r epl eni sh
a second-stage pump and cor rect the unbal anced condi ti on. Passages Z and Y provi de a
means for l eakage ar ound the pi stons to return to the i nl et chamber of a fi r st-stage pump.
Pi stons A and B al ways seek a posi ti on that equal l y di vi des the l oad between the two pump-
i ng uni ts.
3-8. Piston Pumps. Pi ston pumps are ei ther radi al or axi al .
a. Radial. I n a r adi al pi ston pump (Fi gure 3-14), the pi stons ar e arr anged l i ke wheel
spokes i n a short cyl i ndri cal bl ock. A dri ve shaft, whi ch i s i nsi de a ci rcul ar housi ng, rotates
a cyl i nder bl ock. The bl ock
tur ns on a stati onar y pi ntl e
that contai ns the i nl et and
outl et por ts. As a cyl i nder
bl ock turns, centri fugal for ce
sl i ngs the pi stons, whi ch fol -
l ow a ci rcul ar housi ng. A
housi ngs center l i ne i s offset
from a cyl i nder bl ocks center-
l i ne. The amount of eccentri c-
i ty between the two
deter mi nes a pi ston str oke
and, ther efor e, a pumps di s-
pl acement. Control s can be
appl i ed to change a housi ngs
l ocati on and ther eby var y a
pumps del i ver y fr om zer o to
maxi mum.
Fi gur e 3-15 shows a ni ne-
pi ston, r adi al pi ston pump.
When a pump has an uneven
number of pi stons, no mor e
than one pi ston i s compl etel y bl ocked by a pi ntl e at one ti me, whi ch r educes fl ow pul sati ons.
Wi th an even number of pi stons spaced around a cyl i nder bl ock, two pi stons coul d be bl ocked
by a pi ntl e at the same ti me. I f thi s happens, thr ee pi stons woul d di scharge at one ti me and
four at another ti me, and pul sati ons woul d occur i n the fl ow. A pi ntl e, a cyl i nder bl ock, the
pi stons, a r otor , and a dr i ve shaft consti tute the mai n wor ki ng par ts of a pump.
(1) Pi ntl e. A pi ntl e i s a round bar that serves as a stati onary shaft ar ound whi ch a cyl -
i nder bl ock turns. A pi ntl e shaft (Fi gur e 3-16) has four hol es bor ed fr om one end l engthwi se
through par t of i ts l ength. Two hol es ser ve as an i ntake and two as a di scharge. Two sl ots
ar e cut i n a si de of the shaft so that each sl ot connects two of the l engthwi se hol es. The sl ots
are i n-l i ne wi th the pi stons when a cyl i nder bl ock i s assembl ed on a pi ntl e. One of these
sl ots provi des a path for a l i qui d to pass from the pi stons to the di scharge hol es bored i n a
pi ntl e. Another sl ot connects the two i nl et hol es to the pi stons when they ar e drawi ng i n l i q-
ui d. The di scharge hol es are connected through appropri ate fi tti ngs to a di scharge l i ne so
that a l i qui d can be di rected i nto a system. The other pai r of hol es i s connected to an i nl et
l i ne.
Figure 3-14. Simplified radial piston pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-11
(2) Cyl i nder Bl ock. A cyl i nder
bl ock (Fi gur e 3-17, page 3-12) i s a
bl ock of metal wi th a hol e bor ed
thr ough i ts center to fi t the pi ntl es
and cyl i nders hol es that are bored
equal di stances apart ar ound i ts
outsi de edge. The cyl i nders hol es
connect wi th the hol e that recei ves
a pi ntl e. Desi gns di ffer ; some cyl i n-
der s appear to be al most sol i d,
whi l e other s have spokel i ke cyl i n-
der s r adi ati ng out fr om the center .
A cyl i nder s and pi ntl es hol es ar e
accur atel y machi ned so that l i qui d
l oss around a pi ston i s mi ni mal .
(3) Pi stons. Pi stons ar e manu-
factur ed i n di fferent desi gns (see
Fi gur e 3-18, page 3-12). Di agram A
shows a pi ston wi th smal l wheel s
that r ol l around the i nsi de cur ve of
a r otor . Di agr am B shows a pi ston
i n whi ch a coni cal edge of the top
bear s di r ectl y agai nst a r eacti on
ri ng of the r otor . I n thi s desi gn, a
pi ston goes back and for th i n a cyl i nder whi l e i t r otates about i ts axi s so that the top sur face
wi l l wear uni for ml y. Di agram C shows a pi ston attached to cur ved pl ates. The curved
pl ates bear agai nst and sl i de around the i nsi de sur face of a r otor . The pi stons si des ar e
accur atel y machi ned to fi t the cyl i nder s so
that ther e i s a mi ni mum l oss of l i qui d
between the wal l s of a pi ston and cyl i nder .
No pr ovi si on i s made for usi ng pi ston r i ngs
to hel p seal agai nst pi ston l eakage.
(4) Rotor s. Rotor desi gns may di ffer
fr om pump to pump. A r otor consi sts of a
ci r cul ar ri ng, machi ne fi ni shed on the
i nsi de, agai nst whi ch the pi stons bear . A
r otor r otates wi thi n a sl i de bl ock, whi ch can
be shi fted fr om si de to si de to control the
pi stons l ength of stroke. A sl i de bl ock has
two pai rs of machi ned surfaces on the exte-
ri or so that i t can sl i de i n tr acks i n the
pump case.
(5) Dri ve Shaft. A dri ve shaft i s connected to a cyl i nder bl ock and i s dr i ven by an out-
si de for ce such as an el ectr i c motor .
b. Axial Piston Pumps. I n axi al pi ston pumps, the pi stons stroke i n the same di r ecti on
on a cyl i nder bl ocks centerl i ne (axi al l y). Axi al pi ston pumps may be an i n-l i ne or angl e
Case
Slide block
Rotor
Cylinder
Piston
Pintle
Figure 3-15. Nine-piston radial piston pump
Port
Port
Figure 3-16. Pintle for a radial piston
pump
FM 5-499
3-12 Pumps
desi gn. I n capaci ty, pi ston pumps range fr om
l ow to ver y hi gh. Pressur es are as hi gh as
5,000 psi , and dri ve speeds are medi um to
hi gh. Effi ci ency i s hi gh, and pumps gener al l y
have excel l ent durabi l i ty. Petr ol eum oi l fl ui ds
ar e usual l y requi red. Pul sati ons i n del i very
ar e smal l and of medi um fr equency. The
pumps ar e qui et i n operati on but may have a
gr owl or whi ne, dependi ng on condi ti on.
Except for i n-l i ne pumps, whi ch ar e compact
i n si ze, pi ston pumps ar e heavy and bul ky.
(1) I n-Li ne Pump. I n an i n-l i ne pi ston
pump (Fi gur e 3-19, di agram A), a dri ve shaft
and cyl i nder bl ock ar e on the same center l i ne.
Reci procati on of the pi stons i s caused by a
swash pl ate that the pi stons run agai nst as a
cyl i nder bl ock r otates. A dr i ve shaft tur ns a
cyl i nder bl ock, whi ch car ri es the pi stons
ar ound a shaft. The pi ston shoes sl i de agai nst
a swash pl ate and ar e hel d agai nst i t by a
shoe pl ate. A swash pl ates angl e causes the
cyl i nder s to r eci pr ocate i n thei r bor es. At the
poi nt wher e a pi ston begi ns to r etr act, an
openi ng i n the end of a bor e sl i des over an
i nl et sl ot i n a val ve pl ate, and oi l i s drawn i nto
a bor e through somewhat l ess than hal f a r ev-
ol uti on. Ther e i s a sol i d ar ea i n a val ve pl ate
as a pi ston becomes ful l y r etr acted. As a pi s-
ton begi ns to extend, an openi ng i n a cyl i nder
bar r el moves over an outl et sl ot, and oi l i s
for ced out a pr essur e por t.
(a) Di spl acement. Pump di spl acement
depends on the bor e and str oke of a pi ston and
the number of pi stons. A swash pl ates angl e
(Fi gur e 3-19, di agr am B) deter mi nes the
str oke, whi ch can var y by changi ng the angl e.
I n a fi xed angl es uni t, a swash pl ate i s stati onary i n the housi ng. I n a vari abl e uni ts, i t i s
mounted on a yoke, whi ch can tur n on pi ntl es. Di ffer ent contr ol s can be attached to the pi n-
tl es to vary pump del i ver y fr om zer o to the maxi mum. Wi th cer tai n control s, the di r ecti on of
fl ow can be r ever sed by swi ngi ng a yoke past center . I n the center posi ti on, a swash pl ate i s
perpendi cul ar to the cyl i nders, and ther e i s no pi ston reci procati on; no oi l i s pumped.
(b) Components. The major components of a typi cal , fi xed-di spl acement i n-l i ne pump
ar e the housi ng, a beari ng-supported dr i ve shaft, a rotati ng gr oup, a shaft seal , and a val ve
pl ate. A val ve pl ate contai ns an i nl et and an outl et por t and functi ons as the back cover. A
rotati ng gr oup consi sts of a cyl i nder bl ock that i s spl i ned to a dr i ve shaft, a spl i ned spher i cal
washer , a spr i ng, ni ne pi stons wi th shoes, a swash pl ate, and a shoe pl ate. When a group i s
assembl ed, a spr i ng for ces a cyl i nder bl ock agai nst a val ve pl ate and a spher i cal washer
Figure 3-17. Cylinder block for a radial
piston pump
Figure 3-18. Pistons for a radial piston
pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-13
agai nst a shoe pl ate. Thi s acti on hol ds the pi ston shoes agai nst a swash pl ate, ensur i ng
that the pi stons wi l l r eci procate as the cyl i nder turns. A swash pl ate i s stati onar y i n a fi xed-
di spl acement desi gn.
(c) Oper ati on. A vari abl e-di spl acement i n-l i ne pump oper ates the same as a fi xed angl e
except that a swash pl ate i s mounted on a pi voted yoke. A yoke can be swung to change a
pl ate angl e and thus change a pumps di spl acement. A yoke can be posi ti oned manual l y
wi th a screw or l ever or by a compensator control , whi ch posi ti ons a yoke automati cal l y to
mai ntai n constant output pr essure under vari abl e fl ow requi rements. A compensator con-
tr ol consi sts of a val ve that i s bal anced between a spr i ng and system pr essur e and a spri ng-
l oaded, yoke-actuati ng pi ston that i s control l ed by a val ve. A pumps compensator control
thus r educes i ts output onl y to the vol ume r equi r ed to mai ntai n a pr eset pr essur e. Maxi -
mum del i ver y i s al l owed onl y when pressur e i s l ess than a compensators setti ng.
(2) Wobbl e-Pl ate I n-Li ne Pump. Thi s i s a vari ati on of an i n-l i ne pi ston pump. I n thi s
desi gn, a cyl i nder bar r el does not turn; a pl ate wobbl es as i t tur ns, and the wobbl i ng pushes
the pi stons i n and out of the pumpi ng chamber s i n a stati onary cyl i nder bar r el . I n a wobbl e-
pl ate pump, separ ate i nl et and outl et check val ves ar e requi red for each pi ston, si nce the pi s-
tons do not move past a por t.
A
B
Figure 3-19. In-line piston pump
FM 5-499
3-14 Pumps
(3) Bent-Axi s Axi al Pi ston Pump. I n an angl e- or a bent-axi s-type pi ston pump (Fi gure
3-20), the pi ston rods are attached by bal l joi nts to a dri ve shafts fl ange. A uni ver sal l i nk
keys a cyl i nder bl ock to a shaft so that they r otate together but at an offset angl e. A cyl i nder
bar r el turns agai nst a sl otted val ve pl ate to whi ch the por ts connect. Pumpi ng acti on i s the
same as an i n-l i ne pump. The angl e of offset deter mi nes a pumps di spl acement, just as the
swash pl ates angl e determi nes an i n-l i ne pump's di spl acement. I n fi xed-del i very pumps,
the angl e i s constant. I n var i abl e model s, a yoke mounted on pi ntl es swi ngs a cyl i nder bl ock
to var y di spl acement. Fl ow di recti on can be r eversed wi th appropri ate contr ol s.
3-9. Pump Operation. The fol l owi ng par agraphs address some of the pr obl ems that coul d
occur when a pump i s operati ng:
a. Overloading. One ri sk of over l oadi ng i s the danger of excess tor que on a dri ve shaft.
Tor que i s ci rcul ar for ce on an object. An i ncrease i n pressur e/pump di spl acement wi l l
i ncrease the torque on a shaft i f pump di spl acement/pressure remai ns constant. Often i n a
gi ven package si ze, a hi gher GPM pump wi l l have a l ower pr essur e rati ng than a l ower GPM
pump. Someti mes a fi el d conversi on to get more speed out of an actuator wi l l cause a pump
to be over l oaded. You may need a l ar ger pump.
b. Excess Speed. Runni ng a pump at too hi gh a speed causes l oss of l ubri cati on, whi ch
can cause earl y fai l ur e. I f a needed del i very r equi r es a hi gher dr i ve speed than a pump's rat-
i ng, use a hi gher di spl acement pump. Excess speed al so runs a ri sk of damage from cavi ta-
ti on.
c. Cavitation. Cavi tati on occur s wher e avai l abl e fl ui d does not fi l l an exi sti ng space. I t
often occurs i n a pumps i nl et when condi ti ons are not ri ght to suppl y enough oi l to keep an
i nl et fl ooded. Cavi tati on causes the metal i n an i nl et to er ode and the hydraul i c oi l to deter i -
orate qui cker. Cavi tati on can occur i f ther e i s too much resi stance i n an i nl ets l i ne, i f a res-
Figure 3-20. Bent-axis axial piston pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-15
er voi rs oi l l evel i s too far bel ow the i nl et, or i f an oi l s vi scosi ty i s too hi gh. I t can al so occur
i f ther e i s a vacuum or even a sl i ght posi ti ve pr essur e at the i nl et. A badl y cavi tati ng pump
has oi l bubbl es expl odi ng i n the voi d. The onl y way to be sur e a pump i s not cavi tati ng i s to
check the i nl et wi th a vacuum gauge.
To pr event cavi tati on, keep the i nl et cl ean and free of obstructi ons by usi ng the correct
l ength of an i nl ets l i ne wi th mi ni mum bends. Another method i s to charge an inl et. The eas-
iest way to do thi s i s to fl ood i t by locating the reservoi r above the pumps i nl et. I f thi s i s not
possi bl e and you cannot create good i nl et condi ti ons, use a pressur i zed reser voi r . You can
al so use an auxi l i ar y pump to mai ntai n a suppl y of oi l to an i nl et at l ow pr essur e. You coul d
use a centri fugal pump, but i t i s mor e common to use a posi ti ve-di spl acement gear pump
wi th a pressur e-rel i ef val ve that i s set to mai ntai n the desi r ed char gi ng pr essure.
d. Operating Problems. Pressure l oss, sl ow operati on, no del i very, and noi se ar e com-
mon operati ng probl ems i n a pump.
(1) Pr essur e Loss. Pr essur e l oss means that ther e i s a hi gh l eakage path i n a system. A
badl y worn pump coul d cause pr essure l oss. A pump wi l l l ose i ts effi ci ency gradual l y. The
actuator speed sl ows down as a pump wear s. However , pr essur e l oss i s mor e often caused by
l eaks somewher e el se i n a system (r el i ef val ve, cyl i nder s, motor s).
(2) Sl ow Oper ati on. Thi s can be caused by a worn pump or by a par ti al oi l l eak i n a sys-
tem. Pr essur e wi l l not dr op, however , i f a l oad moves at al l . Ther efor e, hp i s sti l l bei ng used
and i s bei ng converted i nto heat at a l eakage poi nt. To fi nd thi s poi nt, feel the components
for unusual heat.
(3) No Del i very. I f oi l i s not bei ng pumped, a pump
Coul d be assembl ed i ncorrectl y.
Coul d be dr i ven i n the wr ong di recti on.
Has not been pri med. The reasons for no pr i me are usual l y i mproper start-up,
i nl et restri cti ons, or l ow oi l l evel i n a reser voi r .
Has a broken dri ve shaft.
(4) Noi se. I f you hear any unusual noi se, shut down a pump i mmedi atel y. Cavi tati on
noi se i s caused by a r estr i cti on i n an i nl et l i ne, a di r ty i nl et fi l ter , or too hi gh a dr i ve speed.
Ai r i n a system al so causes noi se. Ai r wi l l sever el y damage a pump because i t wi l l not have
enough l ubri cati on. Thi s can occur fr om l ow oi l i n a r eser voi r , a l oose connecti on i n an i nl et,
a l eaki ng shaft seal , or no oi l i n a pump befor e star ti ng. Al so, noi se can be caused by wor n
or damaged par ts, whi ch wi l l spr ead har mful par ti cl es through a system, causi ng mor e dam-
age i f an oper ati on conti nues.
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-1
CHAPTER 4
Hydraulic Actuators
A hydraulic actuator receives pressure energy and converts it to mechanical force and
motion. An actuator can be linear or rotary. A linear actuator gives force and motion outputs
in a straight line. I t is more commonly called a cylinder but is also referred to as a ram,
reciprocating motor, or linear motor. A rotary actuator produces torque and rotating motion.
I t is more commonly called a hydraulic motor or motor.
4-1. Cylinders. A cyl i nder i s a hydraul i c actuator that i s constructed of a pi ston or pl unger
that oper ates i n a cyl i ndri cal housi ng by the acti on of l i qui d under pr essur e. Fi gur e 4-1
shows the basi c par ts of a cyl i nder . A cyl i nder housi ng i s a tube i n whi ch a pl unger (pi ston)
oper ates. I n a r am-type cyl i nder , a r am actuates a l oad di r ectl y. I n a pi ston cyl i nder , a pi s-
ton r od i s connected to a pi ston to actuate a l oad. An end of a cyl i nder fr om whi ch a r od or
pl unger protrudes i s a rod end. The opposi te end i s a head end. The hydraul i c connecti ons
are a head-end port and a rod-end por t (fl ui d suppl y).
a. Single-Acting Cylinder. Thi s cyl i nder (Fi gur e 4-1) onl y has a head-end port and i s
operated hydraul i cal l y i n one di recti on. When oi l i s pumped i nto a port, i t pushes on a
pl unger , thus extendi ng i t. To r eturn or r etr act a cyl i nder , oi l must be r el eased to a r eser -
voi r . A pl unger r etur ns ei ther because of the wei ght of a l oad or fr om some mechani cal for ce
such as a spr i ng. I n mobi l e equi pment, fl ow to and from a si ngl e-acti ng cyl i nder i s control l ed
by a rever si ng di r ecti onal val ve of a si ngl e-acti ng type.
b. Double-Acting Cylinder. Thi s cyl i n-
der (Fi gure 4-2, page 4-2) must have por ts
at the head and r od ends. Pumpi ng oi l i nto
the head end moves a pi ston to extend a
rod whi l e any oi l i n the rod end i s pushed
out and r etur ned to a r eser voi r . To r etr act
a r od, fl ow i s r ever sed. Oi l fr om a pump
goes i nto a rod end, and a head-end por t i s
connected to al l ow r eturn fl ow. The fl ow
di r ecti on to and fr om a doubl e-acti ng cyl i n-
der can be contr ol l ed by a doubl e-acti ng
di r ecti onal val ve or by actuati ng a control
of a r ever si bl e pump.
c. Differential Cylinder. I n a di fferen-
ti al cyl i nder , the ar eas wher e pr essur e i s
appl i ed on a pi ston are not equal . On a
head end, a ful l pi ston area i s avai l abl e for
appl yi ng pressur e. At a r od end, onl y an
annul ar ar ea i s avai l abl e for appl yi ng
pressur e. A rods area i s not a factor, and
Fluid
supply
Rod end
Ram
Gland nut
Cylinder
housing
Head end
Packed
gland
Figure 4-1. Single-acting cylinder
FM 5-499
4-2 Hydraulic Actuators
what space i t does take up r educes
the vol ume of oi l i t wi l l hol d. Two
general rul es about a di fferenti al
cyl i nder are that
Wi th an equal GPM
del i very to ei ther end, a
cyl i nder wi l l move
faster when r etr acti ng
because of a reduced vol -
ume capaci ty.
Wi th equal pressur e at
ei ther end, a cyl i nder
can exer t mor e for ce
when extendi ng because
of the gr eater pi ston
area. I n fact, i f equal
pressur e i s appl i ed to
both por ts at the same
ti me, a cyl i nder wi l l
extend because of a
hi gher r esul ti ng force
on a head end.
d. Nondifferential Cylinder.
Thi s cyl i nder (Fi gur e 4-3) has a pi s-
ton r od extendi ng fr om each end. I t
has equal thrust and speed ei ther
way, provi ded that pressure and fl ow
ar e unchanged. A nondi fferenti al cyl i nder i s rarel y used on mobi l e equi pment.
e. Ram-Type Cylinder. A ram-type cyl i nder i s a cyl i nder i n whi ch a cr oss-secti onal ar ea
of a pi ston rod i s mor e than one-hal f a cr oss-secti onal area of a pi ston head. I n many cyl i n-
ders of thi s type, the rod and pi ston heads have equal areas. A ram-type actuati ng cyl i nder
i s used mai nl y for push
functi ons r ather than
pul l .
Fi gur e 4-1, page 4-1,
shows a si ngl e-acti ng,
ram-type cyl i nder . A si n-
gl e-acti ng r am appl i es
force i n one di r ecti on.
Thi s cyl i nder i s often
used i n a hydraul i c jack.
I n a doubl e-acti ng, r am-
type cyl i nder , both
str okes of a r am ar e pr o-
duced by pressur i zed
fl ui d. Fi gure 4-2 shows
thi s cyl i nder .
Figure 4-2. Double-acting cylinder
Figure 4-3. Nondifferential cylinder
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-3
Fi gure 4-4 shows a tel escop-
i ng, ram-type, actuati ng cyl i nder,
whi ch can be a si ngl e- or doubl e-
acti ng type. I n thi s cyl i nder, a
seri es of rams are nested i n a tel e-
scopi ng assembl y. Except for the
smal l est r am, each ram i s hol l ow
and ser ves as a cyl i nder housi ng
for the next smal l er r am. A r am
assembl y i s contai ned i n a mai n
cyl i nder housi ng, whi ch al so pr o-
vi des the fl ui d por ts. Al though an
assembl y requi res a smal l space
wi th al l of the r ams retracted, a
tel escopi ng acti on of an assembl y
provi des a r el ati vel y l ong str oke
when the r ams ar e extended.
f. Piston-Type Cylinder. I n
thi s cyl i nder , a cross-secti onal
ar ea of a pi ston head i s r efer r ed to
as a pi ston-type cyl i nder . A pi s-
ton-type cyl i nder i s used mai nl y
when the push and pul l functi ons
are needed.
A si ngl e-acti ng, pi ston-type cyl i nder uses fl ui d pr essur e to appl y force i n one di recti on.
I n some desi gns, the for ce of gravi ty moves a pi ston i n the opposi te di r ecti on. However , most
cyl i nder s of thi s type appl y force i n both di recti ons. Fl ui d pr essure provi des force i n one
di recti on and spr i ng tensi on provi des force i n the opposi te di recti on.
Fi gur e 4-5 shows a si ngl e-
acti ng, spri ng-l oaded, pi ston-
type cyl i nder . I n thi s cyl i nder , a
spri ng i s l ocated on the r od si de
of a pi ston. I n some spr i ng-
l oaded cyl i nder s, a spri ng i s
l ocated on a bl ank si de, and a
fl ui d por t i s on a r od end of a cyl -
i nder .
Most pi ston-type cyl i nder s
are doubl e-acti ng, whi ch means
that fl ui d under pr essur e can be
appl i ed to ei ther si de of a pi ston
to pr ovi de movement and appl y
force i n a correspondi ng di r ec-
ti on. Fi gure 4-6 shows a doubl e-
acti ng pi ston-type cyl i nder.
Figure 4-4. Telescoping, ram-type, actuating
cylinder
Fluid port
Piston
Return spring
Piston rod
Air vent
Seals
Figure 4-5. Single-acting, spring-loaded, piston-
type cylinder
FM 5-499
4-4 Hydraulic Actuators
Thi s cyl i nder contai ns one pi ston and pi ston-r od assembl y and operates fr om fl ui d fl ow i n
ei ther di r ecti on. The two fl ui d por ts, one near each end of a cyl i nder , al ter nate as an i nl et
and an outl et, dependi ng on the di recti onal -contr ol val ve fl ow di recti on. Thi s i s an unbal -
anced cyl i nder , whi ch means that ther e i s a di fference i n the effecti ve wor ki ng area on the
two si des of a pi ston. A cyl i nder i s nor mal l y i nstal l ed so that the head end of a pi ston car ri es
the greater l oad; that i s, a cyl i nder car ri es the gr eater l oad duri ng a pi ston-rod extensi on
str oke.
Fi gur e 4-6 shows a bal -
anced, doubl e-acti ng, pi ston-
type cyl i nder . The effecti ve
worki ng area on both si des of
a pi ston i s the same, and i t
exerts the same for ce i n both
di recti ons.
g. Cushioned Cylinder.
To sl ow an acti on and prevent
shock at the end of a pi ston
str oke, some actuati ng cyl i n-
ders ar e constr ucted wi th a
cushi oni ng devi ce at ei ther or both ends of a cyl i nder. Thi s cushi on i s usual l y a meter i ng
devi ce bui l t i nto a cyl i nder to restr i ct the fl ow at an outl et port, ther eby sl owi ng down the
moti on of a pi ston. Fi gur e 4-7 shows a cushi oned actuati ng cyl i nder.
h. Lockout Cylinders. A
l ockout cyl i nder i s used to
l ock a suspensi on mechani sm
of a tr acked vehi cl e when a
vehi cl e functi ons as a stabl e
pl atform. A cyl i nder al so
ser ves as a shock absor ber
when a vehi cl e i s movi ng.
Each l ockout cyl i nder i s con-
nected to a r oad ar m by a
contr ol l ever . When each
road wheel moves up, a con-
trol l ever forces the respec-
ti ve cyl i nder to compr ess.
Hydraul i c fl ui d i s forced
ar ound a pi ston head thr ough r estr i ctor por ts causi ng a cyl i nder to act as a shock absor ber .
When hydraul i c pressure i s appli ed to an i nl et por t on each cyl i nders connecti ng eye, an inner
contr ol -val ve pi ston i s forced agai nst a spri ng i n each cyl i nder. Thi s acti on cl oses the r estri c-
tor por ts, bl ocks the mai n pi stons moti on i n each cyl i nder , and l ocks the suspensi on system.
4-2. Construction and Application. A cyl i nder i s constructed of a barrel or tube, a pi ston
and rod (or ram), two end caps, and sui tabl e oil seal s. A barr el is usual l y seaml ess steel tubi ng,
or cast, and the i nter i or i s fi ni shed ver y true and smoothl y. A steel pi ston r od i s hi ghl y pol -
i shed and usual l y har d chr ome-pl ated to r esi st pi tti ng and scor i ng. I t i s suppor ted i n the
end cap by a bushi ng or pol i shed surface.
Figure 4-6. Double-acting, piston-type cylinder
Figure 4-7. Cushioned, actuating cylinder
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-5
The cyl i nder 's por ts ar e bui l t i nto the end caps, whi ch can be scr ewed on to the tubes,
wel ded, or attached by ti e bol ts or bol ted fl anges. I f the cyl i nder bar r el i s cast, the head-end
cap may be i ntegral wi th i t. Mounti ng pr ovi si ons often are made i n the end caps, i ncl udi ng
fl anges for stati onar y mounti ng or cl evi ses for swi ngi ng mounts.
Seal s and wi pers ar e i nstal l ed i n the rod's end cap to keep the rod cl ean and to prevent
external l eakage around the r od. Other poi nts where seal s ar e used are at the end cap and
joi nts and between the pi ston and barr el . Dependi ng on how the r od i s attached to the pi s-
ton, a seal may be needed. I nternal l eakage shoul d not occur past a pi ston. I t wastes energy
and can stop a l oad by a hydrostati c l ock (oi l trapped behi nd a pi ston).
Fi gure 4-8, page 4-6, shows force-and-moti on appl i cati ons of cyl i nder s. Because fl ui d
power systems have many requi rements, actuati ng cyl i nder s are avai l abl e i n di ffer ent
shapes and si zes. A cyl i nder -type actuator i s ver sati l e and may be the most tr oubl e-fr ee
component of fl ui d-power ed systems. A cyl i nder and a mechani cal member of a uni t to be
actuated must be al i gned corr ectl y. Any mi sal i gnment wi l l cause excessi ve wear of a pi ston,
a pi ston rod, and the seal s. Al so, a pi ston rod and an actuati ng uni t must stay pr operl y
adjusted. Cl ean the exposed ends of the pi ston r ods to ensur e that for ei gn matter does not
get i nto the cyl i nders.
4-3. Maintenance. Hydr aul i c cyl i nders are compact and rel ati vel y si mpl e. The key poi nts
to watch ar e the seal s and pi vots. The fol l owi ng l i sts servi ce ti ps i n mai ntai ni ng cyl i nders:
a. External Leakage. I f a cyl i nders end caps are l eaki ng, ti ghten them. I f the l eaks sti l l
do not stop, r epl ace the gasket. I f a cyl i nder l eaks around a pi ston rod, repl ace the packi ng.
Make sur e that a seal l i p faces towar d the pr essure oi l . I f a seal conti nues to l eak, check
par agraphs 4-3e through i.
b. I nternal Leakage. Leakage past the pi ston seal s i nsi de a cyl i nder can cause sl uggi sh
movement or settl i ng under l oad. Pi ston l eakage can be caused by worn pi ston seal s or ri ngs
or scored cyl i nder wal l s. The l atter may be caused by di rt and gri t i n the oi l .
NOTE: When repairing a cylinder, replace all the seals and packings
before reassembly.
c. Creeping Cylinder. I f a cyl i nder cr eeps when stopped i n mi dstr oke, check for i nter nal
l eakage (paragraph 4-3b). Another cause coul d be a worn contr ol val ve.
d. Sluggish Operation. Ai r i n a cyl i nder i s the most common cause of sl uggi sh acti on.
I nter nal l eakage i n a cyl i nder i s another cause. I f an acti on i s sl uggi sh when star ti ng up a
system, but speeds up when a system i s warm, check for oi l of too hi gh a vi scosi ty (see the
machi ne's oper ati ng manual ). I f a cyl i nder i s sti l l sl uggi sh after these checks, test the whol e
ci r cui t for worn components.
e. Loose Mounting. Pi vot poi nts and mounts may be l oose. The bol ts or pi ns may need
to be ti ghtened, or they may be worn out. Too much sl op or fl oat i n a cyl i nders mounti ngs
damages the pi ston-rod seal s. Peri odi cal l y check al l the cyl i nders for l oose mounti ngs.
f. Misalignment. Pi ston r ods must wor k i n-l i ne at al l ti mes. I f they ar e si de-l oaded, the
pi ston r ods wi l l be gal l ed and the packi ngs wi l l be damaged, causi ng l eaks. Eventual l y, the
pi ston r ods may be bent or the wel ds br oken.
FM 5-499
4-6 Hydraulic Actuators
Figure 4-8. Applications of cylinders
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-7
g. Lack of Lubrication. I f a pi ston rod has no l ubri cati on, a r od packi ng coul d sei ze,
whi ch woul d resul t i n an err ati c str oke, especi al l y on si ngl e-acti ng cyl i nder s.
h. Abrasives on a Piston Rod. When a pi ston r od extends, i t can pi ck up di r t and other
mater i al . When i t r etr acts, i t carr i es the gri t i nto a cyl i nder , damagi ng a r od seal . For thi s
r eason, r od wi per s ar e often used at the r od end of a cyl i nder to cl ean the r od as i t retracts.
Rubber boots ar e al so used over the end of a cyl i nder i n some cases. Pi ston r ods r usti ng i s
another pr obl em. When stor i ng cyl i nder s, al ways r etr act the pi ston r ods to pr otect them. I f
you cannot r etr act them, coat them wi th gr ease.
i . Burrs on a Piston Rod. Exposed pi ston r ods can be damaged by i mpact wi th har d
objects. I f a smooth sur face of a r od i s marr ed, a r od seal may be damaged. Cl ean the bur r s
on a r od i mmedi atel y, usi ng crocus cl oth. Some rods are chrome-pl ated to r esi st wear .
Repl ace the seal s after r estor i ng a r od surface.
j. Air Vents. Si ngl e-acti ng cyl i nders (except ram types) must have an ai r vent i n the dr y
si de of a cyl i nder . To pr event di r t fr om getti ng i n, use di ffer ent fi l ter devi ces. Most ar e sel f-
cl eani ng, but i nspect them per i odi cal l y to ensur e that they oper ate pr oper l y.
4-4. Hydraulic Motors. Hydr aul i c motor s conver t hydraul i c ener gy i nto mechani cal
ener gy. I n i ndustri al hydr aul i c ci rcui ts, pumps and motors are nor mal l y combi ned wi th a
proper val vi ng and pi pi ng to form a hydr aul i c-power ed tr ansmi ssi on. A pump, whi ch i s
mechani cal l y l i nked to a pri me mover , dr aws fl ui d fr om a r eser voi r and for ces i t to a motor .
A motor , whi ch i s mechani cal l y l i nked to the wor kl oad, i s actuated by thi s fl ow so that
moti on or tor que, or both, ar e conveyed to the wor k. Fi gur e 4-9 shows the basi c oper ati ons of
a hydraul i c motor .
Figure 4-9. Basic operations of a hydraulic motor
FM 5-499
4-8 Hydraulic Actuators
The pr i nci pal rati ngs of a motor ar e tor que, pressur e, and di spl acement. Torque and
pressure rati ngs i ndi cate how much l oad a motor can handl e. Di spl acement i ndi cates how
much fl ow i s requi red for a speci fi ed dr i ve speed and i s expressed i n cubi c i nches per revol u-
ti ons, the same as pump di spl acement. Di spl acement i s the amount of oi l that must be
pumped i nto a motor to tur n i t one revol uti on. Most motor s are fi xed-di spl acement; how-
ever , var i abl e-di spl acement pi s-
ton motor s ar e i n use, mai nl y i n
hydr ostati c dr i ves. The mai n
types of motor s ar e gear , vane,
and pi ston. They can be uni di -
r ecti onal or r ever si bl e. (Most
motor s desi gned for mobi l e
equi pment ar e r ever si bl e.)
a. Gear-Type Motors. Fi g-
ur e 4-10 shows a gear -type
motor . Both gear s ar e dr i ven
gear s, but onl y one i s connected
to the output shaft. Oper ati on i s
essenti al l y the r ever se of that of
a gear pump. Fl ow fr om the
pump enters chamber A and
fl ows i n ei ther di r ecti on around
the i nsi de surface of the casi ng,
for ci ng the gear s to r otate as
i ndi cated. Thi s r otar y moti on i s
then avai l abl e for work at the
output shaft.
b. Vane-Type Motors. Fi g-
ur e 4-11 shows a vane-type
motor . Fl ow fr om the pump
enter s the i nl et, for ces the r otor
and vanes to r otate, and passes
out through the outl et. Motor
r otati on causes the output shaft
to r otate. Si nce no centri fugal
for ce exi sts unti l the motor
begi ns to r otate, somethi ng,
usual l y spri ngs, must be used to
i ni ti al l y hol d the vanes agai nst
the casi ng contour . However ,
spri ngs usual l y ar e not neces-
sary i n vane-type pumps
because a dri ve shaft i ni ti al l y
suppl i es centri fugal force to
ensur e vane-to-casi ng contact.
Figure 4-10. Gear-type motor
Figure 4-11. Vane-type motor
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-9
Vane motor s ar e bal anced
hydr aul i cal l y to pr event a r otor
fr om si de-l oadi ng a shaft. A
shaft i s suppor ted by two bal l
bear i ngs. Tor que i s devel oped
by a pressur e di ffer ence as oi l
from a pump i s forced through a
motor . Fi gur e 4-12 shows pr es-
sure di fferenti al on a si ngl e
vane as i t passes the i nl et por t.
On the trai l i ng si de open to the
i nl et por t, the vane i s subject to
ful l system pressur e. The
chamber l eadi ng the vane i s
subject to the much l ower outl et
pressur e. The di fference i n
pr essur e exer ts the for ce on the
vane that i s, i n effect, tangen-
ti al to the r otor . Thi s pressur e
di fference i s effecti ve across
vanes 3 and 9 as shown i n Fi g-
ur e 4-13. The other vanes ar e
subject to essenti al l y equal for ce
on both si des. Each wi l l devel op
tor que as the r otor tur ns. Fi g-
ure 4-13 shows the fl ow condi -
ti on for counter cl ockwi se
rotati on as vi ewed from the
cover end. The body port i s the
i nl et, and the cover por t i s the
outl et. Reverse the fl ow, and
the rotati on becomes cl ockwi se.
I n a vane-type pump, the
vanes are pushed out agai nst a
cam ri ng by centri fugal force
when a pump i s started up. A
desi gn motor uses steel -wi r e
rocker arms (Fi gur e 4-14, page
4-10) to push the vanes agai nst
the cam ri ng. The arms pi vot on
pi ns attached to the r otor . The
ends of each ar m suppor t two
vanes that ar e 90 degr ees apar t.
When the cam ri ng pushes vane
A i nto i ts sl ot, vane B sl i des out.
The r ever se al so happens. Amo-
tor s pr essure pl ate functi ons the
same as a pump's. I t seal s the
si de of a r otor and ri ng agai nst
Figure 4-12. Pressure differential on a vane-type
motor
Figure 4-13. Flow condition in a vane-type pump
FM 5-499
4-10 Hydraulic Actuators
i nternal l eakage, and i t feeds system
pr essur e under the vanes to hol d them
out agai nst a r i ng. Thi s i s a si mpl e
operati on i n a pump because a pr es-
sur e pl ate i s ri ght by a hi gh-pr essur e
por t i n the cover .
c. Piston-Type Motors. Pi ston-
type motors can be i n-l i ne-axi s or
bent-axi s types.
(1) I n-Li ne-Axi s, Pi ston-Type
Motors. These motors (Fi gure 4-15) ar e
al most i denti cal to the pumps. They
ar e bui l t-i n, fi xed- and var i abl e-di s-
pl acement model s i n sever al si zes.
Torque i s devel oped by a pr essur e dr op
through a motor . Pr essur e exer ts a
for ce on the ends of the pi stons, whi ch
i s tr ansl ated i nto shaft r otati on. Shaft
r otati on of most model s can be
r ever sed anyti me by r ever si ng the fl ow
di recti on.
Oi l fr om a pump i s for ced i nto the cyl i nder bor es thr ough a motor s i nl et por t. Force on
the pi stons at thi s poi nt pushes them agai nst a swash pl ate. They can move onl y by sl i di ng
al ong a swash pl ate to a poi nt further away from a cyl i nder s barr el , whi ch causes i t to
r otate. The barr el i s then spl i ned to a shaft so that i t must tur n.
Figure 4-14. Rocker arms pushing vanes
in a pump
Figure 4-15. In-line-axis, piston-type motor
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-11
A motor's di spl acement depends on the angl e of a swash pl ate (Fi gure 4-16). At maxi -
mum angl e, di spl acement i s at i ts hi ghest because the pi stons tr avel at maxi mum l ength.
When the angl e i s reduced, pi ston tr avel shortens, r educi ng di spl acement. I f fl ow r emai ns
constant, a motor runs faster, but tor que i s decr eased. Torque i s gr eatest at maxi mum di s-
pl acement because the component of pi ston for ce paral l el to a swash pl ate i s gr eatest.
(2) Bent-Axi s, Pi ston-Type Motor s. These motor s ar e al most i denti cal to the pumps.
They ar e avai l abl e i n fi xed- and vari abl e-di spl acement model s (Fi gur e 4-17), i n sever al si zes.
Vari abl e-di spl acement motors can be control l ed mechani cal l y or by pr essure compensa-
ti on. These motor s oper ate si mi l ar l y to i n-l i ne motor s except that pi ston thrust i s agai nst a
dri ve-shaft fl ange. A paral l el component of thrust causes a fl ange to tur n. Torque i s maxi -
mum at maxi mum di spl acement; speed i s at a mi ni mum. Thi s desi gn pi ston motor i s ver y
heavy and bul ky, par ti cul arl y the var i abl e-di spl acement motor . Usi ng these motor s on
mobi l e equi pment i s l i mi ted.
Al though some pi ston-
type motor s are control l ed by
di r ecti onal -control val ves, they
are often used i n combi nati on
wi th var i abl e-di spl acement
pumps. Thi s pump-motor
combi nati on (hydraul i c tr ans-
mi ssi on) i s used to pr ovi de a
tr ansfer of power between a
dri vi ng el ement, such as an
el ectri c motor, and a dri ven
el ement. Hydr aul i c transmi s-
si ons may be used for appl i ca-
ti ons such as a speed reducer ,
vari abl e speed dri ve, constant
speed or constant torque
Figure 4-16. Swash plate
Cylinder block
C
y
lin
d
e
r

b
lo
c
k
a
x
is
Output shaft
axis
Output shaft
Pistons
Valve plate
Figure 4-17. Bent-axis, piston-type motor
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-12
dri ve, and torque converter. Some advantages a hydraul i c transmi ssi on has over a mechan-
i cal transmi ssi on i s that i t has
Qui ck, easy speed adjustment over a wi de range whi l e the power source i s oper at-
i ng at constant (most effi ci ent) speed.
Rapi d, smooth accel er ati on or decel er ati on.
Contr ol over maxi mum tor que and power .
A cushi oni ng effect to r educe shock l oads.
A smooth rever sal of moti on.
FM 5-499
Valves 5-1
CHAPTER 5
Valves
Valves are used in hydraulic systems to control the operation of the actuators. Valves reg-
ulate pressure by creating special pressure conditions and by controlling how much oil will
flow in portions of a circuit and where it will go. The three categories of hydraulic valves are
pressure-control, flow- (volume-) control, and directional -control (see Figure 5-1). Some
valves have multiple functions, placing them into more than one category. Valves are rated
by their size, pressure capabilities, and pressure drop/ flow.
5-1. Pressure-Control Valves. A pr essur e-contr ol val ve may l i mi t or r egul ate pr essur e,
cr eate a par ti cul ar pr essur e condi ti on r equi r ed for contr ol , or cause actuator s to oper ate i n a
speci fi c or der . Al l pur e pr essur e-contr ol val ves oper ate i n a condi ti on appr oachi ng hydr aul i c
bal ance. Usual l y the bal ance i s ver y si mpl e: pr essur e i s effecti ve on one si de or end of a bal l ,
poppet, or spool and i s opposed by a spr i ng. I n oper ati on, a val ve takes a posi ti on wher e
hydr aul i c pr essur e bal ances a spr i ng for ce. Si nce spri ng for ce var i es wi th compr essi on, di s-
tance and pr essur e al so can vary. Pr essur e-contr ol val ves ar e sai d to be i nfi ni te posi ti oni ng.
Thi s means that they can take a posi ti on anywhere between two fi ni te fl ow condi ti ons,
whi ch changes a l arge vol ume of fl ow to a smal l vol ume, or pass no fl ow.
Most pressur e-control val ves ar e cl assi fi ed as nor mal l y cl osed. Thi s means that fl ow to
a val ve's i nl et por t i s bl ocked from an outl et por t unti l ther e i s enough pressur e to cause an
unbal anced operati on. I n normal l y open val ves, free fl ow occur s thr ough the val ves unti l
they begi n to oper ate i n bal ance. Fl ow i s par ti al l y r estr i cted or cut off. Pr essur e over r i de i s
a character i sti c of nor mal l y cl osed-pr essure control s when they are operati ng i n bal ance.
Because the force of a compressi on spr i ng i ncreases as i t l owers, pressure when the val ves
fi r st crack i s l ess than when they are passi ng a l arge vol ume or ful l fl ow. The di fference
between a ful l fl ow and cr acki ng pressur e i s cal l ed over ri de.
Figure 5-1. Valves
FM 5-499
5-2 Valves
a. Relief Valves. Rel i ef val ves ar e the most common type of pr essur e-contr ol val ves.
The r el i ef val ves functi on may var y, dependi ng on a system's needs. They can pr ovi de over -
l oad pr otecti on for ci rcui t components or l i mi t the for ce or tor que exer ted by a l i near actua-
tor or r otar y motor .
The i nter nal desi gn of al l r el i ef val ves i s basi cal l y si mi l ar . The val ves consi st of two sec-
ti ons: a body secti on contai ni ng a pi ston that i s retai ned on i ts seat by a spri ng(s), depend-
i ng on the model , and a cover or pi l ot-val ve secti on that hydraul i cal l y contr ol s a body
pi stons movement. The adjusti ng screw adjusts thi s contr ol wi thi n the range of the val ves.
Val ves that pr ovi de emer gency over l oad pr otecti on do not oper ate as often si nce other
val ve types ar e used to l oad and unl oad a pump. However , rel i ef val ves shoul d be cl eaned
regul ar l y by r educi ng thei r pressure adjustments to fl ush out any possi bl e sl udge deposi ts
that may accumul ate. Oper ati ng
under reduced pressur e wi l l cl ean
out sl udge deposi ts and ensur e that
the val ves operate properl y after the
pr essur e i s adjusted to i ts pr escri bed
setti ng.
(1) Si mpl e Type. Fi gur e 5-2
shows a si mpl e-type rel i ef val ve.
Thi s val ve i s i nstal l ed so that one
por t i s connected to the pr essur e l i ne
or the i nl et and the other por t to the
r eser voi r . The bal l i s hel d on i ts seat
by thr ust of the spri ng, whi ch can be
changed by turni ng the adjusti ng
scr ew. When pr essur e at the val ves
i nl et i s i nsuffi ci ent to over come
spr i ng for ce, the bal l r emai ns on i ts
seat and the val ve i s cl osed, pr event-
i ng fl ow through i t. When pr essur e
at the val ves i nl et exceeds the
adjusted spr i ng for ce, the bal l i s
forced off i ts seat and the val ve i s
opened. Li qui d fl ows fr om the pres-
sure l i ne through the val ve to the
reservoi r . Thi s di versi on of fl ow pr e-
vents fur ther pr essure i ncrease i n
the pr essure l i ne. When pressur e
decr eases bel ow the val ves setti ng,
the spri ng r eseats the bal l and the
val ve i s agai n cl osed.
The pr essure at whi ch a val ve fi r st begi ns to pass fl ow i s the cracki ng pressur e of a
val ve. The pr essure at whi ch a val ve passes i ts ful l -rated capaci ty i s the ful l -fl ow pressur e
of a val ve. Because of spri ng rate, a ful l -fl ow pr essur e i s hi gher than a cracki ng pressur e.
Thi s condi ti on i s referr ed to as pressur e overri de. A di sadvantage of a si mpl e-type r el i ef
val ve i s i ts rel ati vel y hi gh-pressur e overri de at i ts rated capaci ty.
Figure 5-2. Simple relief valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-3
(2) Compound
Type. Fi gure 5-3
shows a compound-
type rel i ef val ve.
Passage C i s used
to keep the pi ston
i n hydraul i c bal -
ance when the
val ve's i nl et pr es-
sur e i s l ess than i ts
setti ng (di agram
A). The val ve set-
ti ng i s deter mi ned
by an adjusted
thr ust of spri ng 3
agai nst poppet 4.
When pr essur e at
the val ves i nl et
reaches the val ves
setti ng, pr essur e i n
passage D al so
ri ses to overcome the thr ust of spri ng 3. When fl ow thr ough passage C creates a suffi ci ent
pressur e drop to over come the thrust of spr i ng 2, the pi ston i s r ai sed off i ts seat (di agr am B).
Thi s al l ows fl ow to pass thr ough the di schar ge por t to the reser voi r and prevents further ri se
i n pr essur e.
b. Pressure-Reducing Valves. These val ves l i mi t pr essur e on a branch ci rcui t to a l esser
amount than requi red i n a mai n ci rcui t. For exampl e, i n a system, a branch-ci rcui t pr essur e
i s l i mi ted to 300 psi , but a mai n ci rcui t must operate at 800 psi . A rel i ef val ve i n a mai n ci r-
cui t i s adjusted to a setti ng above 800 psi to meet a mai n ci r cui t's r equi r ements. However , i t
woul d surpass a br anch-ci rcui t pr essure of 300 psi . Ther efore, besi des a rel i ef val ve i n a
mai n ci rcui t, a
pressur e-reduc-
i ng val ve must be
i nstal l ed i n a
branch ci rcui t
and set at 300
psi . Fi gur e 5-4
shows a pressur e-
reduci ng val ve.
I n a pr essure-
reduci ng val ve
(di agram A),
adjusti ng the
spri ngs compres-
si on obtai ns the
maxi mum br anch-
ci r cui t pr essur e.
The spr i ng al so
hol ds spool 1 i n
Figure 5-3. Compound relief valve
Figure 5-4. Pressure-reducing valve
FM 5-499
5-4 Valves
the open posi ti on. Li qui d from the mai n ci rcui t enter s the val ve at the i nl et por t C, fl ows
past the val ve spool , and enter s the br anch ci rcui t thr ough the outl et por t D. Pr essur e at
the outl et port acts through the passage E to the bottom of spool . I f the pr essure i s i nsuffi -
ci ent to over come the thrust of the spr i ng, the val ve r emai ns open.
The pr essur e at the outl et por t (di agram B) and under the spool exceeds the equi val ent
thrust of the spr i ng. The spool r i ses and the val ve i s parti al l y cl osed. Thi s i ncreases the
val ve's r esi stance to fl ow, cr eates a gr eater pr essur e dr op thr ough the val ve, and r educes the
pr essur e at the outl et por t. The spool wi l l posi ti on i tsel f to l i mi t maxi mum pr essur e at the
outl et por t r egar dl ess of pr essur e fl uctuati ons at the i nl et por t, as l ong as wor kl oad does not
cause back fl ow at the outl et por t. Back fl ow woul d cl ose the val ve and pr essure woul d
i ncr ease.
(1) X-Ser i es Type. Fi gur e 5-5 shows the i nter nal constructi on of an X-seri es pressur e-
reduci ng val ve. The two major assembl i es are an adjustabl e pi l ot-val ve assembl y i n the
cover , whi ch determi nes the operati ng pr essure of the val ve, and a spool assembl y i n the
body, whi ch r esponds to the acti on of the pi l ot val ve to l i mi t maxi mum pr essur e at the outl et
por t.
The pi l ot-val ve assembl y consi sts of a poppet 1, spri ng 2, and adjusti ng scr ew 3. The
posi ti on of the adjusti ng scr ew sets the spr i ng l oad on the poppet, whi ch deter mi nes the set-
ti ng of the val ve. The spool assembl y consi sts of spool 4 and spri ng 5. The spr i ng i s a l ow-
r ate spr i ng, whi ch tends to for ce the spool downwar d and hol d the val ve open. The posi ti on
of the spool deter mi nes the si ze of passage C.
Figure 5-5. X-series, pressure-reducing valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-5
When pr essur e at the val ve i nl et (di agram A) does not exceed the pr essur e setti ng, the
val ve i s compl etel y open. Fl ui d passes fr om the i nl et to the outl et wi th mi ni mal r esi stance
i n the r ated capaci ty of the val ve. Passage D connects the outl et por t to the bottom of the
spool . Passage E connects the chamber s at each end of the spool . Fl ui d pr essur e at the out-
l et por t i s pr esent on both ends of the spool . When these pr essur es ar e equal , the spool i s
hydr aul i cal l y bal anced. The onl y effecti ve for ce on the spool i s the downwar d thrust of the
spri ng, whi ch posi ti ons the spool and tends to mai ntai n passage C at i ts maxi mum si ze.
When the pr essur e at the val ves outl et (di agr am B) appr oaches the pr essur e setti ng of
the val ve, the l i qui d's pr essure i n chamber H i s suffi ci ent to overcome the thrust of the
spr i ng and for ce the poppet off i ts seat. The pi l ot val ve l i mi ts the pr essur e i n chamber F.
Mor e pr essur e r i ses as the outl et pushes the spool upwar d agai nst the combi ned for ce of the
spri ng and the pr essure i n chamber F.
As the spool moves upwar d, i t r estr i cts the openi ng to cr eate a pr essur e dr op between
the i nl et and outl et por ts. Pr essur e at the outl et i s l i mi ted to the sum of the equi val ent
for ces of spri ngs 2 and 5. I n nor mal oper ati on, passage C never cl oses compl etel y. Fl ow
must pass through to meet any wor k requi rements on the l ow-pressur e si de of the val ve pl us
the fl ow requi red through passage E to mai ntai n the pressure dr op needed to hol d the spool
at the control posi ti on. Fl ow thr ough restri cted passage E i s conti nual when the val ve i s
control l i ng the reduced pressur e. Thi s fl ow i s out the drai n port and shoul d be returned
di r ectl y to the tank.
(2) XC-Ser i es Type. An
XC-ser i es pressure-reduci ng
val ve l i mi ts pr essure at the out-
l et i n the same way the X-ser i es
does when fl ow i s fr om i ts i nl et
por t to i ts outl et por t. An i nte-
gr al check val ve al l ows r ever se
fr ee fl ow fr om outl et to i nl et
port even at pressur es above the
val ve setti ng. However, the
same pressur e-reduci ng acti on
i s not pr ovi ded for thi s di r ecti on
of fl ow. Fi gur e 5-6 shows the
i nternal constructi on of an XC-
ser i es val ve.
c. Sequence Valves.
Sequence val ves contr ol the
oper ati ng sequence between two
branches of a ci rcui t. The
val ves ar e commonl y used to
regul ate an operati ng sequence
of two separ ate wor k cyl i nder s
so that one cyl i nder begi ns
stroki ng when the other com-
pl etes str oki ng. Sequence
val ves used i n thi s manner ensur e that ther e i s mi ni mum pr essur e equal to i ts setti ng on the
fi r st cyl i nder duri ng the subsequent operati ons at a l ower pressur e.
Figure 5-6. Internal construction of an XC-series
valve
FM 5-499
5-6 Valves
Fi gur e 5-7, di agram A, shows how to obtai n the oper ati on of a sequenci ng pr essur e by
adjusti ng a spr i ng's compressi on, whi ch hol ds pi ston 1 i n the cl osed posi ti on. Li qui d enters
the val ve at i nl et por t C, fl ows freel y past pi ston 1, and enter s the pr i mar y ci rcui t through
port D. When pr essure of the l i qui d fl owi ng thr ough the val ve i s bel ow the val ves setti ng,
the for ce acti ng upwar d on pi ston 1 i s l ess than the downwar d force of the spri ng 2. The pi s-
ton i s hel d down and the val ve i s i n the cl osed posi ti on.
When r esi stance i n
the pr i mar y ci rcui t
causes the pr essur e to
ri se so i t over comes the
force of spr i ng 2, pi ston 1
ri ses. The val ve i s then
open (Fi gur e 5-7, di a-
gr am B). Li qui d enter -
i ng the val ve can now
fl ow thr ough port E to
the secondar y ci rcui t.
Fi gur e 5-8 shows an
appl i cati on of a
sequence val ve. The
val ve i s set at a pr essur e
i n excess of that r equi r ed
to start cyl i nder 1 (pri -
mary cyl i nder ). I n i ts
Figure 5-7. Sequence valve
Figure 5-8. Application of sequence valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-7
fi r st oper ati ng sequence, pump fl ow goes through por ts A and C (pri mary ports) to for ce cyl -
i nder 1 to stroke. The val ve stays cl osed because the pr essure of cyl i nder 1 i s bel ow the
val ves setti ng. When cyl i nder 1 fi ni shes str oki ng, fl ow i s bl ocked, and the system pr essur e
i nstantl y i ncreases to the val ve setti ng to open the val ve. Pump fl ow then starts cyl i nder 2
(secondary cyl i nder ).
Dur i ng thi s phase, the fl ow of pi l ot oi l thr ough the bal ance or i fi ce governs the posi ti on of
the mai n pi ston. Thi s pi ston thr ottl es fl ow to por t B (secondar y por t) so that pr essur e equal
to the val ve setti ng i s mai ntai ned on the pr i mar y ci r cui t duri ng movement of cyl i nder 2 at a
l ower pressur e. Back pressur e created by the resi stance of cyl i nder 2 cannot i nter fere wi th
the throttl i ng acti on because the secondary pressure bel ow the stem of the mai n pi ston al so
i s appl i ed thr ough the drai n hol e to the top of the stem and ther eby cancel ed out. When cyl -
i nder 2 i s r etr acted, the r eturn fl ow fr om i t bypasses the sequence val ve through the check
val ve.
d. Counterbalance Valves. A counter bal ance val ve al l ows free fl ow of fl ui d i n one di rec-
ti on and mai ntai ns a resi stance to fl ow i n another di recti on unti l a certai n pressure i s
reached. A val ve i s nor mal l y l ocated i n a l i ne between a di recti onal -contr ol val ve and an out-
l et of a ver ti cal l y mounted actuati ng cyl i nder , whi ch suppor ts wei ght or must be hel d i n posi -
ti on for a per i od of ti me. A
counter bal ance val ve ser ves as a
hydr aul i c resi stance to an actuat-
i ng cyl i nder . For exampl e, a
counter bal ance val ve i s used i n
some hydr aul i cal l y oper ated for k
l i fts. I t offer s a r esi stance to the
fl ow from an actuati ng cyl i nder
when a for k i s l ower ed. I t al so
hel ps suppor t a for k i n the up
posi ti on.
Fi gur e 5-9 shows a counter -
bal ance val ve. The val ve el ement
i s bal ance-spool val ve 4 that con-
si sts of two pi stons whi ch are per-
manentl y fi xed on ei ther end of
the shaft. The i nner pi ston areas
ar e equal ; ther efor e, pr essur e acts
equal l y on both ar eas regar dl ess
of the posi ti on of the val ve, and
has no effect on the movement of
the val ve, hence, the ter m bal -
anced. A smal l pi l ot pi ston i s
attached to the bottom of the
spool val ve.
When the val ve i s i n the
cl osed posi ti on, the top pi ston of
the spool val ve bl ocks di scharge
port 8. I f fl ui d fr om the actuati ng
Figure 5-9. Counterbalance valve
FM 5-499
5-8 Valves
uni t enter s i nl et por t 5, i t cannot fl ow through the val ve because di scharge por t 8 i s bl ocked.
However, fl ui d wi l l fl ow through the pi l ot passage 6 to the smal l pi l ot pi ston. As the pres-
sur e i ncr eases, i t acts on the pi l ot pi ston unti l i t over comes the pr eset pr essur e of spri ng 3.
Thi s for ces the spool up and al l ows the fl ui d to fl ow ar ound the shaft of the spool val ve and
out the di schar ge por t 8.
Dur i ng r ever se fl ow, the fl ui d enter s por t 8. Spri ng 3 for ces spool val ve 4 to the cl osed
posi ti on. The fl ui d pr essure overcomes the spri ng tensi on of check val ve 7. I t opens and
al l ows fr ee fl ow around the shaft of the spool val ve and out por t 5. The oper ati ng pr essur e of
the val ve can be adjusted by turni ng adjustment screw 1, whi ch i ncreases or decr eases the
tensi on of the spr i ng. Thi s adjustment depends on the wei ght that the val ve must suppor t.
Smal l amounts of fl ui d wi l l l eak around the top pi ston of the spool val ve and i nto the
ar ea ar ound spri ng 3. An accumul ati on woul d cause a hydr aul i c l ock on the top of the spool
val ve (si nce a l i qui d cannot be compr essed). Drai n 2 pr ovi des a passage for thi s fl ui d to fl ow
to por t 8.
e. Pressure Switches.
Pr essur e swi tches ar e
used i n vari ous appl i ca-
ti ons that r equi r e an adjus-
tabl e, pressure-actuated
el ectri cal swi tch to make or
br eak an el ectr i cal ci rcui t
at a pr edeter mi ned pres-
sur e. An el ectr i cal ci rcui t
may be used to actuate an
el ectri cal l y control l ed val ve
or control an el ectri c-
motor starter or a si gnal
l i ght. Fi gure 5-10 shows a
pr essur e swi tch. Li qui d,
under pr essur e, enter s
chamber A. I f the pr essur e
exceeds the adjusted pr es-
sur e setti ng of the spr i ng behi nd bal l 1, the bal l i s unseated. The l i qui d fl ows i nto chamber
B and moves pi ston 2 to the r i ght, actuati ng the l i mi t to make or br eak an el ectr i cal ci r cui t.
When pressure i n chamber A fal l s bel ow the setti ng of the spri ng behi nd bal l 1, the
spr i ng r eseats bal l 1. The l i qui d i n chamber B i s thr ottl ed past val ve 3 and bal l 4 because of
the acti on of the spri ng behi nd pi ston 2. The ti me requi red for the l i mi t swi tch to return to
i ts normal posi ti on i s deter mi ned by val ve 3s setti ng.
5-2. Directional-Control Valves. Di r ecti onal -contr ol val ves al so control fl ow di recti on.
However, they vary consi der abl y i n physi cal char acter i sti cs and operati on. The val ves may
be a
Poppet type, i n whi ch a pi ston or bal l moves on and off a seat.
Rotary-spool type, i n whi ch a spool r otates about i ts axi s.
Figure 5-10. Pressure switch
FM 5-499
Valves 5-9
Sl i di ng-spool type, i n whi ch a spool sl i des axi al l y i n a bor e. I n thi s type, a spool i s
often cl assi fi ed accordi ng to the fl ow condi ti ons created when i t i s i n the normal or
neutr al posi ti on. A cl osed-center spool bl ocks al l val ve por ts fr om each other when i n
the normal posi ti on. I n an open-center spool , al l val ve ports ar e open to each other
when the spool i s i n the normal posi ti on.
Di recti onal -contr ol val ves may al so be cl assi fi ed accordi ng to the method used to actuate
the val ve el ement. A poppet-type val ve i s usual l y hydraul i cal l y oper ated. A r otar y-spool
type may be manual l y (l ever or pl unger acti on), mechani cal l y (cam or tri p acti on), or el ectri -
cal l y (sol enoi d acti on) oper ated. A sl i di ng-spool type may be manual l y, mechani cal l y, el ectr i -
cal l y, or hydr aul i cal l y oper ated, or i t may be oper ated i n combi nati on.
Di recti onal -contr ol val ves may al so be cl assi fi ed accor di ng to the number of posi ti ons of
the val ve el ements or the total number of fl ow paths provi ded i n the extreme posi ti on. For
exampl e, a three-posi ti on, four-way val ve has two extreme posi ti ons and a center or neutral
posi ti on. I n each of the two extreme posi ti ons, ther e are two fl ow paths, maki ng a total of
four fl ow paths.
Spool val ves (see Fi gur e 5-11) ar e popul ar on moder n hydr aul i c systems because they
Can be pr eci si on-gr ound for fi ne-oi l meter i ng.
Can be made to handl e fl ows i n many di r ecti ons by addi ng extra l ands and oi l
por ts.
Stack easi l y i nto one compact contr ol package, whi ch i s i mportant on mobi l e sys-
tems.
Spool val ves, however , r equi r e good
mai ntenance. Di r ty oi l wi l l damage the
mati ng surfaces of the val ve l ands, causi ng
them to l ose thei r accuracy. Di r t wi l l cause
these val ves to sti ck or wor k er r ati cal l y.
Al so, spool val ves must be accur atel y
machi ned and fi tted to thei r bor es.
a. Poppet Valve. Fi gure 5-12, page 5-10,
shows a si mpl e poppet val ve. I t consi sts
pri mari l y of a movabl e poppet that cl oses
agai nst a val ve seat. Pr essur e fr om the
i nl et tends to hol d the val ve ti ghtl y cl osed.
A sl i ght for ce appl i ed to the poppet stem
opens the poppet. The acti on i s si mi l ar to
the val ves of an automobi l e engi ne. The
poppet stem usual l y has an O-ri ng seal to
prevent l eakage. I n some val ves, the pop-
pets are hel d i n the seated posi ti on by
spri ngs. The number of poppets i n a val ve
depends on the pur pose of the val ve.
Figure 5-11. Spool valve
FM 5-499
5-10 Valves
b. Sliding-Spool Valve. Fi gure 5-13 shows a
sl i di ng-spool val ve. The val ve el ement sl i des back
and for th to bl ock and uncover ports i n the housi ng.
Someti mes cal l ed a pi ston type, the sl i di ng-spool
val ve has a pi ston of whi ch the i nner areas ar e equal .
Pr essur e fr om the i nl et por ts acts equal l y on both
i nner pi ston ar eas r egar dl ess of the posi ti on of the
spool . Seal i ng i s done by a machi ne fi t between the
spool and val ve body or sl eeve.
c. Check Valves. Check val ves are the most commonl y used i n fl ui d-powered systems.
They al l ow fl ow i n one di r ecti on and pr event fl ow i n the other di recti on. They may be
i nstal l ed i ndependentl y i n a l i ne, or they may be i ncor porated as an i ntegr al part of a
sequence, counterbal ance, or pressur e-reduci ng val ve. The val ve el ement may be a sl eeve,
cone, bal l , poppet, pi ston, spool , or di sc. For ce of the movi ng fl ui d opens a check val ve; back-
fl ow, a spri ng, or gravi ty cl oses the val ve. Fi gur es 5-14, 5-15 and 5-16 show vari ous types of
check val ves.
(1) Standard Type (Fi gur e 5-17, page 5-12). Thi s val ve may be a r i ght-angl e or an i n-
l i ne type, dependi ng on the r el ati ve l ocati on of the por ts. Both types oper ate on the same
pri nci pl e. The val ve consi sts essenti al l y of a poppet or bal l 1 hel d on a seat by the for ce of
spr i ng 2. Fl ow di r ected to the i nl et por t acts agai nst spri ng 2 to unseat poppet 1 and open
the val ve for through fl ow (see Fi gur e 5-17, di agram B, for both val ve types). Fl ow enter i ng
the val ve through the outl et por t combi nes wi th spri ng acti on to hol d poppet 1 on i ts seat to
check r ever se fl ow.
These val ves ar e avai l abl e wi th vari ous cr acki ng pr essur es. Conventi onal appl i cati ons
usual l y use the l i ght spri ng because i t ensures reseati ng the poppet r egardl ess of the val ve's
Figure 5-12. Operation of a sim-
ple poppet valve
Figure 5-13. Operation of sliding-spool,
directional-control valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-11
mounti ng posi ti on. Heavy
spri ng uni ts ar e gener al l y used
to ensur e the avai l abi l i ty of at
l east the mi ni mum pr essur e
r equi r ed for pi l ot oper ati ons.
(2) Restri cti on Type (Fi g-
ur e 5-18, page 5-12). Thi s
val ve has or i fi ce pl ug 1 i n the
nose of poppet 2, whi ch makes
i t di ffer ent fr om a conven-
ti onal , r i ght-angl e check val ve.
Fl ow di r ected to the i nl et por t
opens the val ve, al l owi ng fr ee
fl ow through the val ve.
Rever se fl ow di r ected i n through
the outl et por t seats poppet 2.
Fl ow i s r estr i cted to the amount
of oi l , whi ch can be al ter ed, to
al l ow a sui tabl e bl eed when the
poppet i s cl osed. Uses of a
r estri cti on check val ve can be to
contr ol the l ower i ng speed of a
down-movi ng pi ston and the
r ate of decompr essi on i n l ar ge
pr esses.
(3) Pi l ot-Operated Type
(Fi gur e 5-19, page 5-13). I n di a-
gram A, the val ve has poppet 1
seated on stati onary sl eeve 2 by
spri ng 3. Thi s val ve opens the same as a
conventi onal check val ve. Pressur e at the
i nl et por ts must be suffi ci ent to over come
the combi ned for ces of any pr essur e at the
outl et por t and the l i ght thr ust of spri ng 3
so that poppet 1 r ai ses and al l ows fl ow
from the i nl et ports through the outl et
por t. I n thi s si tuati on, ther e i s no pr essur e
r equi r ed at the pi l ot por t.
I n di agr am B, the val ve i s cl osed to
prevent rever se fl ow. Pr essure at the out-
l et por t and the thrust of spr i ng 3 hol d pop-
pet 1 on i ts seat to bl ock the fl ow. I n thi s
case, the pi l ot por t has no pr essur e.
I n di agr am C, pr essure appl i ed at the
pi l ot por t i s suffi ci ent to over come the
thrust of spr i ng 3. The net for ces exer ted
Figure 5-14. Swing-type check valve
Figure 5-15. Vertical check valve
Figure 5-16. Spring-loaded check valve
FM 5-499
5-12 Valves
A
B
Figure 5-17. Standard check valve
Figure 5-18. Restriction check valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-13
by pressur es at the other ports rai se pi ston 4 to unseat poppet 1 and al l ow control l ed fl ow
fr om the outl et to the i nl et por ts. Wi th no pr essur e at the i nl et por ts, pi l ot pr essur e must
exceed 40 per cent of that i mposed at outl et to open the poppet.
Fi gur e 5-20 shows another pi l ot-oper ated check val ve. Thi s val ve consi sts of poppet 1
secured to pi ston 3. Poppet 1 i s hel d agai nst seat 4 by the acti on of spri ng 2 on pi ston 3. I n
di agr am A, the val ve i s i n the free-fl ow posi ti on. Pressure at the i nl et port, acti ng downward
agai nst poppet 1, i s suffi ci ent to overcome the combi ned forces of spr i ng 2 agai nst pi ston 3
and the pr essur e, i f any, at the outl et por t. (The pr essur e at the outl et por t i s exer ted over a
gr eater effecti ve ar ea than that at the i nl et because of the poppet stem.) The drai n post i s
open to the tank, and ther e i s no pr essur e at the pi l ot por t. Di agram B shows the val ve i n a
posi ti on to pr event r ever se fl ow, wi th no pr essur e at the pi l ot por t and the drai n openi ng to
the tank.
Figure 5-19. Pilot-operated check valve
Figure 5-20. Pilot-operated check valve, second type
FM 5-499
5-14 Valves
Di agram C shows the pi l ot oper ati on of the val ve. When suffi ci ent pr essur e i s appl i ed at
the pi l ot port to overcome the thrust of spri ng 2 pl us the net effect of pressur e at the other
por ts, poppet 1 i s unseated to al l ow r ever se fl ow. Pi l ot pr essur e must be equal to about 80
per cent of that i mposed at the outl et por t to open the val ve and al l ow r ever se fl ow.
d. Two-Way Valve. A two-way val ve i s general l y used to control the di recti on of fl ui d
fl ow i n a hydraul i c ci r cui t and i s a sl i di ng-spool type. Fi gure 5-21 shows a two-way, sl i di ng-
spool , di recti onal -contr ol val ve. As the spool moves back and for th, i t ei ther al l ows or pre-
vents fl ui d fl ow through the val ve. I n ei ther shi fted posi ti on i n a two-way val ve, a pr essur e
por t i s open to one cyl i nder por t, but the opposi te cyl i nder por t i s not open to a tank. A tank
port on thi s val ve i s used pri mari l y for drai ni ng.
e. Four-Way Valves. Four-way, di r ecti onal -control val ves are used to control the di r ec-
ti on of fl ui d fl ow i n a hydraul i c ci rcui t, whi ch contr ol s the di recti on of movement of a work
cyl i nder or the r otati on of a fl ui d motor . These val ves are usual l y the sl i di ng-spool type. A
typi cal four-way, di r ecti onal -control val ve has four ports:
One pr essur e por t i s connected to a pr essur e l i ne.
One r eturn or exhaust por t i s connected to a r eser voi r .
Two wor ki ng por ts ar e connected, by l i nes, to an actuati ng uni t.
Four-way val ves consi st of a r ectan-
gul ar cast body, a sl i di ng spool , and a way
to posi ti on a spool . A spool i s pr eci si on-
fi tted to a bor e through the l ongi tudi nal
axi s of a val ves body. The l ands of a spool
di vi de thi s bor e i nto a ser i es of separ ate
chamber s. Por ts i n a val ves body l ead
i nto a chamber so that a spool 's posi ti on
deter mi nes whi ch por ts ar e open to each
other and whi ch ones ar e seal ed off fr om
each other . Por ts that ar e seal ed off fr om
each other i n one posi ti on may be i nter -
connected i n another posi ti on. Spool posi -
ti oni ng i s accompl i shed manual l y,
mechani cal l y, el ectri cal l y, or hydraul i -
cal l y or by combi ng any of the four .
Fi gur e 5-22 shows how the spool posi -
ti on determi nes the possi bl e fl ow condi -
ti ons i n the ci rcui t. The four ports ar e
mar ked P, T, A, and B: P i s connected to
the fl ow sour ce; T to the tank; and A and
B to the r especti ve por ts of the wor k cyl i n-
der , hydr aul i c motor , or some other val ve
i n the ci rcui t. I n di agr am A, the spool i s
i n such a posi ti on that por t P i s open to
por t A, and por t B i s open to por t T. Por ts
A and B ar e connected to the por ts of the
cyl i nder , fl ow through por t P, and cause
Figure 5-21. Two-way valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-15
the pi ston of the cyl i nder to move to the r i ght. Retur n fl ow fr om the cyl i nder passes thr ough
por ts B and T. I n di agram B, por t P i s open to por t B, and the pi ston moves to the l eft.
Retur n fl ow from the cyl i nder passes thr ough ports A and T.
Tabl e 5-1, page 5-16, l i sts some of the cl assi fi cati ons of di r ecti onal -control val ves. These
val ves coul d be i denti fi ed accor di ng to the
Number of spool posi ti ons.
Number of fl ow paths i n the extreme posi ti ons.
Fl ow pattern i n the center or crossover posi ti on.
Method of shi fti ng a spool .
Method of provi di ng spool return.
(1) Poppet-Type Val ve. Fi gure 5-23, page 5-16, shows a typi cal four-way, poppet-type,
di r ecti onal -control val ve. I t i s a manual l y operated val ve and consi sts of a group of conven-
ti onal spri ng-l oaded poppets. The poppets ar e encl osed i n a common housi ng and are i nter -
connected by ducts so as to di rect the fl ui d fl ow i n the desi red di recti on.
The poppets ar e actuated by cams on the camshaft. They ar e arr anged so that the
shaft, whi ch i s rotated by i ts contr ol l i ng l ever, wi l l open the cor rect poppet combi nati ons to
di r ect the fl ui d fl ow through the desi red l i ne to the actuati ng uni t. At the same ti me, fl ui d
wi l l be di r ected from the opposi te l i ne of the actuati ng uni t through the val ve and back to the
r eser voi r or exhausted to the atmospher e.
Figure 5-22. Flow conditions in a circuit
FM 5-499
5-16 Valves
Spri ngs hol d the poppets to thei r
seats. A camshaft unseats them to
al l ow fl ui d fl ow thr ough the val ve.
The camshaft i s control l ed by movi ng
the handl e. The val ve i s oper ated by
movi ng the handl e manual l y or by
connecti ng the handl e, by mechani cal
l i nkage, to a contr ol handl e. On the
camshaft ar e thr ee O-ri ng packi ngs
to pr event i nter nal and external l eak-
age. The camshaft has two l obes
(rai sed porti ons). The contour
(shape) of these l obes i s such that
when the shaft i s pl aced i n the neu-
tral posi ti on, the l obes wi l l not touch
any of the poppets.
Figure 5-23. Working view of poppet-type, four-
way valve
Table 5-1. Classifications of directional-control valves
Classification Description
Path-of-flow type Two way
Four way
Allows a total of two possible flow paths in two
extreme spool positions
Allows a total of four possible flow paths in two
extreme spool positions
Control type Manual operated
Pilot operated
Solenoid operated
Solenoid controlled, pilot oper-
ated
Hand lever is used to shift the spool.
Hydraulic pressure is used to shift the spool.
Solenoid action is used to shift the spool.
Solenoid action is used to shift the integral pilot
spool, which directs the pilot flow to shift the main
spool.
Position type Two position
Three position
Spool has two extreme positions of dwell.
Spool has two extreme positions plus one interme-
diate or center position.
Spring type Spring offset
No spring
Spring centered
Spring action automatically returns the spool to the
normal offset position as soon as shifter force is
released. (Spring offset is always a two-way
valve.)
Spool is not spring-loaded; it is moved only by
shifter force, and it remains where it is shifted (may
be two- or three-position type, but three-position
type uses detent).
Spring action automatically returns the spool to the
center position as soon as the shifter force is
released. (Spring-centered is always a three-
position valve.)
Spool type Open center
Closed center
Tandem center
Partially closed center
Semi-open center
These are five of the more common spool types.
They refer to the flow pattern allowed when the
spool is in the center position (three-position
valves) or in the cross-over position (two-position
valves).
FM 5-499
Valves 5-17
One cam l obe oper ates the two pr essur e poppets; the other l obe oper ates the two r eturn/
exhaust poppets. To stop the r otati ng camshaft at the exact posi ti on, a stop pi n i s secur ed to
the body and extended thr ough a cutout secti on of the camshaft fl ange. Thi s stop pi n pr e-
vents over tr avel by ensur i ng that the cam l obes stop r otati ng when the poppets have
unseated as hi gh as they can go.
Fi gur e 5-23 shows a wor ki ng vi ew of a poppet-type, four-way val ve. The camshaft
r otates by movi ng the contr ol handl e i n ei ther di r ecti on fr om neutr al . The l obes r otate,
unseati ng one pr essur e poppet and one r eturn/exhaust poppet. The val ve i s now i n a wor k-
i ng posi ti on. Pressur e fl ui d, enteri ng the pr essure port, travel s through the ver ti cal fl ui d
passages i n both pr essur e poppet seats. Si nce onl y one pr essur e poppet i s unseated by the
cam l obe, the fl ui d fl ows past the open poppet to the i nsi de of the poppet seat. I t then fl ows
out one wor ki ng por t and to the actuati ng uni t. Return fl ui d fr om the actuati ng uni t enter s
the other wor ki ng por t. I t then fl ows thr ough the di agonal fl ui d passages, past the unseated
r eturn poppet, thr ough the ver ti cal fl ui d passages, and out the r eturn/exhaust por t. By
rotati ng the camshaft i n the opposi te di r ecti on unti l the stop pi n hi ts, the opposi te pressur e
and return poppets are unseated, and the fl ui d fl ow i s reversed. Thi s causes the actuati ng
uni t to move i n the opposi te di r ecti on.
(2) Sl i di ng-Spool Val ve. The four-way, sl i di ng-spool , di recti onal -control val ve i s si mpl e
i n operati on pri nci pl e and i s pr obabl y the most durabl e and tr oubl e free of al l four-way,
di r ecti onal -control val ves i n current use. Fi gur e 5-24 shows a typi cal four-way, sl i di ng-
spool , di r ecti onal -contr ol val ve. The val ve body contai ns four fl ui d por ts: pr essur e, r eturn/
exhaust, and two wor ki ng por ts (r efer r ed to as cyl i nder por ts). A hol l ow steel sl eeve fi ts i nto
the mai n bor e of the body. Ar ound the outsi de di ameter of the sl eeve ar e O-ri ng gaskets.
These O-ri ngs for m a seal between the sl eeve and the body.
I n Fi gur e 5-24, di agr am A, the val ve i s at the far r i ght i n i ts cyl i nder . Li qui d fr om the
pump fl ows to the ri ght end of the cyl i nder por t, whi l e l i qui d fr om the l eft end r eturns to the
reservoi r. I n di agram C, the si tuati on i s r everse. The pi ston i s to the far l eft i n i ts cyl i nder.
Li qui d fr om the pump fl ows to the l eft end of the cyl i nder por t, whi l e l i qui d fr om the r i ght
end r etur ns to the reservoi r. I n di agram B, the pi ston i s i n an i ntermedi ate posi ti on. Fl ow
thr ough the val ve from the pump i s shut off, and both ends of the cyl i nder can dr ai n to the
Figure 5-24. Schematic of a four-way, directional-control, sliding-spool valve
FM 5-499
5-18 Valves
r eser voi r unl ess other val ves ar e set to contr ol the fl ow.
I n a closed-center spool val ve, a pi ston i s sol i d, and al l passages through a val ve ar e bl ocked
when a pi ston i s center ed i n i ts cyl i nder (see Fi gur e 5-24, di agram B). A cl osed-center val ve
i s used when a si ngl e pump or an accumul ator per for ms mor e than one oper ati on and wher e
ther e must be no pressur e l oss i n shi fti ng a str oke di r ecti on at a wor k poi nt.
I n an open-center spool val ve, the spool s on a pi ston ar e sl otted or channel ed so that al l
passages ar e open to each other
when a pi ston i s center ed (see Fi gur e
5-25). I n some open-center val ves,
passages to a cyl i nder por t ar e
bl ocked when a val ve i s center ed and
l i qui d fr om a pump i s carri ed
through a pi ston and out the other
si de of a val ve to a r eser voi r (see Fi g-
ur e 5-26). Li qui d must be carri ed to
both ends of a pi ston of a di recti onal
val ve to keep i t bal anced. I nstead of
di schar gi ng i nto a r eser voi r when a
val ve i s center ed, l i qui d may be
di r ected to other val ves so that a set
of oper ati ons i s per for med i n
sequence.
Open-center val ves are used
when a work cyl i nder does not have
to be hel d i n posi ti on by pr essur e and
wher e power i s used to per for m a si n-
gl e oper ati on. These val ves al so
avoi d shock to a system when a val ve
spool i s moved from one posi ti on to
another, si nce i n the i ntermedi ate
Figure 5-25. Closed-center spool valve
Figure 5-26. Open-center spool valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-19
posi ti on, pr essure i s temporar i l y rel i eved by l i qui d passi ng from a pump di r ectl y to the r es-
ervoi r .
(3). Manual l y Oper ated Four -Way Val ve. Thi s val ve i s used to contr ol the fl ow di r ecti on
manual l y. A spool i s shi fted by oper ati ng a hand l ever (Fi gur e 5-27, page 5-20). I n a spr i ng-
offset model , a spool i s normal l y i n an extr eme out posi ti on and i s shi fted to an extreme i n
posi ti on by movi ng a l ever toward a val ve. Spr i ng acti on automati cal l y r etur ns both spool
and l ever to the normal out posi ti on when a l ever i s rel eased. I n a two-posi ti on, no-spr i ng
model , a spool i s shi fted back to i ts or i gi nal posi ti on. (Fi gur e 5-27 does not show thi s val ve.)
I n a three-posi ti on no-spr i ng model , a detent (a devi se whi ch l ocks the movement) retai ns a
spool i n any one of the thr ee sel ected posi ti ons after l ever force i s r el eased. I n a thr ee-posi -
ti on, spri ng-center ed model , a l ever i s used to shi ft a spool to ei ther extr eme posi ti on away
fr om the center . Spr i ng acti on automati cal l y r etur ns a spool to the center posi ti on when a
l ever i s r el eased.
(4) Pi l ot-Operated, Four-Way Val ve. Thi s type of val ve i s used to contr ol the fl ow di rec-
ti on by usi ng a pi l ot pressure. Fi gure 5-28, page 5-21, shows two uni ts i n whi ch the spool i s
shi fted by appl yi ng the pi l ot pr essur e at ei ther end of the spool . I n the spri ng-offset model ,
the spool i s hel d i n i ts normal offset posi ti on by spri ng thrust and shi fted to i ts other posi ti on
by appl yi ng pi l ot pressur e to the fr ee end of the spool . Removi ng pi l ot pressur e shi fts the
spool back to i ts normal offset posi ti on. A detent does not hol d thi s val ve, so pi l ot pressur e
shoul d be mai ntai ned as l ong as the val ve i s i n the shi fted posi ti on.
(5) Sol enoi d-Oper ated, Two- and Four -Way Val ves. These val ves ar e used to contr ol the
di r ecti on of hydr aul i c fl ow by el ectri cal means. A spool i s shi fted by energi zi ng a sol enoi d
that i s l ocated at one or both ends of the spool . When a sol enoi d i s ener gi zed, i t for ces a push
r od agai nst the end of a spool . A spool shi fts away fr om the sol enoi d and towar d the opposi te
end of the val ve body (see Fi gur e 5-29, page 5-21). I n a spr i ng-offset model , a si ngl e sol enoi d
shi fts a spri ng-l oaded spool . When a sol enoi d i s deener gi zed, a spr i ng r etur ns a spool to i ts
ori gi nal posi ti on.
5-3. Flow-Control Valves. Fl ow-contr ol val ves are used to contr ol an actuators speed by
meteri ng fl ow. Meteri ng i s measuri ng or regul ati ng the fl ow rate to or from an actuator . A
water faucet i s an exampl e of a fl ow-control val ve. Fl ow r ate vari es as a faucet handl e i s
tur ned cl ockwi se or counter cl ockwi se. I n a cl osed posi ti on, fl ow stops. Many fl ow-contr ol
val ves used i n fl ui d-power ed systems ar e si mi l ar i n desi gn and oper ati on to a water faucets.
I n hydr aul i c ci r cui ts, fl ow-contr ol val ves ar e gener al l y used to contr ol the speed of
hydr aul i c motor s and wor k spi ndl es and the tr avel r ates of tool heads or sl i des. Fl ow-contr ol
val ves i ncor por ate an i ntegral pr essur e compensator , whi ch causes the fl ow r ate to r emai n
substanti al l y uni form regardl ess of changes i n workl oad. A nonpr essure, compensated fl ow
control , such as a needl e val ve or fi xed r estr i cti on, al l ows changes i n the fl ow r ate when
pressur e drop through i t changes.
Vari ati ons of the basi c fl ow-contr ol val ves are the fl ow-contr ol -and-check val ves and the
fl ow-control -and-over l oad r el i ef val ves. Model s i n the fl ow-control -and-check-val ve seri es
i ncor porate an i ntegral check val ve to al l ow rever se free fl ow. Model s i n the fl ow-contr ol -
and-overl oad-rel i ef-val ve seri es i ncorpor ate an i ntegr al rel i ef val ve to l i mi t system pressur e.
Some of these val ves ar e gasket-mounted, and some are panel -mounted.
FM 5-499
5-20 Valves
Figure 5-27. Shifting spool by hand lever
FM 5-499
Valves 5-21
a. Gate Valve. I n thi s type of val ve, a wedge or gate contr ol s the fl ow. To open and cl ose
a passage, a handwheel moves a wedge or gate up and down acr oss a fl ow l i ne. Fi gur e 5-30,
page 5-22, shows the pr i nci pal el ements of a gate val ve. Ar ea A shows the l i ne connecti on
and the outsi de str uctur e of the val ve; ar ea B shows the wedge or gate i nsi de the val ve and
the stem to whi ch the gate and the handwheel ar e attached. When the val ve i s opened, the
gate stands up i nsi de
the bonnet wi th i ts
bottom fl ush wi th the
wal l of the l i ne. When
the val ve i s cl osed, the
gate bl ocks the fl ow by
standi ng strai ght
acr oss the l i ne wher e i t
rests fi r ml y agai nst
the two seats that
extend compl etel y
around the l i ne.
A gate val ve
al l ows a strai ght fl ow
and offer s l i ttl e or no
resi stance to the fl ui d
fl ow when the val ve i s
compl etel y open.
Someti mes a gate
val ve i s i n the par ti al l y
open posi ti on to
restri ct the fl ow rate.
Figure 5-28. Spool shifted by pilot pressure
Pressure
In
Return Return
Valve
spool
Solenoid 2 Solenoid 1
Actuator
Figure 5-29. Solenoid-operated, sliding-spool, directional-
control valve
FM 5-499
5-22 Valves
However, i ts mai n use i s i n the ful l y open or ful l y
cl osed posi ti ons. I f the val ve i s l eft partl y open, the
val ve's face stands i n the fl ui d fl ow, whi ch wi l l act on
the face and cause i t to er ode.
b. Globe Valve. A di sc, whi ch i s scr ewed di r ectl y
on the end of the stem, i s the contr ol l i ng member of a
gl obe val ve. A val ve i s cl osed by l ower i ng a di sc i nto a
val ve seat. Si nce fl ui d fl ows equal l y on al l si des of the
center of suppor t when a val ve i s open, there i s no
unbal anced pr essure on a di sc to cause uneven wear .
Fi gure 5-31 shows a gl obe val ve.
c. Needle Valve. A needl e val ve i s si mi l ar i n
desi gn and oper ati on to a gl obe val ve. I nstead of a
di sc, a needl e val ve has a l ong, taper ed poi nt at the
end of a val ve stem. Fi gur e 5-32 shows a secti onal
vi ew of a needl e val ve. A l ong taper al l ows a needl e
val ve to open or cl ose gradual l y. A needl e val ve i s
used to contr ol fl ow
I nto del i cate gauges, whi ch coul d be dam-
aged i f hi gh-pressure fl ui d was suddenl y
del i ver ed.
At the end of an operati on when wor k
moti on shoul d hal t sl owl y.
At other poi nts wher e pr eci se fl ow adjust-
ments ar e necessary.
At poi nts wher e a smal l fl ow r ate i s desi r ed.
Control
wheel
B
A
Seal
Bonnet
Gate
Control
screw
Seat
Figure 5-30. Cross section of a
gate valve
Control screw
Disc
Seat
Figure 5-31. Operation of a globe valve
Closed
Open
Figure 5-32. Sectional view of a
needle valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-23
d. Restrictor. A restri ctor i s used i n l i qui d-powered
systems to l i mi t the movement speed of cer tai n actu-
ati ng devi ces by l i mi ti ng fl ow rate i n a l i ne. Fi gure 5-
33 shows a fi xed restr i ctor. Fi gure 5-34 shows a var i -
abl e r estr i ctor , whi ch var i es the r estr i cti on amount
and i s a modi fi ed needl e val ve. Thi s val ve can be pr e-
adjusted to al ter the oper ati ng ti me of a parti cul ar
subsystem. Al so, i t can be adjusted to meet the
requi rements of a parti cul ar system.
e. Orifice Check Valve. Thi s val ve i s used in li qui d-
power ed systems to al l ow nor mal speed of oper ati on
i n one di recti on and l i mi ted speed i n
another . Fi gur e 5-35 shows two or i fi ce
check val ves.
f. Flow Equalizer. A fl ow equal -
i zer (fl ow di vi der) i s used i n some
hydr aul i c systems to synchroni ze the
oper ati on of two actuati ng uni ts. An
equal i zer di vi des a si ngl e str eam of
fl ui d from a di r ecti onal -contr ol val ve
i nto two equal str eams. Each actuat-
i ng uni t r ecei ves the same fl ow r ate;
both move i n uni son. When the two
str eams of r etur n fl ui d oper ate i n oppo-
si te di r ecti ons, a fl ow equal i zer com-
bi nes them at an equal r ate. Thus, a
fl ow equal i zer synchroni zes the actuat-
i ng uni ts' movements dur i ng both
operati onal di recti ons.
Fi gur e 5-36, page 5-24, shows one
type of fl ow equal i zer ; the valve is i n the
spl i tti ng (di vi ded-fl ow) posi ti on. Fl ui d,
under pressure from the di recti onal -
control val ve, enters por t 3. Thi s pres-
sure overcomes spri ng tensi on and
Figure 5-33. Fixed restrictor
Adjusting
screw
Bonnet
Figure 5-34. Variable restrictor
Inlet
Inlet
Outlet
Outlet
3
4
2
1
5
A
B
1. Outlet port 4. Inlet port
2. Cone 5. Orifice
3. Orifice
Figure 5-35. Orifice check valve
FM 5-499
5-24 Valves
Figure 5-36. Flow equalizer
FM 5-499
Valves 5-25
for ces pl ug 4 down and uncover s the two or i fi ces i n sl eeve 2. The fl ui d then spl i ts and shoul d
fl ow equal l y thr ough si de passages 1 and 5. The fl ui d fl ows thr ough
Spl i tti ng check val ves 7 and 15.
Meter i ng gr ooves 10 and 14.
Por ts 9 and 13.
The connecti ng l i nes to the actuati ng cyl i nder s.
Any di fference i n the fl ow rate between the two passages r esul ts i n a pressure di fferen-
ti al between these two passages. Fr ee-fl oati ng meter i ng pi ston 11 shi fts to equal i ze the
i nternal pressur e, equal i zi ng the fl ow.
5-4. Valve Installation. Si nce a fl ow-contr ol val ve meter s fl ow i n one di recti on onl y, the
i nl et and outl et por ts must be cor r ectl y connected i n a ci r cui t i n r el ati on to the fl ow di r ecti on
to be meter ed. A val ve's dr ai n connecti on must be pi ped to a tank so that a connecti on wi l l
not be subjected to possi bl e pr essur e surges. The l ocati on of a fl ow-contr ol val ve wi th
r espect to wor kl oad has an affect on a ci rcui t's oper ati ng character i sti cs. The thr ee basi c
types of fl ow-contr ol -
val ve i nstal l ati ons
are the meter-i n,
meter-out, and bl eed-
off ci r cui ts.
a. Meter-I n Cir-
cuit (Fi gure 5-37).
Wi th thi s ci r cui t, a
fl ow-control val ve i s
i nstal l ed i n a pres-
sur e l i ne that l eads to
a wor k cyl i nder . Al l
fl ow enter i ng a wor k
cyl i nder i s fi r st
meter ed through a
fl ow-control val ve.
Si nce thi s meter i ng
acti on i nvol ves reduc-
i ng fl ow from a pump
to a wor k cyl i nder , a
pump must del i ver
mor e fl ui d than i s
r equi r ed to actuate a cyl i nder at the desi r ed speed. Excess fl ui d r eturns to a tank thr ough a
r el i ef val ve. To conser ve power and avoi d undue str ess on a pump, a r el i ef val ves setti ng
shoul d be onl y sl i ghtl y hi gher than a wor ki ng pr essur es, whi ch a cyl i nder r equi r es.
A meter -i n ci rcui t i s i deal i n appl i cati ons wher e a l oad al ways offer s a posi ti ve r esi s-
tance to fl ow duri ng a contr ol l ed str oke. Exampl es woul d be feedi ng gri nder tabl es, wel di ng
machi nes, mi l l i ng machi nes, and r otary hydr aul i c motor dri ves. A fl ow-contr ol -and-check
val ve used i n thi s type of ci rcui t woul d al l ow r ever se fr ee fl ow for the r etur n str oke of a cyl i n-
der , but i t woul d not pr ovi de contr ol of r etur n str oke speed.
Figure 5-37. Typical meter-in circuit
FM 5-499
5-26 Valves
b. Meter-Out
Circuit (Fi gur e 5-38,
page 5-26). Wi th a
meter -out ci rcui t, a
fl ow-control val ve i s
i nstal l ed on the
return si de of a cyl -
i nder so that i t con-
tr ol s a cyl i nder 's
actuati on by meter-
i ng i ts di scharge
fl ow. A r el i ef val ve
i s set sl i ghtl y above
the operati ng pres-
sur e that i s requi red
by the type of wor k.
Thi s type of ci r-
cui t i s i deal for over-
haul i ng l oad
appl i cati ons i n whi ch a wor kl oad tends to pul l an operati ng pi ston faster than a pump's
del i ver y woul d warr ant. Exampl es woul d be for dri l l i ng, reami ng, bori ng, tur ni ng, thread-
i ng, tappi ng, cutti ng off, and col d sawi ng machi nes. A fl ow-contr ol -and-check val ve used i n
thi s ci rcui t woul d al l ow rever se free fl ow, but i t woul d not provi de a control of return stroke
speed.
c. Bleed-Off Circuit. A typi cal bl eed-off ci r cui t i s not i nstal l ed di rectl y i n a feed l i ne. I t
i s Td i nto thi s l i ne wi th i ts outl et connected to a return l i ne. A val ve regul ates fl ow to a cyl -
i nder by di ver ti ng an adjustabl e por ti on of a pumps fl ow to a tank. Si nce fl ui d del i ver ed to a
wor k cyl i nder does not have to pass thr ough a fl ow-control val ve, excess fl ui d does not have
to be dumped through a rel i ef val ve. Thi s type of ci rcui t usual l y i nvol ves l ess heat genera-
ti on because pressur e on a pump equal s the work r esi stance duri ng a feed operati on.
d. Compensated Flow. The fl ow-contr ol val ves pr evi ousl y di scussed do not compensate
for changes i n fl ui d temperatur e or pressure and are consi dered noncompensati ng val ves.
Fl ow rate through these val ves can var y at a fi xed setti ng i f ei ther the pr essur e or the fl ui d's
temper ature changes. Vi scosi ty i s the i nternal resi stance of a fl ui d that can stop i t fr om
fl owi ng. A l i qui d that fl ows easi l y has a hi gh vi scosi ty. Vi scosi ty changes, whi ch can resul t
from temper ature changes, can cause l ow var i ati ons thr ough a val ve. Such a val ve can be
used i n l i qui d-powered systems where sl i ght fl ow vari ati ons ar e not cri ti cal consi derati on
factor s.
However, some systems r equi r e extremel y accurate contr ol of an actuati ng devi ce. I n
such a system, a compensated fl ow-control val ve i s used. Thi s val ve automati cal l y changes
the adjustment or pressur e dr op acr oss a restri cti on to pr ovi de a constant fl ow at a gi ven set-
ti ng. A val ve meter s a constant fl ow regar dl ess of vari ati on i n system pressur e. A compen-
sated fl ow-control val ve i s used mai nl y to meter fl ui d fl owi ng i nto a ci rcui t; however, i t can
be used to meter fl ui d as i t l eaves a ci rcui t. For cl ari ty, thi s manual wi l l refer to thi s val ve
as a fl ow r egul ator .
Figure 5-38. Typical meter-out circuit
FM 5-499
Valves 5-27
5-5. Valve Failures and Remedies. Hydraul i c val ves are preci si on-made and must be
very accurate i n control l i ng a fl ui ds pressure, di recti on, and vol ume wi thi n a system. Gen-
eral l y, no packi ngs ar e used on val ves si nce l eakage i s sl i ght, as l ong as the val ves are care-
ful l y fi tted and kept i n good condi ti on.
Contami nants, such as di rt i n the oi l , are the major pr obl ems i n val ve fai l ures. Smal l
amounts of di r t, l i nt, r ust, or sl udge can cause annoyi ng mal functi ons and extensi vel y dam-
age val ve par ts. Such mater i al wi l l cause a val ve to sti ck, pl ug smal l openi ngs, or abrade the
mati ng sur faces unti l a val ve l eaks. Any of these condi ti ons wi l l r esul t i n poor machi ne
oper ati on, or even compl ete stoppage. Thi s damage may be el i mi nated i f oper ator s use car e
i n keepi ng out di r t.
Use onl y the speci fi ed oi l s i n a hydr aul i c system. Fol l ow the r ecommendati ons i n a
machi nes oper ator 's manual . Because oxi dati on pr oduces rust par ti cl es, use an oi l that wi l l
not oxi di ze. Change the oi l and ser vi ce the fi l ter s r egul arl y.
a. Servicing Valves. Do the fol l owi ng befor e ser vi ci ng a val ve:
Di sconnect the el ectr i cal power sour ce befor e r emovi ng a hydraul i c val ves compo-
nents. Doi ng so el i mi nates star ti ng the equi pment acci dental l y or shor ti ng out
the tool s.
Move a val ve's contr ol l ever i n al l di r ecti ons to r el ease the systems hydraul i c
pressur e before di sconnecti ng any hydr aul i c val ve components.
Bl ock up or l ower al l hydraul i c worki ng uni ts to the ground befor e di sconnecti ng
any par ts.
Cl ean a val ve and i ts surr oundi ng area befor e r emovi ng any par t for servi ce. Use
steam-cl eani ng equi pment i f avai l abl e; however , do not al l ow water to enter a sys-
tem. Be certai n that al l hose and l i ne connecti ons are ti ght.
Use fuel oi l or other sui tabl e sol vents to cl ean wi th i f steam cl eani ng i s not possi -
bl e. However , never use pai nt thi nner or acetone. Pl ug the por t hol es i mmedi -
atel y after di sconnecti ng the l i nes.
b. Disassembling Valves. Do the fol l owi ng when di sassembl i ng a val ve:
Do not per form servi ce wor k on a hydr aul i c val ves i nter i or on the shop fl oor , on
the ground, or wher e ther e i s danger of dust or di r t bei ng bl own i nto the par ts.
Use onl y a cl ean bench area. Be certai n that al l tool s ar e cl ean and free of grease
and di r t.
Be careful to i denti fy the parts when di sassembl i ng for l ater r eassembl y. Spool s
are sel ecti vel y fi tted to val ve bodi es and must be returned to those same bodi es.
You must reassembl e the val ve secti ons i n the same order .
CAUTION
Be very careful when removing a backup plug on a
spring-loaded valve. Personal injury could result.
FM 5-499
5-28 Valves
Be ver y car eful when you have to cl amp a val ve housi ng i n a vi se. Do not damage
the component. I f possi bl e, use a vi se equi pped wi th l ead or br ass jaws, or pr otect
the component by wrappi ng i t i n a pr otecti ve coveri ng.
Make sur e that you seal al l the val ve's housi ng openi ngs when you remove the
components duri ng ser vi ce wor k. Doi ng so wi l l pr event for ei gn mater i al fr om
enter i ng the housi ng.
Use a pr ess to r emove spri ngs that ar e under hi gh pr essur e.
Wash al l val ve components i n a cl ean mi ner al -oi l sol vent (or other noncorrosi ve
cl eaner). Dry the parts wi th compressed ai r, and pl ace them on a cl ean surface
for i nspecti on. Do not wi pe a val ve wi th waste paper or rags. Li nt deposi ts on
any par ts may enter the hydraul i c system and cause tr oubl e.
Do not use carbon tetr achl or i de as a cl eani ng sol vent; i t can deter i or ate the r ub-
ber seal s.
Coat the par ts wi th a r ust-i nhi bi ti ng hydrau-
l i c oi l i mmedi atel y after cl eani ng and dryi ng
them. Make sur e to keep the par ts cl ean and
free from moi stur e unti l you rei nstal l them.
I nspect the val ve spri ngs careful l y when di s-
assembl i ng them. Repl ace al l the spri ngs
that show si gns of bei ng cocked or cr ooked or
ones that contai n broken, fractured, or rusty
coi l s.
Use a spr i ng tester to check the str ength of
the spr i ngs, i n pounds, compr essed to a spec-
i fi ed l ength (see Fi gur e 5-39).
c. Repairing Valves. The fol l owi ng par agraphs
addr ess r epai r of di r ecti onal -contr ol , vol ume-contr ol ,
and pr essur e-contr ol val ves:
(1) Di recti onal -Contr ol Val ves. Di recti onal -con-
tr ol -val ve spool s are i nstal l ed i n the val ve housi ng by a
sel ect hone fi t. Thi s i s done to provi de the cl osest possi -
bl e fi t between a housi ng and a spool for mi ni mum
i nternal l eakage and maxi mum hol di ng qual i ti es. To
make thi s cl ose fi t, you woul d need speci al factor y tech-
ni ques and equi pment. Therefore, most val ve spool s
and bodi es ar e furni shed for servi ce onl y i n matched sets and ar e not avai l abl e i ndi vi dual l y
for repl acement.
When r epai ri ng these val ves, i nspect the val ve spool s and bor es for burr s and scor i ng as
shown i n Fi gur e 5-40. The spool s may become coated wi th i mpuri ti es from the hydraul i c oi l .
When scori ng or coati ng i s not deep enough to cause a l eakage pr obl em, pol i sh the sur faces
wi th cr ocus cl oth. Do not r emove any of the val ve mater i al . Repl ace a val ves body and spool
i f scor i ng or coati ng i s excessi ve. I f a val ves acti on was er r ati c or sti cky befor e you r emoved
i t, i t may be unbal anced because of wear on the spool s or body; r epl ace the val ve.
Figure 5-39. Spring tester
FM 5-499
Valves 5-29
(2) Vol ume-Control Val ve. On val ve spool s
wi th or i fi ces, i nspect for cl oggi ng fr om di r t or
other for ei gn matter (see Fi gur e 5-41). Cl ean a
val ve wi th compr essed ai r or a smal l wi r e.
Rewash al l the par ts thor oughl y to r emove al l
emer y or metal par ti cl es. Any such abr asi ves
coul d qui ckl y damage an enti re hydr aul i c sys-
tem. Check a val ve spool for fr eedom of move-
ment i n a bor e. When l i ghtl y oi l ed, a val ve
shoul d sl i de i nto a bor e from i ts own wei ght.
(3) Pr essur e-Contr ol Val ve (Fi gur e 5-42).
Check for a weak r el i ef-val ve spr i ng wi th a
spr i ng tester i f system checks have i ndi cated
l ow pressur e. You can remedy thi s by repl aci ng
a spr i ng or by addi ng shi ms to i ncrease the com-
pressi on of a spri ng, i n some cases. Never add
so many shi ms that a spri ng i s compr essed sol i d.
(4) Val ve Seats and Poppets. Check the
val ve seats for possi bl e l eakage by scor i ng.
Repl ace a val ve i f fl at spots appear on a seat or
on the poppets. You can surface pol i sh the
metal val ve seats and poppets i f the scor i ng i s
not deep. Do not r emove any val ve mater i al .
Some seats and val ve poppets ar e made of
nyl on, whi ch i s l ong wear i ng and el asti c enough
to confor m per fectl y to mati ng surfaces, gi vi ng a
ti ght seal . The nyl on seats on the poppet val ves
wi l l take wear , wi th no damage to the mati ng
metal poi nt. When r epai ri ng these val ves,
al ways repl ace the nyl on parts wi th new nyl on
servi ce parts.
(5) Nonadjustabl e, Cartri dge-Type Rel i ef
Val ves. I f a r el i ef val ve's screen or or i fi ce
becomes pl ugged, oi l cannot enter i ts body to
equal i ze the pressure i n an area between an
or i fi ce pl ate and a pi l ot assembl y (see Fi gur e 5-
43, page 5-30). Thi s pl uggi ng causes a val ve to
open at l ower pressures than i t shoul d. The
resul t i s sl uggi sh oper ati ng hydraul i c uni ts.
Keep a r el i ef val ve's screen and ori fi ce cl ean at
al l ti mes. Al so check the O-ri ngs for damage,
whi ch mi ght cause l eakage.
Each rel i ef val ve's cartri dge i s stamped wi th
a par t number , a pr essur e l i mi t, and the date of
manufactur e (see Fi gur e 5-44, page 5-30). Use
Inspect seal
for leakage.
Check for
scoring
on lands.
Inspect for burring
of edges.
Look for coating
in this area.
Figure 5-40. Valve inspection
Check orifice
for clogging.
Inspect valve
spool for scoring.
Inspect
spring.
Check for burring
at edges of ports.
Figure 5-41. Volume-control valve
Check mating
seats.
Look for scoring
on valve.
Inspect for burring
in housing bore.
Figure 5-42. Pressure-control valve
FM 5-499
5-30 Valves
thi s code when testi ng the cartri dges. Test a
val ve's cartri dges for pressur e setti ng by
i nstal l i ng them i n a system and oper ati ng i t
unti l you r each the val ve's openi ng pres-
sur e. Read the pr essur e on a gauge that i s
i nstal l ed i n a val ve's ci rcui t.
5-6. Valve Assembly. Do the fol l owi ng
when assembl i ng val ves:
Ensure that the val ves ar e cl ean.
Wash thei r parts i n kerosene, bl ow
dry them wi th ai r , and then di p them
i n hydraul i c oi l wi th r ust i nhi bi tor to
prevent r usti ng. Doi ng so wi l l ai d i n
assembl y and provi de i ni ti al l ubri ca-
ti on. You can use petr ol eum jel l y to
hol d the seal i ng ri ngs i n pl ace duri ng
assembl y.
Doubl e check to make sur e that a val ve's mati ng surfaces ar e fr ee of bur rs and pai nt.
Repl ace al l the seal s and gaskets when r epai ri ng a val ve assembl y. Soak the new
seal s and gaskets i n cl ean hydraul i c oi l befor e assembl i ng. Doi ng so wi l l prevent
damage and hel p seal a val ves par ts.
Make sur e that you i nsert a val ves spool s i n thei r matched bor es. You must assem-
bl e a val ves secti ons i n thei r correct order .
Make sur e that there i s no di stor ti on when mounti ng val ves. Di storti on can be
caused by uneven tensi on on the mounti ng bol ts and oi l -l i ne fl anges, uneven mount-
i ng surfaces, i mproper val ve l ocati on, or i nsuffi ci ent al l owance for l i ne expansi on
when the oi l temper atur e r i ses. Any of these coul d r esul t i n val ve-spool bi ndi ng.
Check the acti on of a val ves spool s
after you ti ghten the bol ts. I f ther e
i s any sti cki ng or bi ndi ng, adjust the
tensi on of the mounti ng bol ts.
5-7. Troubleshooting Valves. Li sted
bel ow ar e areas that you can di agnose i n
hydraul i c val ves. When worki ng on a spe-
ci fi c machi ne, r efer to a machi ne's techni cal
manual for mor e i nformati on.
a. Pressure-Control Valves. The fol l ow-
i ng l i sts i nformati on when troubl eshooti ng
rel i ef, pressur e-reduci ng, pr essure-
sequence, and unl oadi ng val ves:
(1) Rel i ef Val ves. Consi der the fol l ow-
i ng when tr oubl eshooti ng r el i ef val ves
because they have l ow or errati c pr essur e:
Check screen
for clogging.
Inspect O-rings
for damage.
Inspect for
clogged orifice.
Check seats
for damage.
Figure 5-43. Cartridge-type relief valve
Part number
Pressure limit
Date of manufacture
Figure 5-44. Readings on a cartridge-type
relief valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-31
Adjustment i s i ncor r ect.
Di r t, chi p, or bur r s ar e hol di ng the val ve par ti al l y open.
Poppets or seats ar e wor n or damaged.
Val ve pi ston i n the mai n body i s sti cki ng.
Spri ng i s weak.
Spri ng ends ar e damaged.
Val ve i n the body or on the seat i s cocki ng.
Or i fi ce or bal ance hol d i s bl ocked.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng r el i ef val ves because they have no pr es-
sur e:
Or i fi ce or bal ance hol e i s pl ugged.
Poppet does not seat.
Val ve has a l oose fi t.
Val ve i n the body or the cover bi nds.
Spri ng i s broken.
Di rt, chi p, or burr s are hol di ng the val ve parti al l y open.
Poppet or seat i s worn or damaged.
Val ve i n the body or on the seat i s cocki ng.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng r el i ef val ves because they have excessi ve
noi se or chatter :
Oi l vi scosi ty i s too hi gh.
Poppet or seat i s faul ty or worn.
Li ne pr essure has excessi ve return.
Pr essur e setti ng i s too cl ose to that of another val ve i n the ci r cui t.
An i mpr oper spri ng i s used behi nd the val ve.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng r el i ef val ves because you cannot adjust
them proper l y wi thout getti ng excessi ve system pr essur e:
Spri ng i s broken.
Spri ng i s fati gued.
Val ve has an i mproper spri ng.
Dr ai n l i ne i s r estr i cted.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng r el i ef val ves because they mi ght be over-
heati ng the system:
Oper ati on i s conti nuous at the r el i ef setti ng.
Oi l vi scosi ty i s too hi gh.
Val ve seat i s l eaki ng.
FM 5-499
Valves 5-32
(2) Pressure-Reduci ng Val ves. Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng pressure-
reduci ng val ves because they have er rati c pressure:
Di rt i s i n the oi l .
Poppet or seat i s worn.
Or i fi ce or bal ance hol e i s r estri cted.
Val ve spool bi nds i n the body.
Dr ai n l i ne i s not open fr eel y to a r eser voi r .
Spri ng ends ar e not squar e.
Val ve has an i mproper spri ng.
Spri ng i s fati gued.
Val ve needs an adjustment.
Spool bore i s worn.
(3) Pressure-Sequence Val ves. Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng pr essure-
sequence val ves because the val ve i s not functi oni ng proper l y:
I nstal l ati on was i mpr oper .
Adjustment was i mpr oper .
Spri ng i s br oken.
For ei gn matter i s on a pl unger seat or i n the or i fi ces.
Gasket i s l eaky or bl own.
Dr ai n l i ne i s pl ugged.
Val ve cover s are not ti ghtened proper l y or are i nstal l ed wrong.
Val ve pl unger i s worn or scor ed.
Val ve-stem seat i s worn or scor ed.
Or i fi ces ar e too l ar ge, whi ch causes a jerky operati on.
Bi ndi ng occurs because movi ng par ts are coated wi th oi l i mpur i ti es (due to over-
heati ng or usi ng i mproper oi l ).
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng pressur e-sequence val ves because ther e i s
a pr ematur e movement to the secondary oper ati on:
Val ve setti ng i s too l ow.
An excessi ve l oad i s on a pr i mary cyl i nder .
A hi gh i ner ti a l oad i s on a pr i mary cyl i nder .
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng pressur e-sequence val ves because ther e i s
no movement or the secondary oper ati on i s sl ow:
Val ve setti ng i s too hi gh.
Rel i ef-val ve setti ng i s too cl ose to that of a sequence val ve.
Val ve spool bi nds i n the body.
FM 5-499
Valves 5-33
(4) Unl oadi ng Val ves. Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng th ese val ves
because a val ve fai l s to compl etel y unl oad a pump:
Val ve setti ng i s too hi gh.
Pump does not bui l d up to the unl oadi ng val ve pr essur e.
Val ve spool bi nds i n the body.
b. Directional-Control Valves. Di recti onal -contr ol val ves i ncl ude spool , rotar y, and
check val ves. Consi der the fol l owi ng when tr oubl eshooti ng these val ves because there i s
faul ty or i ncompl ete shi fti ng:
Contr ol l i nkage i s wor n or i s bi ndi ng.
Pi l ot pressur e i s i nsuffi ci ent.
Sol enoi d i s burned out or faul ty.
Center i ng spri ng i s defecti ve.
Spool adjustment i s i mpr oper .
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng di recti onal -control val ves because the
actuati ng cyl i nder cr eeps or dr i fts:
Val ve spool i s not center i ng pr oper l y.
Val ve spool i s not shi fted compl etel y.
Val ve-spool body i s wor n.
Leakage occurs past the pi ston i n a cyl i nder .
Val ve seats ar e l eaki ng.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng di recti onal -control val ves because a cyl i n-
der l oad drops wi th the spool i n the centered posi ti on:
Li nes fr om the val ve housi ng ar e l oose.
O-r i ngs on l ockout spri ngs or pl ugs are l eaki ng.
Lockout spr i ng i s br oken.
Rel i ef val ves ar e l eaki ng.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng di recti onal -control val ves because a cyl i n-
der l oad drops sl i ghtl y when i t i s rai sed:
Check-val ve spr i ng or seat i s defecti ve.
Spool val ve's posi ti on i s adjusted i mpr operl y.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng di recti onal -contr ol val ves because the oi l
heats (cl osed-center systems):
Val ve seat l eaks (pr essure or return ci r cui t).
Val ves ar e not adjusted properl y.
c. Volume-Control Valves. Vol ume-contr ol val ves i ncl ude fl ow-control and fl ow-di vi der
val ves. Consi der the fol l owi ng when tr oubl eshooti ng these val ves because ther e ar e vari a-
ti ons i n fl ow:
FM 5-499
Valves 5-34
Val ve spool bi nds i n the body.
Cyl i nder or motor l eaks.
Oi l vi scosi ty i s too hi gh.
Pressure drop i s i nsuffi ci ent across a val ve.
Oi l i s di rty.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng vol ume-control val ves because of err ati c
pr essur e:
Val ve's poppet or seat i s wor n.
Oi l i s di rty.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng vol ume-control val ves because of i mpr oper
fl ow:
Val ve was not adjusted properl y.
Val ve-pi ston tr avel i s restr i cted.
Passages or ori fi ce i s r estri cted.
Val ve pi ston i s cocked.
Rel i ef val ves l eak.
Oi l i s too hot.
Consi der the fol l owi ng when troubl eshooti ng vol ume-control val ves because the oi l
heats:
Pump speed i s i mpr oper .
Hydraul i c functi ons ar e hol di ng i n rel i ef.
Connecti ons ar e i ncorrect.
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-1
CHAPTER 6
Circuit Diagrams and
Troubleshooting
Hydraulic-circuit diagrams are complete drawings of a hydraulic circuit. I ncluded in
the diagrams is a description, a sequence of operations, notes, and a components list. Accu-
rate diagrams are essential to the designer, the people who build the machine, and the person
who repairs it. Hydraulic mechanisms are precision units, and their continued smooth oper-
ation depends on frequent inspection and servicing. Personnel must maintain the equipment
and system by performing frequent inspections and servicing. The systems must be kept
clean, with the oil and filters changed at established intervals.
6-1. Hydraulic-Circuit Diagrams. The four types of hydraul i c-ci r cui t di agrams ar e bl ock,
cutaway, pi ctori al , and graphi cal . These di agrams show the
Components and how they wi l l i nter act.
Manufacturi ng engi neer and assembl er how to connect the components.
Fi el d techni ci an how the system wor ks, what each component shoul d be doi ng,
and wher e the oi l shoul d be goi ng so that the techni ci an can di agnose and r epai r
the system.
a. Block Diagram. A bl ock di agram shows the components wi th l i nes between the
cl ocks, whi ch i ndi cate connecti ons and/or i nter acti ons.
b. Cutaway Diagram. A cutaway di agram shows the i nternal constr ucti on of the com-
ponents as wel l as the fl ow paths. Because the di a-
gr am uses col or s, shades, or var i ous patter ns i n the
l i nes and passages, i t can show the many di fferent
fl ow and pr essure condi ti ons.
c. Pictorial Diagram. A pi ctor i al di agram shows
a ci rcui ts pi pi ng arrangement. The components are
seen exter nal l y and ar e usual l y i n a cl ose reproduc-
ti on of thei r actual shapes and si zes.
d. Graphical Diagram. A graphi cal di agram
(Fi gur e 6-1), the short-hand system of the i ndustr y,
i s usual l y prefer red for desi gn and tr oubl eshooti ng.
Si mpl e geometri c symbol s represent the components
and thei r contr ol s and connecti ons.
6-2. United States of American Standards Insti-
tute (USASI) Graphical Symbols. The USASI , the ol d Ameri can Standards Associ ati on
(ASA), and the Joi nt I ndustr y Conference (JI C) are three systems of symbol s used i n ci rcui t
di agr ams. Thi s manual uses the USASI symbol s shown i n Fi gure 6-2, pages 6-2 and 6-3.
Steering circuit
Lift
circuit
Double
pump
Reservoir
Figure 6-1. Graphical-circuit
diagram
FM 5-499
6-2 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Figure 6-2. USASI graphical symbols
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-3
Figure 6-2. USASI graphical symbols (continued)
FM 5-499
6-4 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
a. Reservoir. The symbol for a r eser -
voi r i s a r ectangl e; the hori zontal si de i s
the l ongest si de (see Fi gur e 6-3). I f a r es-
er voi r i s vented to the atmospher e, the
top of the symbol i s open. I f a r eser voi r
i s pr essuri zed, the top i s cl osed. Li nes
that connect to a r eser voi r usual l y ar e
dr awn fr om the top, r egar dl ess of wher e
they connect. I f the l i ne ter mi nates
bel ow the fl ui d l evel , i t i s dr awn to the
bottom of the symbol . A l i ne connected
to the bottom of a r eser voi r may be
dr awn fr om the bottom of the symbol , i f
the bottom connecti on i s essenti al to the
system's oper ati on. For exampl e, when
the pump's i nl et must be charged or fl ooded by a posi ti ve head of oi l above the i nl et's port,
they woul d be posi ti oned above the pump symbol and the sucti on l i ne drawn out the bottom
of the symbol . Every reservoi r has at l east two hydraul i c l i nes connected to i t; some have
mor e. The r eser voi r i s usual l y the onl y component pi ctur ed mor e than once so that compo-
nents and return or drai n l i nes to and from the reservoi r are represented cor rectl y.
b. Lines. Fi gur e 6-4 shows the symbol s for hydr aul i c l i nes, whi ch ar e as fol l ows:
Worki ng l i ne: A sol i d l i ne that represents a hydraul i c pi pe, tube, hose, or other
conductor that carri es the l i qui d between components.
Pi l ot l i ne: Long dashes that represent control l i nes.
Dr ai n l i ne: Short dashes that r epresent the dr ai n l i nes for l eaki ng oi l .
Fl exi bl e l i ne: A sol i d, arced l i ne that i s dr awn between two dots whi ch represents
a fl exi bl e l i ne i n the system.
Fi gure 6-5, di agram A, shows crossed l i nes
that ar e not connected. Systems 1 and 2 r epr e-
sent two ways to i ndi cate an i nter secti on, one
wi th a l oop, one wi thout a l oop. Di agr am B
shows l i nes that ar e connected. The l i nes i n
system 1 use a dot at the cr ossi ng, i ndi cati ng
that l oops ar e used to desi gnate the cr ossi ng.
The l i nes i n system 2 do not use a dot at the
crossi ng, i ndi cati ng that l oops are not used at
the cr ossi ng.
c. Pump. The basi c symbol of a pump i s a
ci r cl e wi th a bl ack tri angl e i n the ci rcl e poi nt-
i ng outwar d (see Fi gur e 6-6). The pr essur e l i ne
fr om the pump i s drawn fr om the ti p of the tr i angl e; the sucti on l i ne i s drawn opposi te i t.
The tr i angl e i ndi cates the fl ow di r ecti on. I f a pump i s r ever si bl e, i t wi l l have two tr i angl es,
one poi nti ng out of each por t. Por t connecti ons to the pump (or any other component except
the r eser voi r ) ar e at the poi nts wher e the l i nes touch the symbol s. A vari abl e (or adjustabl e)
component i s desi gnated by an ar r ow drawn thr ough the components at a 45-degr ee angl e.
Vented
reservoir
Pressurized
reservoir
Line terminating
above fluid level
Line terminating
below fluid level
Figure 6-3. Reservoir symbols
Working line
Pilot line
Drain line
Flexible line
Figure 6-4. Hydraulic line symbols
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-5
d. Motor. Motor symbol s ar e ci rcl es wi th
bl ack tr i angl es poi nti ng i nward, i ndi cati ng that
the motor r ecei ves pr essur e ener gy (see Fi gur e
6-7, page 6-6). One tri angl e i ndi cates a nonre-
ver si bl e motor ; two tr i angl es i ndi cate a r ever s-
i bl e motor. Fl ow di r ecti on i n a si ngl e tri angl e
i s the way the tri angl e poi nts. I n the rever si bl e
motor, studyi ng the pump and val ve symbol s i s
the way to tr ace the fl ow di recti on. The arrows
that are outsi de the l i nes show the fl ow di r ec-
ti on, whi ch i s al ways away from the pump's
pr essur e por t and i nto the motor por t that i s
connected to the pr essur e l i ne. The opposi te
por t then di scharges back to the tank.
e. Cylinder. The basi c cyl i nder symbol i s a
si mpl e r ectangl e (a barr el ) and a T-shaped fi g-
ure (a pi ston and a rod). The symbol can be
drawn i n any posi ti on. The fol l owi ng descr i bes
four di fferent cyl i nder symbol s (see Fi gure 6-8,
page 6-6):
Si ngl e-acti ng cyl i nder : One hydraul i c
l i ne drawn to the basi c cyl i nder symbol ;
the end opposi te the por t i s open.
Doubl e-acti ng cyl i nder : Both ends of
the symbol ar e cl osed; two l i nes meet
the basi c cyl i nder symbol at the por t
connecti ons.
Doubl e-end rod cyl i nder: A r od l i ne
extends fr om each end of the basi c cyl i n-
der symbol .
Cushi oned cyl i nder : Smal l r ectangl es
ar e pl aced agai nst the pi ston l i ne. I f the
cushi on has an adjustabl e or i fi ce, a
sl anted arrow i s dr awn acr oss the sym-
bol . There i s no symbol for fl ow di rec-
ti on, so l i nes must be watched to see
wher e they ar e connected, whi ch shoul d
hel p deter mi ne fl ow.
f. Pressure-Control Valves. The basi c symbol
is a squar e wi th exter nal por t connecti ons and
an ar r ow i nsi de to show the fl ow di r ecti on (see
Fi gur e 6-9, page 6-6). Thi s val ve oper ates by
bal anci ng the pump outl et to the r eser voi r .
System 1
to loop
System 2
not to loop
Nonconnecting lines
A
System 1 to dot
System 2 not to dot
Connecting lines
B
Figure 6-5. Crossing lines A and B
Fixed displacement
Variable
displacement
(simplified)
Variable displacement
pressure compensated
(complete)
Reversible with
lever control
Figure 6-6. Pump symbols
FM 5-499
6-6 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
(1) Rel i ef Val ve (Fi gure 6-10). The r el i ef
val ve's symbol goes between the pr essure l i ne and
the tank. The fl ow-di recti on arr ow poi nts away
from the pr essure-l i ne port and toward the tank
por t. When pr essur e i n the system over comes the
val ve spri ng, fl ow i s from the pr essure port to the
tank por t.
(2) Sequence Val ve (Fi gur e 6-11). A sequence
val ve uses the r el i ef val ve. However , the i nl et
por t i s connected to a pr i mary cyl i nder l i ne; the
outl et por t i s connected to the secondar y cyl i nder
l i ne. Pi l ot pressure fr om the pri mar y cyl i nder
l i ne sequences the fl ow to the outl et por t when i t
reaches the val ve's setti ng. Si nce the sequence
val ve i s external l y drai ned, a drai n connecti on i s
added to the symbol at the drai n's l ocati on i n the
val ve.
(3) Check Val ve (Fi gur e 6-12, page 6-8). A
check val ve uses a sequence val ve for free return
fl ow when the cyl i nder s ar e r ever sed. I n Fi gur e
6-12, di agr am A shows the val ves as separ ate
uni ts. Di agr am B shows the check val ve bui l t i nto
the sequence val ve. The box around the val ves i s
an encl osur e, whi ch shows the l i mi ts of a compo-
nent or an assembl y that contai ns mor e than one
component. The encl osur e i s an al ter nate l ong
and short dashed l i ne. External ports ar e
assumed to be on the encl osure l i ne and i ndi cate
connecti ons to the components.
Valves
Valves
Nonreversible
motor
Reversible
motor
Figure 6-7. Motor symbols
Ports
Double-acting
Port Port
or
Single-acting
Double end rod
Adjustable Nonadjustable
Cushioned
Figure 6-8. Cylinder symbols
Inlet
Inlet
Spring
Pilot
pressure
Outlet Outlet
NORMALLY
CLOSED
NORMALLY
OPEN
Figure 6-9. Pressure-control-valve
symbols
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-7
(4) Counter bal ance Val ve (Fi gur e 6-
13, page 6-8). A counter bal ance val ve i s
a normal l y cl osed pressur e-control wi th
an i ntegral check valve. A di r ectly con-
troll ed val ve uses the same symbol as i n
Fi gure 6-13, wi th the pr i mar y port con-
nected to the bottom por t of the cyl i nder
and the secondar y por t to the di rec-
ti onal val ve. The val ve i s dr ai ned i nter -
nal l y, so the symbol shows no drai n
connecti on. I f the val ve body has two
pri mary por ts, the symbol shoul d show
one of them pl ugged.
(5) Pressur e-Reduci ng Val ve. Fi g-
ure 6-14, page 6-9 shows the nor mal l y
opened pressur e-reduci ng val ve. The
symbol shows the outl et pr essure oppo-
si te the spri ng to modul ate or shut off
the fl ow when the val ve setti ng i s
reached.
g. Flow-Control Valves. Fi gure 6-15,
page 6-9, shows the symbol s for the
basi c fl ow-contr ol, adjustabl e and nonad-
justabl e val ves. The fi gur e al so shows
the symbol for a compl etel y adjustabl e,
pr essur e-compensated, fl ow-contr ol
val ve wi th a bui l t-i n bypass.
h. Directional-Control Valves. A
di r ecti onal -control -val ve symbol uses a
mul ti pl e envel ope system that has a
separ ate r ectangl e for each posi ti on. Al l
the por t connecti ons ar e made to the
envel ope, whi ch shows the neutral con-
di ti on of the val ve. Arrows i n each
envel ope show the fl ow paths when the
val ve shi fts to that posi ti on.
(1) Unl oadi ng Val ve (Fi gur e 6-16,
page 6-9). The symbol for thi s val ve has
two envel opes. I n the nor mal l y cl osed
posi ti on, fl ow i s shown bl ocked i nsi de
the val ve. The spri ng contr ol i s pl aced
adjacent to thi s envel ope, i ndi cati ng
that the spr i ng contr ol s thi s posi ti on.
The exter nal pi l ot pr essur e i s pl aced
agai nst the bottom envel ope, i ndi cati ng
the fl ow condi tion when the pi l ot pressure
Pressure line
Pump Relief valve
Figure 6-10. Relief-valve symbol
Relief valve Pump
Directional valve
Sequence valve
To primary
cylinder
To secondary
cylinder
Drain
Figure 6-11. Sequence-valve symbol
FM 5-499
6-8 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
A - SEPARATE UNITS
B - INTEGRAL SEQUENCE
AND CHECK
Directional
valve
Sequence
valve
To primary
cylinder
No-flow
direction
Free-flow
direction
To secondary
cylinder
Check
valve
Pump
Relief valve
Component enclosure
Figure 6-12. Check-valve symbol
Plugged
port
To directional valve
Enclosure
Counterbalance
and check valve
Figure 6-13. Counterbalance-valve symbol
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-9
takes over . I f the l ower envel ope wer e super i mposed on the top envel ope, the symbol woul d
show that the fl ow path's ar r ow connects the pump outl et to the r eser voi r .
(2) Ordi nary Four-Way Val ve (Fi gur e 6-17, page 6-10). I f thi s val ve i s a two-posi ti on
val ve, the symbol wi l l have two envel opes. I f the val ve has a center posi ti on, the symbol wi l l
have thr ee envel opes. The actuati ng-contr ol symbol s ar e pl aced at the ends of the envel opes.
The extreme envel opes show the fl ow condi ti ons when thei r adjacent control s are actuated.
(3) Mobi l e Di r ecti onal -Val ve Secti on (Fi gur e 6-18, page 6-10). The symbol for thi s val ve
secti on resembl es a four-way-val ve symbol ; however , i t has added connecti ons and fl ow
paths to r epr esent the bypass passage. Ther e i s a separate envel ope for each fi ni te posi ti on,
and connecti ons are shown to the center or neutral posi ti on. The symbol shows a manual
l ever contr ol wi th center i ng spri ngs at
each end.
i . Accessories. The symbol for a fl ui d
condi ti oner i s a square (Fi gure 6-19,
page 6-11) that i s turned 45 degrees and
has the por t connecti ons to the cor ner s.
A dotted l i ne at r i ght angl es to the por t
connecti ons i ndi cates that the condi -
ti oner i s a fi l ter or str ai ner . A cool er
symbol has a sol i d l i ne at a ri ght angl e to
the fl ui d l i ne wi th energy tri angl es (i ndi -
cati ng heat) poi nti ng out. An accumul a-
tor (Fi gur e 6-20, page 6-11) symbol i s an
oval , wi th added i nsi de detai l s to i ndi -
cate spri ng l oad, gas charge, or other fea-
tur es.
Reduced-pressure outlet
Figure 6-14. Pressure-reducing-valve
symbol
Nonadjustable
Adjustable
Figure 6-15. Flow-control-valve symbol
From pump
To pilot-pressure
source
Figure 6-16. Unloading-valve symbol
FM 5-499
6-10 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Two-position, controlled
by external pilot pressure
Two-position, controlled
by solenoids
Three-position, spring-centered,
closed-center controlled by soleniod
with internal pilot pressure
Solenoid-
control
symbol
Solenoid control
with internal pilot
pressure
A B
P T
Figure 6-17. Four-way, directional-control-valve symbol
Manual control
Check valve in
pressure line
Float detent
Spring centered
By-pass passage
View A
Double-acting D-spool
View C
Floating C-spool
View B
Motor B-spool
View D
Single-acting T-spool
Figure 6-18. Mobile directional-control-valve symbol
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-11
6-3. Typical Mobile Circuits. Hydraul i c-l i ft, power-steer i ng, and r oad-patrol -truck ci r-
cui ts ar e consi der ed typi cal mobi l e ci r cui ts.
a. Hydraulic-Lift Circuit. Fi gure 6-21 shows the l i ft porti on of the hydraul i c system.
The ci r cui t has two cyl i nder s: a si ngl e-acti ng l i ft cyl i nder and a doubl e-acti ng ti l t cyl i nder.
The l i ft cyl i nder moves the l i fti ng for k up and down. The ti l t cyl i nder ti l ts the mast back
and for th to suppor t or dump the l oad.
A two-secti on, mul ti pl e-uni t di r ecti onal val ve control s the cyl i nder's operati on. The fi r st
val ve has a doubl e-acti ng D-spool to operate the ti l t cyl i nder, hydr aul i cal l y, i n ei ther di r ec-
ti on. The outer envel opes show the typi cal four fl ow paths for reversi ng the cyl i nder. The
second val ve has a si ngl e-acti ng T-spool to oper ate the l i ft cyl i nder . Thi s cyl i nder i s
returned by gravi ty;
the bypass unl oads
the pump.
The pump i s
dri ven by the l i ft
tr uck's engi ne and
suppl i es the ci rcui t
from the l arge vol -
ume end. The encl o-
sur e ar ound the two
pump symbol s i ndi -
cates that both
pumpi ng uni ts ar e
contai ned i n a si ngl e
assembl y. The same
appl i es to the two
di r ecti onal val ves
and the r el i ef val ve
that are encl osed.
They are i n a si ngl e
assembl y.
Filter or strainer
Figure 6-19. Fluid-conditioner
symbols
Spring loaded
Gas charged
Figure 6-20. Accumulator symbol
Lift cylinder
T-spool
section
D-spool section
To steering
circuit
Tilt cylinder
Figure 6-21. Hydraulic-lift circuit in neutral
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-12
Fi gur e 6-21 shows the ci rcui t i n neutr al ; the val ves ar e center ed. I f the fi gur e wer e to
show the oper ati ng mode, the outer envel opes on the val ve symbol s woul d be shi fted over to
al i gn wi th the por ts at the center envel opes. The ar rows i n the envel opes woul d then show
the fl ow paths fr om the pr essur e i nl et to the cyl i nder s and/or the r etur n fl ow to tank.
b. Power-Steering Circuits. Hydraul i c
power steer i ng i ncor por ates a hydraul i c boost
i nto a basi c manual -steer i ng system. A basi c
manual -steeri ng system i s an arrangement of
gear s i n a box that mul ti pl i es the i nput tor que
fr om the steer i ng wheel to a much gr eater
tor que at the steer i ng shaft (Fi gur e 6-22). The
steer i ng shaft, thr ough the pi tman arm (or
steer i ng-shaft arm), tr ansmi ts thi s i ncr eased
tor que thr ough the steer i ng l i nkage to the
steer i ng arms that turn the wheel s. The basi c
system of manual -steeri ng gears and steeri ng
l i nkage i s a steeri ng wheel , steeri ng gear , and
l i nkage to the steer ed wheel .
The hydraul i c boost, whi ch i s a mechani -
cal l y oper ated hydraul i c ser vo, may be appl i ed
to the steer i ng l i nkage (Fi gure 6-23) or wi thi n
the steer i ng gear . Steer i ng-wheel movement
actuates the steer i ng val ve, whi ch di r ects the
fl ui d under pr essur e to the steer i ng-val ve body
that fol l ows the val ve spool . Hydraul i c boost i s
appl i ed onl y when the steer i ng wheel i s bei ng
moved.
An i ntegr al power -steer i ng system has the
hydr aul i c-boost subsystem bui l t i nto the
mechani cal steer i ng gear . The steer i ng val ve
i s actuated by movi ng the steer i ng shaft. The
val ve contr ol s the oper ati on of the power cyl i n-
der . Thrust fr om the power cyl i nder i s tr ans-
mi tted di rectl y to the steeri ng shaft. Road
shock transmi tted back from the wheel s i s
taken up i n the steer i ng gear .
Fi gur e 6-24, page 6-13, shows the semi -
i ntegr al power -steer i ng system, or val ve-on-
gear system. The steer i ng val ve i s bui l t i nto
the steer i ng gear . The power cyl i nder i s
attached to the vehi cl e's fr ame and to the l i nk-
age. Road shock and thrust are absorbed i n
the fr ame.
c. Road-Patrol-Truck Circuits. Fi gure 6-25,
page 6-14, di agr ams A and B respecti vel y,
shows a r oad-patrol tr uck's hydraul i c system
and a hydraul i c ci r cui t's schemati c, as a com-
par i son. The tr uck needs thr ee doubl e-acti ng
Wheel
Wheel pivot
(king pin or ball studs)
Steering arm
Linkage
Pitman arm Steering shaft
Steering gear
Steering wheel
Figure 6-22. Manual-steering-gear
layout
Integral steering unit
Pitman arm
C
A
D
B
Figure 6-23. Power-steering layout
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-13
cyl i nder s to oper ate i ts bl ades and dump body: a pl ow hoi st cyl i nder for the front pl ow, an
under bl ade cyl i nder , and a dump-body hoi st cyl i nder . The tr uck al so has a power -steer i ng
system operated from one-hal f of the doubl e pump. (The steer i ng system has been omi tted
from di agr am B). The schemati c shows that the thr ee cyl i nders are operated through a
thr ee-spool , mobi l e di r ecti onal val ve fed fr om the l ar ge vol ume end of the doubl e pump.
6-4. Troubleshooting. Personnel shoul d fol l ow a system when troubl eshooti ng. The fol -
l owi ng shows the STOP system:
Study the ci rcui t di agrams.
Test by usi ng a rel i abl e tester .
Organi ze the knowl edge gai ned from the ci r cui t-test resul ts.
Per form r epai rs, taki ng ti me to do the job wel l .
a. Causes of I mproper Operations. I f i mpr oper oper ati on does occur , the cause can gen-
eral l y be tr aced to one of the fol l owi ng:
Use of the wrong oi l vi scosi ty or type.
I nsuffi ci ent fl ui d i n the system.
Presence of ai r i n the system.
Mechani cal damage or str uctur al fai l ur e.
I nternal or external l eakage.
Di r t, decomposed packi ng, water , sl udge, r ust, and other for ei gn matter i n the
system.
I mpr oper adjustments.
Heat exchanger that i s pl ugged, di r ty, or l eaki ng.
b. Testing a Hydraulic Circuit. To test compl ete or i ndi vi dual par ts of a hydraul i c ci r-
cui t, use a hydr aul i c ci rcui t tester (see para-
gr aph 2-8, page 2-18). The best tester to use i s
a compact por tabl e uni t that can check fl ow,
pressur e, and temperatur e.
c. Comparing Test Results with Specifica-
tions. Hydr aul i c-power ed systems ar e power -
tr ansmi ssi on systems. The onl y pur pose of the
components and the ci rcui t i s the contr ol l ed
tr ansfer of power fr om the motor shaft to the
poi nt of effecti ve work.

wher e
HP = hydraulic horsepower
f =flow, in GPM
p = pressure, in psi
HP
fp
1 714 ,
--------------- =
Steering column
Steering valve
Steering gear
Figure 6-24. Semi-integral power-
steering system
FM 5-499
6-14 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Figure 6-25. Hydraulic circuit diagram for a road-patrol truck
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-15
By measur i ng those two factor s at the same ti me, i t i s possi bl e to read the effecti ve out-
put at any poi nt. Compari ng test r esul ts wi th speci fi cati ons wi l l gi ve the necessar y faul t-
fi ndi ng facts.
d. Slippage. Al l hydr aul i c systems have some sl i ppage (see par agr aph 3-4, page, page
3-3) even when new. As wear i ncr eases, sl i ppage at wear poi nts i ncr eases, causi ng a
decr ease i n GPM. However , system pr essur e i s mai ntai ned. I n ti me, wear can be so great
that al l fl ow i s l ost. Onl y at a compl ete breakdown wi l l a pr essure gauge show where the
tr oubl e i s. Conducti ng a fl ow, pr essur e, and temper atur e (FPT) test woul d have i ndi cated
such a pr obl em and avoi ded a compl ete breakdown.
NOTE: At low oil temperature and low pressure (or light loads) the
machine will continue to operate but at less speed.
e. Flow and Pressure. Al ways test fl ow and pr essur e together . Connect a hydr aul i c
tester i nto the hydr aul i c ci rcui t at var i ous poi nts to i sol ate and check components (pumps,
val ves, or cyl i nders) for effi ci ency. Fi gure 6-26 shows a hydraul i c tester, connected to the
pump's output, checki ng the fl ow at vari ous pressur es that, i n turn, checks the pump's per -
formance agai nst the recommended speci fi cati on. When i sol ati ng and testi ng i ndi vi dual
components wi th a hydraul i c tester, di rect the return fl ui d to the reser voi r . I f the fl ui d
returns to the reservoi r through the system's pi pi ng, you wi l l not get a cor rect readi ng
because of bui l dup of back pr essur e.
Test the
whol e ci rcui t as
descr i bed, and
then i sol ate por-
ti ons and test
for a compl ete
anal ysi s of the
system. I f a test
on a ful l ci rcui t
i ndi cates a mal -
functi on, i sol ate
a por ti on and
test the r emai n-
i ng por ti ons
unti l you fi nd
the mal functi on-
i ng par t. Gener -
al l y, cyl i nder s
wi l l fai l fi rst.
Packi ng wi l l
wear because of fri cti on and l oadi ng agai nst the cyl i nder wal l s. Ther efore, i sol ate the cyl i n-
ders fi rst. I f test r esul ts i ndi cate that the ci rcui t i s operati ng properl y, the cyl i nders have a
probl em. Dur i ng testi ng, deter mi ne the setti ng and condi ti on of the rel i ef val ve. I f fur ther
tests are necessary, i sol ate the di recti onal -control val ve to check the pump's effi ci ency and
i nl et hose.
f. Other Conditions. Other probl ems coul d occur that are not di rectl y rel ated to nor
caused by the vari ous parts of the hydraul i c system. These pr obl ems coul d show the same
TROUBLESHOOTING A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Isolate and check the following:
Directional-control valves
for leakage, efficiency.
Systems relief valves
for leakage, proper settings.
Pumps GPM flow at
various pressures.
Cylinders efficiency.
Figure 6-26. Hydraulic tester connected to a pumps output
FM 5-499
6-16 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
general mal functi ons of an i mproperl y operati ng system. Exampl es are l eaki ng hose, pack-
i ng gl ands, and seal s, whi ch woul d be vi sual l y evi dent; a bi nd i n the di recti onal -control
val ve or the cyl i nder 's pi ston r od; a dented or defor med hydr aul i c cyl i nder ; or a cr i mped or
r estr i cted pr essure l i ne, whi ch woul d be har der to detect.
g. Specific Troubles, Causes, and Solutions. Tabl es 6-1 through 6-5, pages 6-17 through
6-21 l i st some possi bl e probl ems and sol uti ons i n a hydr aul i c system.
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-17
Table 6-1. Problems and solutions with pump operations
No Fuel Delivery
Problems Solutions
Fluid level in the reservoir is low. Add the recommended oil; check the level on both sides of
the tank's baffle to be certain that the pump suction is sub-
merged.
Oil intake pipe or inlet filter is plugged. Clean the filter; otherwise, remove the obstruction.
Air leak in the inlet line prevents priming or causes
noise and irregular action of the control circuit.
Repair the leaks.
The pump shaft turns too slowly to prime itself
(vane-type pumps only).
Check the appropriate manual's minimum speed recommen-
dations.
The oil viscosity is too heavy to pick up the prime. Use a lighter oil viscosity; follow the appropriate manual's
recommended temperatures and services.
Shaft rotates in the wrong direction. Reverse the rotation immediately to prevent seizure and
parts from breaking due to lack of oil.
Pump shaft is broken, parts are broken inside the
pump, or the shear pin or shear linkage is broken.
See the appropriate manual for replacement instructions.
Pump has dirt in it. Dismantle and clean the pump; flush the system.
The stroke is incorrect on variable delivery pumps. See the appropriate manual for instructions.
No Pressure in the System
Pump does not deliver oil for any reasons given in
above section.
Follow the remedies given.
Relief-valve setting is not high enough.
Relief valve leaks.
Relief-valve spring is broken.
Increase the pressure setting of the valve; check the
appropriate manual for the correct pressure.
Check the seat for score marks and reseat.
Replace the spring and readjust the valve.
Vane is stuck in the rotor slots (vane-type pumps
only).
Inspect for wedged chips; inspect the oil for excessive vis-
cosity.
The head is loose (very infrequent occurrence). Tighten the head; check the appropriate manuals before
tightening.
Oil to the tank recirculates freely through the sys-
tem.
Check to see if a return line is open due to either a direc-
tional valve set in the open-center neutral position or some
other valve is left open.
Control valves have internal leakage. Block off various parts of the circuit to determine where the
leak is; repair when located.
Noisy Pump
Intake line, filter, or restricted intake pipe is partially
clogged.
Clean out the intake or strainer, or eliminate the restrictions;
ensure that the inlet line is open.
FM 5-499
6-18 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Table 6-1. Problems and solutions with pump operations (continued)
Noisy Pump (continued)
Problems Solutions
Air leaks occur at the pump's intake piping joints.
Air leaks are present at the pump's shaft packing.
Air is drawn in through the inlet pipe openings.
Pour oil on the joints while listening for a change in the
operating sounds; tighten the joints as required.
Pour oil around the shaft while listening for a change in
the operating sounds; follow the appropriate manual
instructions when changing the packing.
Ensure that the inlet and return lines are well below the oil
level in the reservoir; add oil to the reservoir if necessary.
Air bubbles are present in the intake oil. Use hydraulic oil that has a foam depressant.
Reservoir's air vent is plugged. Clean or replace the breather.
Pump is running too fast. See the appropriate manuals for recommended maximum
speeds.
Oil viscosity is too high. Use a lower oil viscosity; check the appropriate manuals for
the recommended temperatures and services.
Coupling is misaligned. Realign the coupling.
Pump vane is stuck (vane-type pump). Inspect the pump for wedged chips or sticky oil; reassemble.
Parts are worn or broken. Replace worn or broken parts.
External Oil Leaks
Shaft packing is worn. Replace the worn parts.
A head of oil is present on an inlet-pipe connection. Keep all the joints tight; slight leakage may be necessary.
Excessive Wear
Abrasive matter in the hydraulic oil is being circu-
lated through the pump.
Install an adequate filter or replace the oil more often.
Oil viscosity is too low for working conditions. Check the appropriate manual's recommendations or the
lubrication chart for information.
Sustained high pressure occurs above the maxi-
mum pump rating.
Check the relief or regular valve's maximum setting.
Drive is misaligned or belt drive is tight. Check the parts; correct the problem.
Air recirculation is causing a chatter in the system. Remove the air from the system.
Broken Parts Inside the Pump Housing
Excessive pressure above the maximum pump rat-
ing is present.
Check the relief or regulator valve's maximum setting.
Seizure occurs due to lack of oil. Check the reservoir level, oil filter, and possibility of restric-
tion in the inlet line.
Solid matter is being wedged in the pump. Install a filter in the suction line.
Head screws are too tight. Check appropriate manuals recommendations; adjust.
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-19
Table 6-2. Problems and solutions with actuating mechanism
Inoperative System
Problems Solutions
System fails because of any problem listed in
Tables 6-1 through 6-5.
Follow recommened solution.
Mechanism Creeps (Stopped in Intermediate Position)
Internal leakage occurs in the actuating cylinders or
operating valves.
Replace the piston packing or cylinder, if the walls are
scored; replace or repair the valve.
Longer Operating Times Than Specified
Air is present in the system. Bleed the system.
Actuating cylinder or directional-control valve has
an internal leak.
Replace the piston packing or replace the cylinder if the
walls are scored; replace or repair the valve; clean the unit to
remove foreign matter; check the cam clearance.
Pump is worn. Repair or replace the pump.
Action is sluggish on start up but less so after oper-
ating temperatures have increased, or action slows
down after warm up. Depending on equipment and
circuit design, could indicate that the oil viscosity is
too high.
Check appropriate manuals lubrication order.
External Oil Leaks
End caps leak. Tighten caps, if possible, or replace the gasket.
Chevron seals leak. Adjust or replace the seals.
Abnormal Packing-Gland Wear
Cylinder is not securely fastened to the frame,
causing it to vibrate.
Tighten the cylinder; check it periodically.
Cylinder and piston-rod extension are misaligned. Check the parts; correct the problem.
Side load occurs on the piston rod. Check for cylinder alignment or worn pins or ball joints.
FM 5-499
6-20 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Table 6-3. Problems and solutions with heating oil
Heating Caused by Power Unit (Reservoir, Pump, Relief Valve, Coolers)
Problems Solutions
Relief valve is set at a higher pressure than neces-
sary; excess oil dissipated through increased slip-
page in various parts or through the relief valve or
directional valve.
Check manual for the correct pressure; reset the relief valve.
Internal oil leaks occur due to wear in the pump. Repair or replace the pump.
Oil viscosity is too high. Check appropriate manual for correct oil viscosity to use at
various temperatures.
Overhauled pumps may be assembled too tightly,
which reduces clearances and increases friction.
Follow the appropriate manuals when rebuilding a pump.
Pump has leaking check or relief valves. Repair or replace the valves.
Oil cooler or coolant functions improperly in cut off. Inspect cooler; clean inside and outside; ensure that air flow
or coolant flow around fins is not cut off.
Conditions in System Cause Excessive Heating
Lines are restricted. Replace the lines if they are crimped; remove any obstruc-
tion if lines are partially plugged.
Large pump deliveries do not unload properly. Ensure that the open-center valves are neutralized and that
any pressure-relieving valves are in the correct position.
(Allow only small pumps to stay at high pressures when run-
ning idle for long periods.)
Radiation is insufficient. Use artificial cooling.
Pump has internal leaks. Locate leaks; replace the packing.
Reservoir is too small to provide adequate cooling. Replace unit with a larger reservoir.
Valves or piping is undersized. Check flow velocity through the lines and valves; compare
them with the manuals recommendations. If velocity is
excessive, install larger equipment.
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-21
Table 6-4. Problems and solutions with fluid motors
Motor Turns in the Wrong Direction
Problems Solutions
Conductors are crossed between the control valve
and the motor.
Check circuit to determine the correct conductor connection
between the control valve and motor.
Motor Does Not Turn or Does Not Develop Proper Speed or Torque
Systems overload-relief-valve adjustment is not set
high enough.
Check systems pressure; reset the relief valve.
Relief valve sticks open. Clean or replace the relief valve; adjust.
Oil to the reservoir freely recirculates through the
system.
Check control-valve linkage; directional-control valve may be
in open-center neutral.
Driven mechanism binds because of misalignment. Check the motor shaft for alignment.
Pump does not deliver enough GPM or pressure. Check pumps GPM and pressure; repair or replace.
Motor yoke is not set at the proper angle. Adjust the pumps yoke angle.
External Oil Leak From the Motor
Seals leak (drain may not be connected from motor
to tank).
Check motor for 3rd line (a drain line that must go to tank
used on piston and vane motors).
NOTE: See Table 6-1 for improper operation of pump.
Table 6-5. Problems and solutions with accumulator operation
Sudden Drop in Accumulator Pressure (Position of Selector Valve is Changed)
Problems Solutions
Accumulator has an internal or external leak. Repair the leak or replace the accumulator.
No Pressure When Pump Stops Running (Normal Pressure When Pump Was Running)
Hydraulic line has a leaking gas or check valve. Replace the check or the gas valve.
Sluggish Response for Accumulator
Oil screen in the accumulator stops. Dismantle the accumulator; clean the screen.
Gas precharge is not sufficient. Precharge according to recommendations in the manual;
check for gas leaks.
NOTE: Release all internal pressure before making repairs on accumulators.
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-1
CHAPTER 7
Electrical Devices:
Troubleshooting and Safety
This chapter describes the process of locating the cause of malfunctions in electrical cir-
cuits associated with hydraulic-control systems. The information includes testing devices
and types of grounding points. Also addressed in this chapter are the safety measures person-
nel should take when working on or around electrical circuits.
7-1. Hydraulics and Electricity. Hydr aul i cs and el ectri ci ty are often compared because
the systems have si mi l ar i ti es. A hydr aul i c ci rcui t r equi r es a power sour ce (usual l y a pump),
a l oad devi ce (actuator), and conductors. The ci rcui ts di ffer mai nl y i n the
Types of devi ces used to contr ol , di r ect, and r egul ate the hydr aul i c fl ui d fl ow.
Type and capaci ty of the actuator s used to accompl i sh the wor k, whi ch var i es,
dependi ng on the appl i cati on.
An el ectr i cal ci rcui t al so r equi r es a power sour ce (batter y, gener ator ), a l oad devi ce
(l i ght, bel l , motor ), and pr oper connecti ons. An assor tment of devi ces al so contr ol s, di r ects,
and regul ates the fl ow of el ectri cal current.
Hydraul i c and el ectri cal components are usual l y r epresented on di agr ams by thei r own
set of standar di zed symbol s. El ectr i cal di agrams are often cal l ed schemati cs. Fi gure 7-1,
page 7-2, shows some of the more common symbol s. Hydraul i c and el ectri cal systems and
ci r cui ts have many di ffer ences. For exampl e, el ectr i cal cur r ent i s i nvi si bl e, hydr aul i c fl ui d i s
not; el ectr i cal curr ent fl ows through sol i d wi r es, hydr aul i c fl ui d fl ows through hol l ow l i nes.
Fi gur e 7-2, page 7-3, shows symbol s for el ectr i cal and hydr aul i c components. Fi gur e 7-3,
page 7-4, compares a hydraul i c ci r cui t and an el ectri cal ci r cui t.
7-2. Troubleshooting Electrical Devices. El ectri cal troubl eshooti ng i s the process of
l ocati ng the cause of mal functi ons i n el ectri cal ci rcui ts. The fol l owi ng par agraphs contai n
some general tr oubl eshooti ng i nformati on as wel l as speci fi c tests for deter mi ni ng the status
of some el ectr i cal devi ces. Ski l l i n troubl eshooti ng el ectr i cal equi pment and ci r cui ts
requi res
Knowl edge of el ectri cal pri nci pl es to understand how a ci rcui t or devi ce shoul d func-
ti on.
Ski l l i n readi ng and i nterpr eti ng el ectri cal schemati cs, di agrams, product data, and
so forth.
Ski l l i n oper ati ng test equi pment and i nter pr eti ng test measur ements.
Abi l i ty to anal yze probl ems i n a l ogi cal manner .
Fol l owi ng systemati c steps that nar r ow down the pr obl em to a smal l er ar ea of the
equi pment i s much mor e effi ci ent than tr i al -and-er r or methods. The tr oubl eshooti ng
FM 5-499
7-2 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
Figure 7-1. Common electrical schematic symbols
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-3
Figure 7-2. Comparison of electrical and hydraulic components
FM 5-499
7-4 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
Power source
M
Pressure drop
(Restriction
orifice)
Directional valve
Load
(motor)
Regulation
(relief valve)
Pressure reference
(tank)
Pump
Motor
HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT
Power source
Power supply
Voltage drop
Directional switch
Load
(motor)
(Resistor)
Regulation
(zener diode)
Motor M
Generator
Voltage reference
(ground)
Figure 7-3. Comparison of electrical and hydraulic circuits
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-5
procedur e detai l ed bel ow can be very useful i n organi zi ng the probl em-sol vi ng effort and
reduci ng equi pment downti me:
a. Procedure. The fol l owi ng tr oubl eshooti ng procedure consi sts of fi ve steps that you
shoul d per for m i n or der . These steps r epr esent the most r el i abl e method of l earni ng and
appl yi ng a l ogi cal appr oach to pr obl em sol vi ng and can be appl i ed to any equi pment, r egar d-
l ess of si ze.
(1) Step One: I denti fy the Symptom. A symptom i s an exter nal i ndi cati on that a ci r-
cui t or devi ce i s not functi oni ng cor rectl y. You can i denti fy a symptom by i nvesti gati ng the
probl em by si ght, sound, smel l , and touch. For exampl e, vi sual l y i nspecti ng the equi pment
may r eveal that a ci rcui t component has overheated and changed col or or that an i ndi ctor
l amp whi ch shoul d be on i s not. A pecul i ar odor may l ead you to di scover mel ted i nsul ati on,
or a chatteri ng noi se coul d i ndi cate that a sol enoi d i s about to fai l . Movi ng control s or
adjusti ng knobs may change the probl em or have no effect at al l . The fact that the equi p-
ment i s not oper ati ng i s a symptom.
I f someone el se was oper ati ng the equi pment when i t fai l ed, ask the per son i f he
noti ced anythi ng unusual befor e i t fai l ed. Funny noi ses, thi ngs that do not l ook qui te r i ght,
and i mpr oper oper ati ng sequences are symptoms that coul d l ead to the cause of the pr obl em.
I f you cannot fi nd any i mmedi atel y i denti fi abl e symptoms, tr y operati ng the equi pment once
you deter mi ne that i t i s safe to do so. Watch what wor ks and what does not wor k. Note any-
thi ng that does not seem ri ght, no matter how smal l . Take the ti me to conduct a thor ough
i nvesti gati on.
(2) Step Two: Anal yze the Symptom. I n thi s step, you i denti fy the functi ons wher e
symptoms i ndi cate a mal functi on. Use the i nformati on you obtai ned duri ng your i denti fi ca-
ti on, al ong wi th the schemati c and functi onal bl ock di agr ams and knowl edge of how the
equi pment i s supposed to oper ate, to make l ogi cal techni cal deducti ons. For exampl e, after
car eful exami nati on, you fi nd that a cl amp i n a pl asti c-i njecti on mol di ng machi ne wi l l not
pr essur i ze. Fur ther anal ysi s, wi thout usi ng test equi pment, nar r ows the pr obl em to a cl amp
that i s cl osed, cl amp pr essuri zati on, or prefi l l shi ft, any of whi ch mi ght contai n the faul ty
ci r cui t.
(3) Step Thr ee: I sol ate the Si ngl e Faul ty Functi on. I n thi s step, you use test equi p-
ment to deci de whi ch faul ty functi on i s actual l y causi ng the mal functi on. When maki ng
these tests, use the fol l owi ng gui del i nes:
Make onl y those tests that ar e safe to make.
Make the l east di ffi cul t tests fi rst.
Test those functi ons fi r st that wi l l el i mi nate one or mor e of the other possi bl e
faul ty functi ons.
For exampl e, i f taki ng an ohmmeter r eadi ng can deter mi ne the faul t, do not take a
vol tmeter r eadi ng as that r equi r es power on the equi pment. I f you must di sassembl e hal f of
the machi ne to r each a test poi nt, per form a si mpl er test fi r st. Test at a mi dway poi nt i n the
ci r cui tr y, i f possi bl e. A good readi ng at the mi dway poi nt el i mi nates the precedi ng functi ons
and i ndi cates that the probl em i s i n the r emai ni ng ci r cui ts. A faul ty si gnal at the mi dway
poi nt means that the probl em i s i n the functi ons that process the si gnal before the mi dway
poi nt.
FM 5-499
7-6 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
I n the i njecti on mol di ng exampl e, test the cl amp's pressur i zati on ci rcui ts wher e the
cl amp's ful l y cl osed si gnal i nput ei ther el i mi nates that functi on or confi r ms that the cause of
the pr obl em i s a cl amp that i s not ful l y cl osed and, therefore, cannot be pr essuri zed. Con-
ti nue testi ng i nputs and outputs of the suspect functi ons unti l you i denti fy and confi rm the
si ngl e faul ty functi on.
(4) Step Four : I sol ate the Faul ty Ci rcui t. I n thi s step, you l ocate the si ngl e mal func-
ti oni ng ci rcui t wi thi n a functi onal gr oup of ci rcui ts. Use the accumul ated symptom and test
data to cl ose i n on the si ngl e faul ty ci rcui t. Fol l ow the gui del i nes fr om step thr ee, but appl y
them to the ci r cui ts r el ated to the faul ty functi on. Use schemati c and bl ock di agrams to
l ocate test poi nts.
I n the i njecti on-mol di ng-machi ne exampl e, assume that the cl amp's ful l y cl osed si gnal
i s not present at the i nput to the cl amp's pressur i zati on ci rcui ts. Test wi thi n the cl amps
cl osed ci r cui ts unti l you i denti fy a si ngl e faul ty ci r cui t. The fi rst test may reveal that the
output of the cl amp's ful l y cl osed ci r cui t i s bad. A check of the i nputs to thi s ci rcui t may i ndi -
cate that the i nput from a cl amp's cl osed-l i mi t swi tch i s bad but that al l others are good.
You can now i denti fy the pr obl em as bei ng associ ated wi th one of the rel ati vel y few parts
contai ned i n a si ngl e ci rcui t.
(5) Step Fi ve: Locate/Ver i fy the Cause of the Mal functi on. The tests you make i n thi s
step i denti fy the fai l i ng par t wi thi n the faul ty ci rcui t. Test the ci rcui t unti l you fi nd the
cause of the mal functi on. Exami ne and test the faul ty part to veri fy that i t has caused the
probl em and produced the observed symptoms.
I n checki ng out the cl amp's ful l y cl osed ci r cui t, for exampl e, r emove the suspected l i mi t
swi tch fr om the ci rcui t and test i t wi th an ohmmeter to deter mi ne i f the swi tch's contacts ar e
cl osi ng cor r ectl y to compl ete the ci r cui t. Connect the ohmmeter across the contacts of the
swi tch and actuate the swi tch's arm sever al ti mes whi l e checki ng the meter r eadi ng. I f the
contacts cl ose pr oper l y, the meter shoul d r ead zer o ohms when the ar m i s i n one posi ti on and
i nfi ni ty when the ar m i s i n the other posi ti on.
I f the meter poi nter does not move when the swi tch arm i s actuated, di sassembl e and
exami ne the swi tch. I f thi s l ast exami nati on reveal s that the mechani cal l i nkage connecti ng
the swi tch's arm to the contacts i s broken, then you have found the cause of the mal functi on.
A fi nal anal ysi s shoul d show that thi s cause expl ai ns the obser ved symptoms. However , the
pr ocedur e i s not compl ete unti l you ver i fy the fi ndi ngs. I n thi s exampl e, you woul d i nstal l a
new l i mi t swi tch i n the ci r cui t and operate the equi pment to confi r m that you have fi xed the
probl em.
b. Testing Devices. The fol l owi ng par agr aphs outl i ne some basi c el ectr i cal tests that
you can conduct on speci fi c pi eces of equi pment that were di scussed earl i er. As part of a
tr oubl eshooti ng test, you shoul d mechani cal l y i nspect these devi ces. Al so, i f spar e par ts ar e
avai l abl e, substi tute a good par t for a suspect par t as a qui ck method of returni ng the equi p-
ment to oper ati on. Test the suspect part and ei ther r epai r i t or di scar d i t.
(1) Potenti ometer . Si nce a potenti ometer i s a var i abl e-r esi stance devi ce, i t shoul d be
di sconnected fr om i ts ci rcui t and tested wi th an ohmmeter , i f i t i s suspect. Onl y two of the
thr ee l eads need to be di sconnected for thi s test. Be ver y car eful when adjusti ng smal l
potenti ometer s on pr i nted ci r cui t boar ds. They ar e qui te fr agi l e and can easi l y be br oken i f
r otated beyond the end stops. Test a potenti ometer as fol l ows:
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-7
Deter mi ne the expected r esi stance val ue fr om a schemati c di agr am for the ci r cui t.
The val ue may al so be pr i nted on the case of the devi ce.
Connect the ohmmeter acr oss the ends of the potenti ometer and confi rm that the
r eadi ng matches the expected val ue.
Remove a test l ead fr om one end and move i t to the mi ddl e ter mi nal .
Rotate the shaft or turn the scr ew that vari es the r esi stance of the devi ce. The
ohmmeter r eadi ng shoul d i ndi cate zer o ohms at one end of the shaft r otati on and
the ful l expected r esi stance val ue of the potenti ometer at the other end. I t shoul d
al so show a smooth change i n r esi stance as the shaft i s turned.
Move the l ead that i s sti l l connected to an end ter mi nal over to the other end.
Rotate the shaft agai n whi l e l ooki ng for the same smooth tr ansi ti on from zer o to
maxi mum r esi stance.
(2) Sol enoi d Coi l . I f a sol enoi d i s thought to be faul ty, do the fol l owi ng:
Remove i t fr om the machi ne (pl ug the opened por ts on the val ves i f necessary).
Di sassembl e and exami ne the sol enoi d for si gns of over heati ng or mechani cal
probl ems.
Test the sol enoi d coi l by attachi ng an ohmmeter (set to a l ow resi stance r ange)
acr oss the coi l termi nal s. I f the coi l i s good, the meter wi l l show a r el ati vel y l ow
readi ng (a few thousand ohms or l ess). A zer o readi ng woul d i ndi cate that the coi l
wi ndi ngs ar e shor ted to each other , pr obabl y as a r esul t of mel ted i nsul ati on. An
i nfi ni ty r eadi ng on the ohmmeter means that the coi l has opened up and i s defec-
ti ve.
(3) Rel ay. Test a suspect r el ay as fol l ows:
Actuate the r el ay armatur e, manual l y.
Remove the r el ay fr om the equi pment.
Exami ne the rel ay careful l y for si gns of mechani cal probl ems.
Check the rel ay coi l i n the same way as a sol enoi d coi l , i f you do not fi nd any
mechani cal probl ems. Test the el ectr i cal contacts wi th an ohmmeter as you do
the swi tch contacts. The meter shoul d r ead zer o when the contacts ar e cl osed and
i nfi ni ty when they are open.
Test the nor mal l y open and the nor mal l y cl osed ci r cui ts.
(4) Transfor mer . When you deter mi ne, by vol tage r eadi ngs or symptom i nfor mati on,
that a tr ansfor mer may be the cause of a mal functi on, check the pri mar y and the secondary
coi l r esi stance wi th an ohmmeter . Di sconnect one end of the pri mary wi ndi ng and one end of
the secondary wi ndi ng fr om the r est of the ci rcui t befor e testi ng. I f the fai l ur e i s the r esul t of
an open wi ndi ng, the ohmmeter wi l l read i nfi ni ty when connected acr oss the defecti ve wi nd-
i ng. I f the fai l ur e i s caused by shor ted turns wi thi n a wi ndi ng, the probl em i s mor e di ffi cul t
to di agnose because the ohmmeter wi l l i ndi cate a ver y l ow r esi stance. Si nce a wi ndi ng con-
si sts of a l ength of conductor wound i nto a coi l , the r esi stance r eadi ngs ar e nor mal l y qui te
l ow anyway. I f you suspect shor ted turns
Use the expected pr i mary and secondary oper ati ng vol tages to deter mi ne the
appr oxi mate tur ns r ati o. Di vi de the secondar y vol tage i nto the pri mary vol tage to
get the r ati o. For exampl e, 120 vol ts di vi ded by 24 vol ts equal s a r ati o of 5:1.
FM 5-499
7-8 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
Use thi s r ati o to compar e the measur ed pri mary r esi stance to the measur ed sec-
ondar y r esi stance. I n the exampl e, i f the pr i mary r esi stance i s 20 ohms, then the
secondary r esi stance shoul d be about 4 ohms (20/5).
Be sur e to adjust the zer o-ohms contr ol befor e maki ng the measur ement; hol d the test
probes by the i nsul ated porti on onl y. You may have di ffi cul ty deter mi ni ng i f the r eadi ng i s
accurate si nce the measur ement i s so cl ose to the l ow end of the ohms scal e. Compar e the
readi ngs to a r epl acement transformers, i f one i s avai l abl e. To posi ti vel y veri fy that the
transformer i s faul ty, you may have to substi tute a good tr ansfor mer for the suspect one.
(5) Di ode. You can use a si mpl e r esi stance check wi th an ohmmeter to test a di ode's
abi l i ty to pass current i n one di recti on onl y. To test a suspect di ode
Remove one end of the di ode from the ci rcui t.
Connect the posi ti ve ohmmeter l ead to the anode and the negati ve l ead to the
cathode. When the ohmmeter i s connected thi s way, the di ode i s for ward bi ased,
and the measur ed r eadi ng shoul d be ver y l ow. Set the ohmmeter for the appr opri -
ate di ode test r ange.
Rever se the ohmmeter connecti ons. When the negati ve ohmmeter l ead i s
attached to the anode and the posi ti ve l ead i s attached to the cathode, the di ode i s
rever se bi ased, and the meter shoul d r ead a hi gh resi stance.
A good di ode shoul d have real l ow resi stance when for ward bi ased and hi gh r esi stance
when reverse bi ased. I f the di ode reads a hi gh resi stance i n both di recti ons, i t i s probabl y
open. I f the readi ngs are l ow i n both di r ecti ons, the di ode i s shorted. A defecti ve di ode coul d
show a di ffer ence i n forwar d and backwar d resi stance. I n thi s case, the rati o of forward to
backwar d r esi stance i s the i mpor tant factor . The actual r ati o depends on the type of di ode.
As a rul e of thumb, a smal l si gnal di ode shoul d have a rati o of several hundr ed to one. A
power recti fi er can oper ate wi th a r ati o as l ow as ten to one.
7-3. Ground. Every el ectri cal ci rcui t has a poi nt of refer ence to whi ch al l ci rcui t vol tages
ar e compared. Thi s r eference poi nt i s cal l ed gr ound, and ci r cui t vol tages are ei ther posi ti ve
or negati ve wi th respect to ground. Connecti ons to ground that are made for safety r easons
refer to earth gr ound. When vol tage measurements are taken, the di fference of potenti al
between a poi nt i n the ci r cui t and a ground poi nt i s measured by the vol tmeter . Thi s type of
gr ound i s r efer r ed to as chassi s or common ground.
a. Earth Ground. I ni ti al l y, gr ound r efer r ed to the ear th i tsel f and si nce has r epr esented
a poi nt of zer o potenti al or zer o vol ts. A shor t ci rcui t wi thi n a devi ce that connects l i ve vol t-
age to the frame coul d cause a ser i ous shock to anyone touchi ng i t. However , i f the frame i s
connected to earth ground, i t i s hel d at the safe potenti al of zer o vol ts, as the ear th i tsel f
absorbs the vol tage.
Today, a thi r d pr ong on grounded power pl ugs connects most stati onar y equi pment to
ear th gr ound thr ough the el ectr i cal wi r i ng system. Some equi pment i s connected to ear th
gr ound by a conductor that goes fr om the metal fr ame of the equi pment to a l ong copper r od
that i s dri ven i nto the earth. Some appl i ances ar e often grounded by connecti ng the conduc-
tor to a water pi pe r unni ng i nto the gr ound. I n any case, the fr ames of al l equi pment con-
nected to the earth ar e at the same zer o vol t potenti al . Thi s pr events shocks that mi ght
occur shoul d a person touch two pi eces of ungrounded equi pment at the same ti me.
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-9
b. Chassis or Common Ground. I n some cases, el ectr i cal ci rcui ts used today ar e not con-
nected di r ectl y to ear th ground; however , they sti l l r equi r e a poi nt of r efer ence or a common
poi nt to whi ch el ements of each ci r cui t ar e connected. For exampl e, a por tabl e battery-oper-
ated transi stor radi o does not have a ground conductor connecti ng i t wi th the ear th. A str i p
of conducti ng foi l on the i nter nal ci rcui t boar d i s used as the common poi nt. I n an automo-
bi l e battery, the negati ve termi nal i s gener al l y connected to the engi ne bl ock or chassi s
frame by a heavy cabl e. The connecti ng poi nt, as wel l as every other poi nt on the metal
frame, i s consi der ed to be a gr ound for the el ectr i cal ci rcui ts of the vehi cl e. The rubber ti r es
i nsul ate the vehi cl e fr om the earth gr ound. I n these exampl es, gr ound i s si mpl y a zer o r efer -
ence poi nt i n an el ectri cal ci rcui t and i s refer red to as chassi s ground. Al l vol tages i n the ci r-
cui t ar e measur ed wi th r espect to thi s common poi nt.
c. Zero Reference Point. Wi thout a zero refer ence poi nt, vol tage coul d not be expressed
as a posi ti ve or negati ve val ue. The schemati c di agrams i n Fi gure 7-4 i l l ustrate thi s poi nt:
Di agram A shows a vol tmeter connected to the two termi nal s of a 6-vol t, dr y-cel l
batter y. Wi thout a gr ound i n the ci rcui t, the measur ed vol tage i s 6 vol ts between
the two ter mi nal s. I t i s nei ther posi ti ve nor negati ve.
Di agram B shows that the negati ve batter y ter mi nal i s connected to ground. The
vol tmeter measures the di ffer ence of potenti al between the posi ti ve termi nal and
6 V
battery
Voltmeter
indicates 6 V.
It is neither +
nor -.
V
V
+
+
+
+
-
-
- -
V
12 V
+
+
+
A
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
C
-
-
-
-
Voltmeter
indicates -6 V.
Voltmeter
indicates +6 V.
B
+6 V
-6 V
A. VOLTAGE READING
WITHOUT GROUND
B. NEGATIVE TERMINAL
GROUNDED
C. POSITIVE TERMINAL
GROUNDED
D. PLACEMENT OF GROUND PROVIDES
BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE VOLTAGE
Figure 7-4. Schematic diagrams illustrating zero reference point
FM 5-499
7-10 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
the ground poi nt. The measured vol tage i s +6 vol ts because the ungrounded ter-
mi nal i s 6 vol ts mor e posi ti ve than the gr ound or zer o r eference poi nt.
Di agram C shows that the vol tmeter measur e -6 vol ts when the posi ti ve ter mi nal
of the batter y i s connected to the zer o r efer ence poi nt. The ungrounded batter y
ter mi nal i s now 6 vol ts mor e negati ve than the r efer ence poi nt.
Di agram D shows two 6-vol t batter i es that ar e connected i n ser i es. The vol tage
between poi nts A and C i s 12 vol ts. When a ground i s pl aced at poi nt B, whi ch i s
between the two batter i es, + 6 vol ts ar e avai l abl e between poi nts A and B, and -6
vol ts are avai l abl e between poi nts C and B. (Many modern el ectr oni c ci rcui ts
requi re both posi ti ve and negati ve vol tage for pr oper operati on. Thi s woul d be
i mpossi bl e wi thout a zero reference poi nt i n the ci r cui t.)
d. I solation Between Earth and Chassis Ground. I ndustri al equi pment often requi res
an ear th and a separate chassi s ground for pr oper operati on. The ear th ground repr esents
an actual potenti al of zero vol ts, whi l e the chassi s gr ound i s used onl y as a refer ence poi nt
and may be at some potenti al above or bel ow the ear th ground. I n these cases, the earth
gr ound and the chassi s gr ound are not connected together at any poi nt i n the equi pment.
However, duri ng i nstal l ati on or r epai rs, the chassi s ground may be i nadvertentl y connected
to the earth gr ound. To check for thi s condi ti on, use a 1.5-vol t, D-cel l batter y and hol der ,
connecti ng wi r es, and a vol tmeter . Make sur e that the equi pment i s OFF befor e maki ng the
test.
I n Fi gur e 7-5, the battery i s i nstal l ed between the chassi s ground and the ear th gr ound.
The vol tmeter , set to measur e 1.5 vol ts di r ect curr ent (DC), i s connected acr oss the batter y.
I f a connecti on exi sts between the chassi s and the earth gr ound, i t wi l l pl ace a short ci rcui t
acr oss the batter y, and the vol tmeter wi l l i ndi cate zer o vol ts. I f thi s i s the case, tempor ari l y
di sconnect one end of the batter y to keep i t fr om di schargi ng whi l e l ooki ng for the i mpr oper
connecti on between the grounds. When you fi nd the connecti on, r emove i t and r econnect the
batter y and the meter . The vol tmeter shoul d r ead the batter y potenti al of 1.5 vol ts. I f the
vol tmeter readi ng i s sti l l zero vol ts, an i mproper connecti on sti l l exi sts i n the equi pment.
Repeat the test unti l the vol tmeter r eads the batter y vol tage. Remember to di sconnect the
batter y after compl eti ng the test.
7-4. Safety. Effecti ve safety measures are a bl end of common sense and the knowl edge of
basi c el ectr i cal and hydraul i c pri nci pl es and of how a system or ci rcui t oper ates, i ncl udi ng
any dangers associ ated wi th that operati on. General safety i nformati on and safety practi ces
ar e l i sted bel ow. The l i st i s not al l i ncl usi ve, i s not i ntended to al ter or r epl ace curr entl y
establ i shed safety practi ces, and does not i ncl ude safety practi ces for hydr aul i c equi pment.
a. I nformation. When worki ng wi th el ectri cal equi pment, consi der the fol l owi ng i nfor -
mati on regardi ng safety:
I njuri es associ ated wi th el ectr i cal wor k may i ncl ude el ectr i cal shocks; burns; and
puncture, l acerati on, or abrasi on wounds.
Current fl owi ng through the body can be fatal . As l i ttl e as 0.01 amp pr oduces
muscl e paral ysi s and extreme breathi ng di ffi cul ty i n the average person; perma-
nent physi cal damage and death can resul t fr om 0.1 amp fl owi ng through the
hear t.
The amount of current recei ved fr om an el ectr i cal shock depends on the vol tage
appl i ed and the r esi stance of that par t of the body through whi ch the curr ent
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-11
fl ows. About 30 vol ts can pr oduce 0.1 amp, so use extr eme cauti on when wor ki ng
wi th ci r cui ts that i ncl ude vol tages hi gher than 30 amps.
Most el ectri cal shocks are unexpected. Even ones that are not parti cul arl y dan-
ger ous coul d cause you to jerk your hand i nto heavi er cur rents or hi t some shar p
object. Al ways check to see that the power i s turned off befor e pl aci ng your hand
i n a ci rcui t.
b. Practices. When worki ng wi th el ectri cal equi pment, consi der the fol l owi ng safety
rul es:
Never put both hands i n a l i ve ci rcui t as thi s pr ovi des a path for a current fl ow
through the hear t. Keep one hand behi nd you or i n your pocket when taki ng mea-
sur ements wi th a meter .
DC power supply
AC volts power in
VOM
DC volts selected
1. 5 V
battery
DC motor
control center
(electronic)
DC motor
Control circuits
Earth
ground
Chassis
ground
-
+
Figure 7-5. Battery installed between earth ground and chassis ground
FM 5-499
7-12 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
Never work on l i ve ci rcui ts when wet, as thi s l owers the bodys resi stance and
i ncreases the chance for a fatal shock.
Never work al one on el ectr i cal equi pment. Shocks above 0.01 amp can paral yze
your muscl es and l eave you unabl e to remove yoursel f from the source of the cur-
rent fl ow. Al ways be sure someone el se i s around to hel p i n an emergency.
Use the pr oper equi pment for ci rcui t testi ng. Check for cor r ect juncti on setti ngs,
range swi tches, proper i nsul ati on on test probes, and so for th.
Remove al l watches, r i ngs, chai ns, and any other metal jewel ry that may come i n
contact wi th an el ectr i cal potenti al or get caught i n movi ng mechani cal par ts. Do
thi s befor e you wor k on any el ectr i cal equi pment, ci rcui t, or batter y.
Have a good under standi ng about the ci r cui t you are worki ng on. Thi nk about
what you need to do befor e wor ki ng on the ci r cui t. Ask for hel p i f you do not know
enough about the task you ar e to per for m.
FM 5-499
Appendix-225
Appendix A
Metric Conversion Chart
A-1. Purpose. Thi s char t compl i es wi th curr ent Army di recti ves whi ch state that the Metr i c
System wi l l be i ncorporated i nto al l new publ i cati ons. Thi s Appendi x wi l l provi de a char t to
conver t the Engl i sh measur ements to Metr i c.
Table A-1. Metric conversion chart
To Convert Into Multiply By
Cubic feet
Cubic Centimeters
28,320.0 x 10
4
Cubic Meters 0.02832
Liters 28.32
Cubic inches
Cubic Centimeters 28,320.0
Cubic Meters
1.639 x 10
-5
Liters 0.01639
Feet
Centimeters 6.0
Kilometers
3.048 x 10
4
Meters 0.3048
Millimeters 304.8
Foot pound
BTU
1.286 x 10
-3
Kilowatt-hours
3.766 x 10
-7
Gallons
Cubic Centimeters 3,785.0
Cubic Feet 0.1337
Cubic Inches 231.0
Cubic Meters
3.785 x 10
-3
Liters 3.785
horsepower
BTU per min 42.44
hp (metric) 1.014
FM 5-499
Appendix-226
Temperature Conversi on Chart: Cel si us = 5/9 (F - 32)
Fahrenhei t = 9/5 (C + 32)
Inches
Centimeters 2.540
Meters
2.540 x 10
-2
Millimeters 25.40
Miles (statute)
Centimeters
1.6093 x 10
5
Meters 1,609.3
Kilometers 1.609.3
Miles/hr
cms/sec 44.70
kms/hr 1.609
kms/min 0.02682
Pounds Kilograms 0.4536
Pounds/sq in (psi) kgs/sq meter 703.1
Square Inches sq centimeters 6.452
Square feet
sq cms 929.0
sq meters 0.09290
sq millimeters
9.290 x 10
4
Square miles
sq kms 2.590
sq meters
2.590 x 10
6
Tons
Kilograms 907.1848
Tons (metric) .9078
Yards
Centimeters 91.44
Kilometers
9.144 x 10
-4
Meters 0.9144
Millimeters 914.4
Table A-1. Metric conversion chart
To Convert Into Multiply By
FM 5-499
Glossary-227
Glossary
F degr ee Fahr ehhei t
AC al ter nati ng current
ASA Amer i can Standar ds Associ ati on
ATTN attenti on
axial piston pump A pump i n whi ch the pi stons str oke i n the same di rec-
ti on on the cyl i nder bl ock's centerl i ne; these pumps
are ei ther an i n-l i ne or angl e desi gn.
Bernoulli's Principle Law whi ch states that the stati c pr essur e of a movi ng
l i qui d vari es i nversel y wi th i ts vel oci ty; that i s, as ve-
l oci ty i ncr eases, stati c pr essur e decr eases.
BTU Bri ti sh ther mal uni t
capacity Same as vol umetri c output.
cavitation A condi ti on that occur s i n pumpi ng when avai l abl e
fl ui d does not fi l l the exi sti ng space; cavi tati on causes
er osi on of the metal i n the i nl et and speeds deter i or a-
ti on of the hydraul i c oi l .
centrifugal pump A nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pump that i s used i n a
hydr aul i c system wher e a l arge vol ume of fl ow i s r e-
qui red at rel ati vel y l ow pressures; a centr i fugal pump
i s ei ther a vol ute or di ffuser type.
cfs cubi c foot (feet) per second
chassis ground The di ffer ence of potenti al between a poi nt i n the ci r -
cui t and a ground poi nt that i s measured by the vol t-
meter . Al so cal l ed common ground. See also earth
ground; ground; zero reference point.
FM 5-499
Glossary-228
closed-center system A pump system wher e the pump conti nues to oper ate
agai nst a l oad i n the neutr al condi ti on.
common ground Same as chassis ground.
cyl cyl i nder
cylinder A hydraul i c actuator that i s constructed of a pi ston or
pl unger whi ch oper ates i n a cyl i ndr i cal housi ng by the
acti on of l i qui d under pressur e; a cyl i nder can be one
of sever al types: si ngl e acti ng, doubl e acti ng, di ffer en-
ti al , nondi ffer enti al , ram type, pi ston type, cushi oned,
or l ockout.
DA Department of the Ar my
DC di r ect current
delivery rate Same as vol umetri c output.
directional-control valves Val ves that control the fl ow di recti on; they can be a
poppet, a sl i di ng-spool , a check, a two-way, or a four-
way val ve. See also flow-control valves, pressure-
control valves; valves.
displacement The amount of l i qui d that i s tr ansfer r ed fr om the
pump's i nl et to i ts outl et i n one r evol uti on or cycl e;
di spl acement i s ei ther fi xed or var i abl e. See al so
fi xed-di spl acement pump; var i abl e-di spl acement
pump.
displacement principle Pr i nci pl e whi ch expl ai ns how fl ui d i s taken i n at one
poi nt and i s di spl aced to another poi nt; di spl acement
i s ei ther nonposi ti ve or posi ti ve. See also nonposi ti ve-
di spl acement pump; posi ti ve-di spl acement pump.
earth ground Connecti ons to ground that are made for safety r ea-
sons. See also chassis ground; ground; zero refer-
ence point.
energy The abi l i ty to do wor k, expr essed i n ft l b. See also
friction; heat energy; kinetic energy; potential
energy.
fixed-displacement pump A pump i n whi ch the GPM output can be changed onl y
by var yi ng the dri ve speed. See also displacement;
variable-displacement pump.
flow The movement of the hydr aul i c fl ui d caused by a di f-
ference i n the pressur e at two poi nts; vel oci ty and
fl ow r ate ar e the two ways to measur e fl ow. See also
FM 5-499
Glossary-229
flow rate; vel oci ty.
flow rate The measur e of how much vol ume of a l i qui d passes a
gpoi nt i n a gi ven ti me, measur e i n GPM. See also
flow; velocity.
flow-control valves Val ves that ar e used to contr ol the actuator speed by
meteri ng the fl ow; they can be a gate, a gl obe, a nee-
dl e, a restri ctor, an ori fi ce-check, or a fl ow-equl i zer
val ve. See also directional-control valves;
pressure-control valves; valves.
FM fi el d manual
force Anythi ng that tends to pr oduce or modi fy moti on, ex-
pr essed i n pounds.
fps foot (feet) per second
FPT fl ow, pressure, and temperatur e
friction The resi stance to r el ati ve moti on between two bodi es.
See also energy; heat energy; kinetic energy; po-
tential energy.
ft foot (feet)
ft lb foot-pound
GPM gal l on(s) per mi nute
ground A poi nt of r eference i n an el ectri cal ci r cui t to whi ch al l
ci r cui t vol tages are compared; ci r cui t vol tages are ei -
ther posi ti ve or negati ve wi th r espect to ground. See
also chassis ground; earth ground; zero refer-
ence point.
head The ver ti cal di stance between two l evel s i n a fl ui d.
heat energy The energy a body possesses because of i ts heat; con-
si der ed a dynami c factor . See also energy; friction
kinetic energy; potential energy.
hp hor sepower ; standard uni t of power ; one HP i s equal
to 550 ft l b of wor k ever y second.
HP hydr aul i c hp
HQ headquarters
hydraulic actuator A pi ece of equi pment that r ecei ves pr essur e ener gy
FM 5-499
Glossary-230
and conver ts i t to mechni cal for ce and moti on.
hydraulic motors A pi ece of equi pment that conver ts hydr aul i c energy
i nto mechani cal ener gy; hydraul i c motor s can be gear ,
vane, or pi ston types.
hydraulic testers l i ghtwei ght uni ts used to check or tr oubl eshoot a hy-
dr aul i c-power ed system.
hydraulics The sci ence of tr ansmi tti ng force and/or moti on
thr ough the medi um of a confi ned l i qui d.
ID i nsi de di ameter
J IC Joi nt I ndustry Confer ence
kinetic energy The ener gy a body possesses because of i ts moti on; the
amount of ki neti c ener gy i n a movi ng l i qui d i s di rectl y
pr opor ti onal to the squar e of i ts vel oci ty; consi der ed a
dynami c factor . See also friction; heat energy; po-
tential energy; velocity pressure.
laminar flow Fl ow that occurs when par ti cl es of a l i qui d move i n
strai ght l i nes par al l el to the fl ow di r ecti on. See also
turbulent flow.
lb pound
MO Mi ssour i
N C nor mal l y cl osed
N O normal l y open
nonpositive-displacement pump Thi s type of pump di schar ges l i qui d i n a conti nuous
fl ow. See also displacement principle; positive-
displacement pump.
OD outsi de di ameter
open-center system A pump system wher e the pump's output has a fr ee
fl ow path back to the reser voi r i n the ci rcui t's neutral
condi ti on.
Pascal's Law Basi c l aw of hydr aul i cs that Bl ai se Pascal for mul ated
i n the 17th century; Pascal states that pressure i n a
FM 5-499
Glossary-231
confi ned fl ui d i s transmi tted undi mi ni shed i n every
di r ecti on and acts wi th equal for ce on equal ar ea and
at ri ght angl es to the contai ner 's wal l s.
positive-displacement pump Thi s type of pump di schar ges vol umes of l i qui d that
ar e separated by per i ods of no di scharge. See also dis-
placement principle; nonpositive-displacement
pump.
potential energy Energy due to posi ti on; i n hydr aul i cs, potenti al ener -
gy i s a stati c factor . See also energy; friction; heat
energy; kinetic energy.
pressure The for ce exer ted agai nst a speci fi c ar ea, expr essed i n
psi .
pressure-control valves Val ves that may l i mi t or r egul ate pr essur e, cr eate a
par ti cul ar pr essure condi ti on requi red for control , or
cause actuator s to oper ate i n a speci fi c or der . Pr es-
sure-contr ol val ves can be a r el i ef, a pr essure-r educ-
i ng, a sequence, or a counter bal ance val ve. See also
directional-control valves; flow-control valves;
valves.
psi pound(s) per square i nch
radial piston pump A pump i n whi ch the pi stons ar e arr anged l i ke wheel
spokes i n a shor t cyl i ndr i cal bl ock.
reciprocating pump A type of pump that depends on a reci procati ng mo-
ti on to transmi t l i qui d fr om i ts i nl et si de to i ts outl et
si de.
resistance A condi ti on i n a hydr aul i c system that i s usual l y
caused by a r estri cti on or obstructi on i n the path or
fl ow.
rotary pump A posi ti ve-di spl acement pump i n whi ch r otary moti on
car ri es the l i qui d fr om the pump's i nl et to i ts oul et.
rpm revol uti on(s) per mi nute
slippage The measur e of a pump's effi ci ency expr essed i n per -
cent; oi l l eaks fr om the pr essur e outl et to a l ow-pr es-
sur e ar ea or back to the i nl et; some sl i ppage i s
desi gned i nto pump systems for l ubr i cati on pur poses.
SPDT si ngl e pol e-doubl e throw swi tch
SPST si ngl e pol e-si ngl e throw swi tch
sq in square i nches
FM 5-499
Glossary-232
STOP system Tr oubl eshooti ng system i n hydr aul i cs i n whi ch a per-
son shoul d Study the ci r uci t di agrams, Test by usi ng
a r el i abl e tester , Organi ze the knowl edge gai ned fr om
the ci rcui t-test r esul ts, and Per for m r epai r s, taki ng
ti me to do the job wel l .
torque Ci rcul ar for ce on an object.
turbulent flow Fl ow that devel ops when fl ow speed i ncr eases beyond
a gi ven poi nt. See also laminar flow.
two-stage pump A pump that consi sts of two separate pump assem-
bl i es that are contai ned i n one housi ng.
typical mobile circuits Hydraul i c-l i ft, power -steeri ng, and r oad-patrol -truck
ci r cui ts.
USAES Uni ted States Army Engi neer School
USASI Uni ted States of Amer i can Standar ds I nsti tute
valves Objects i n a hydr aul i c system that control the opera-
ti on of the actuator s; val ves r egul ate pressur e by cr e-
ati ng speci al pressur e condi ti ons and by contr ol l i ng
how much oi l wi l l fl ow i n porti ons of the ci rcui t and
wher e i t wi l l go. See also directional-control
valves; flow-control valves; pressure-control
valves.
vane-type pump A pump i n whi ch a sl otted r otor spl i ned to a dri ve
shaft r otates between cl osel y fi tted si de pl ates that
are i nsi de of an el l i pti cal - or ci r cul ar-shaped r i ng;
vane pumps can be coubl e, unbal anced, or bal anced.
variable-displacement pump A pump i n whi ch the pumpi ng-chamber si zes can be
changed; the GPM del i very can be changed by movi ng
the di spl acement contr ol , changi ng the dri ve speed, or
doi ng both. See also displacement; fixed-
displacement pump.
velocity The aver age speed of a fl ui d's par ti cl es past a gi ven
poi nt, measured i n fps. See also flow; flow rate.
velocity pressure Pr essure caused by ki neti c energy. See also kinetic
energy.
volumetric output The amount of l i qui d a pump can del i ver at i ts outl et
por t per uni t of ti me at a gi ven dr i ve speed, usual l y
expr essed i n GPM or cubi c i nches per mi nute. Al so
cal l ed delivery rate or capacity.
FM 5-499
Glossary-233
V vol t
VOM vol t-ohm-mi l l ammeter
work The measure of force mul ti pl i ed by di stance.
zero reference point vol tage poi nt i n an el ectri cal ci rcui t that i s nei ther
negati ve or posi ti ve. See also chassis ground, earth
ground; ground.
FM 5-499
References-1
References
SOURCES USED
These ar e the sources quoted or paraphrased i n thi s publ i cati on.
Nonmilitary Publications
Hydraulics. Deer e and Company Servi ce Publ i cati ons, Mol i ne, I l l i noi s. 1997.
I ndustrial Hyydraulics Manual. Vi ckers Trai ni ng Center , Rochester Hi l l s, Mi chi gan. 1993.
DOCUMENTS NEEDED
These documents must be avai l abl e to the user s of thi s publ i cati on;
Department of the Army Forms
DA For m 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. Februar y 1974.
Index
A
accumulators (para 2-6)
bag-type (para 2-6b)
maintenance of (para 2-6d)
piston-type (para 2-6c)
spring-loaded (para2-6a)
actuator
air vents (para 4-3j)
American Standards Association (ASA) (para 6-2)
area (para 1-1b)
ASA. See American Standards Association (ASA)
assembling a clamp-type coupling (para 2-10d)
assembling a conductor (para 2-10d)
B
baffle plate (para 2-3f)
bends in tubing (para 2-9d)
Bernouillis principle (para 1-4d)
C
camshaft (para 5-2d(1))
capacity (para 3-2)
centrifugal force (para 4-4b)
cfs. See cubic foot (feet) per second (cfs)
circuits
hydraulic-lift (para 6-3a)
mobile (para 6-3a)
operation problems in (para 6-4a)
power-steering (para 6-3b)
road-patrol-truck (para 6-3c)
testing (para 6-4b)
troubleshooting (para 6-4)
circulatory system (para 2-9)
requirements (para 2-9)
colors in figures (para 2-2)
connecting tubing (para 2-9d)
connectors (para 2-10)
flared (para 2-10b)
threaded (para 2-10a)
couplings (para 2-3f)
flexible-hose (para 2-10c)
cubic foot (feet) per second (cfs) (para 2-7)
cylinder block (para 3-8a(2)), (para 3-8a(5))
cylinder housing (para 4-1)
cylinder ports (para 4-2)
cylinders (para 4-1)
construction of (para 4-2)
cushioned (para 4-1g)
differential (para 4-1c)
double-acting (4-1b)
lockout (para 4-1h)
nondifferential (para 4-1d)
piston (para 4-1)
piston-type (para 4-1f)
problems with, abrasives on a piston rod (para 4-3h)
problems with, burrs on a piston rod (para 4-3i)
problems with, creeping (para 4-3c)
problems with, loose mounting (para 4-3e)
problems with, misalignment (para 4-3f)
problems with, no lubrication (para 4-3g)
problems with, sluggish operation (para 4-3d)
ram-type (para 4-1), (para 4-1e)
single-acting (para 4-1a)
D
dash number of tubing (para 2-9a)
delivery rate (para 3-2)
diagrams
hydraulic-circuit (para 6-1)
hydraulic-circuit, block (para 6-1a)
hydraulic-circuit, cutaway (para 6-1b)
diode (para 7-2b(5))
displacement (para 3-3), (para 4-4), (para 4-4c(1))
distance (para 1-2)
drive shaft (para 3-8b(1))
E
electrical equipment (para 7-4a)
practices (para 7-4b)
safety (para 7-4)
energy (para 1-4)
heat (para 1-4c)
kinetic (para 1-4b), (para 1-4d)
potential (para 1-4a), (para 1-4d
F
filters (para 2-4b)
active, absorbent (para 2-5)
element, depth-type (para 2-5)
element, edge-type (para 2-5)
element, surface-type (para 2-5)
full-flow (para 2-4b(1))
inactive, absorbent (para 2-5)
mechanical (para 2-5)
proportional-flow (para 2-4b(2))
fittings (para 2-10)
crosses (para 2-10b)
elbows (para 2-10b)
skived (para 2-10d)
unions (para 2-10b)
flared connectors leaking (para 2-10b)
flaring a tube (para 2-9d)
flow (para 1-3), (para 2-7), (para 3-1), (para 5-2c(2)), (para 5-2e)
laminar (para 1-4c)
turbulent (para 1-4c)
flow, pressure, and temperature (FPT) (para 6-4d)
fluid pressure (para 4-1f)
foot (feet) per second (fps) (para 1-3a)
foot-pound (ft lb) (para 1-4)
force (para 1-1b), (para 1-2)
fps. See foot (feet) per second (fps)
FPT. See flow, pressure, and temperature (FPT)
friction (para 1-4c), (para 1-4d)
ft lb. See foot-pound (ft lb)
G
gallon(s) per minute (GPM) (para 1-3b)
gas (para 1-1)
gauges
pressure (para 2-7)
GPM. See gallon(s) per minute (GPM)
gravity (para 4-1f)
ground (para 7-3)
chassis or common (para 7-3b)
earth (para 7-3a)
zero reference point (para 7-3c)
H
head (para 1-1a), (para 1-4c)
horsepower (HP) (para 1-4f), (para 2-1c(3))
hose (para 2-9c(1))
rubber (para 2-9c(1))
Teflon-type (para 2-9c(2))
HP. See horsepower (HP)
hydraulic balance (para 5-1)
hydraulic boost (para 6-3b)
hydraulic motors (para 4-4)
bent-axis piston-type (para 4-4c(2))
gear-type (para 4-4a)
in-line-axis piston-type (para 4-4c(1))
piston-type (para 4-4c)
principal ratings of (para 4-4)
vane-type (para 4-4b)
variable-displacement (para 4-4c(2))
hydraulic pump essentials (para 3-5)
hydraulic systems (para 2-1)
closed-center (para 2-1d), (para 2-1d), (para 2-1d)
hydraulic-jack (para 2-1a)
improperly operating (para 2-8b)
motor-reversing (para 2-1b)
open-center (para 2-1c)
problems with (para 6-4f)
solutions for (para 6-4g)
with fixed-displacement pump and accumulator (para 2-1d(1))
with flow divider (para 2-1c(3))
with series connection (para 2-1c(1))
with series/parallel connection (para 2-1c(2))
with variable-displacement pump (para 2-1c(2))
hydraulic transmission (para 4-4c(2))
I
ID. See inside diameter (ID)
inside diameter (ID) (para 2-9b)
J
JIC. See Joint Industry Conference (JIC)
Joint Industry Conference (JIC) (para 6-2)
L
leakage
external (para 2-11b), (para 4-3a)
in a hydraulic system (para 2-11)
internal (para 2-11a), (para 4-3b)
prevention of (para 2-11c)
prevention of by properly operating equipment (para 2-11c(2))
prevention of through maintenance of equipment (para 2-11c(3))
prevention of through proper installation of materials (para 2-11c(1))
lines in liquid-powered systems (para 2-9)
flexible hosing (para 2-9c)
piping (para 2-9b)
tubing (para 2-9a)
liquid (para 1-1a), (para 1-4c)
levels (para 1-1a(1))
M
metering (para 5-3)
meters (para 2-7b)
nutating-piston-disc type (para 2-7b)
O
OD. See outside diameter (OD)
O-ring (para 5-2a), (para 5-2e(1)), (para 5-23(2))
O-rings (para 2-12b(1))
outside diameter (OD) (para 2-9a)
override (para 5-1)
P
packing (para 2-12c)
Pascals law (para 1-2)
pilot-valve assembly (para 5-1b(1))
pintle (para 3-8a(1))
pistons (para 3-8a(3))
Pitman arm (para 6-3b)
pivots (para 4-3)
port connections (para 6-2c)
potentiometer (para 7-2b(1))
pound(s) per square inch (psi) (para 1-1), (para 1-1a(2))
power (para 1-4f)
power-steering system (para 6-3b)
pressure (para 1-1), (para 1-1a), (para 2-7), (para 3-2), (para 4-4b), (para 5-1b), (para 5-1b(1))
atmospheric (para 1-1a), (para 1-1a(2)), (para 2-7a)
static (para 1-4c), (para 1-4d)
pressure plate (para 4-4b)
pressure switches (para 5-1e)
psi. (Emphasis>See pound(s) per square inch (psi)
psi. See pound(s) per square inch (psi)
pump
volute (para 3-5a)
pump cavitation (para 2-3d)
pumps
centrifugal (para 3-5a)
characteristics of (para 3-1c)
characteristics of vane-type (para 3-7a)
charging (para 2-1d(2))
design (para 3-5)
diffuser (para 3-5a(2))
displacement (para 3-8b(1)(a))
external gear (para 3-6a)
fixed-displacement (para 3-3a)
in-lin, operation of (para 3-8b(1)(c))
in-line, components of (para 3-8b(1)(b))
in-line, wobble-plate type (para 3-8b(2))
internal gear (para 3-6b)
lobe (para 3-6c)
nonpositive-displacement (para 3-1a)
operating problems, cavitation (para 3-9c)
operating problems, excess speed (para 3-9b)
operating problems, no delivery (para 3-9d(3))
operating problems, noise (para 3-9d(4))
operating problems, overloading (para 3-9)
operating problems, pressure loss (para 3-9d(1))
operating problems, slow operation (para 3-9d(2))
piston (para 3-8)
piston, axial-type (para 3-8b)
piston, bent-axis type (para 3-8b(3))
piston, in-line-type (para 3-8b(1))
piston, radial-type (para 3-8a)
positive-displacement (para 3-1b)
reciprocating (para 3-5c)
two-stage design (para 3-7e)
types of (para 3-a)
vane (para 3-7)
vane-type, balanced design (para 3-7c)
vane-type, double design (para 3-7d)
vane-type, unbalanced design (para 3-7b)
variable-displacement (para 3-3b)
R
relay (para 7-2b(3))
replacing hose (para 2-10c)
reservoir (para 2-3), (para 6-2a)
construction of (para 2-3a)
location of (para 2-3d)
shape of (para 2-3b)
size of (para 2-3c)
ventilation and pressurization of (para 2-3e)
reservoirs
line connections for (para 2-3f)
maintenance of (para 2-3g)
resistance (para 3-2), (para 5-1c)
revolution(s) per minute (rpm) (para 2-1d(2))
rings
backup (para 2-12b(2))
piston (para 2-12b(7))
rotors (para 3-8a(4))
rpm. See revolution(s) per minute (rpm)
S
seals (para 2-12), (para 4-2), (para 4-3)
cup (para 2-12b(6))
dynamic (para 2-12b)
face (para 2-12b(8))
lathe-cut (para 2-12b(3))
leather (para 2-12d(1))
lip (para 2-12b(5))
materials (para 2-12d)
neoprene (para 2-12d(4))
nitrile (para 2-12d(2))
nylon (para 2-12d(5))
silicone (para 2-12d(3))
static (para 2-12a)
T-ring (para 2-12b(4))
seizing in connectors (para 2-10a)
sleeve (para 2-10b)
slippage (para 3-2)
solenoid coil (para 7-2b(2))
spring tester (para 5-5b)
strainer (para 2-4a)
swash plate (para 3-8b(1)), (para 3-8b(1)(a)), (para 4-4c(1))
symbols
accumulator (para 6-2i)
cooler (para 6-2i)
cylinder (para 6-2e)
cylinder, cushioned (para 6-2e)
cylinder, double-acting (para 6-2e)
cylinder, double-end rod (para 6-2e)
cylinder, single-acting (para 6-2e)
drain line (para 6-2b)
flexible line (para 6-2b)
fluid conditioner (para 6-2i)
graphical, United States of American Standards Institute (USASI) (para 6-2)
hydraulic lines (para 6-2b)
motor (para 6-2d)
pilot line (para 6-2b)
pump (para 6-2c)
reservoir (para 6-2a)
valves, check (para 6-2f(3))
valves, counterbalance (para 6-2f(4)
valves, directional-control (para 6-2h)
valves, flow-control (para 6-2g)
valves, four-way (para 6-2h(2))
valves, mobile directional (para 6-2h(3)
valves, pressure-control (para 6-2f)
valves, pressure-reducing (para 6-2f(5))
valves, relief (para 6-2f(1))
valves, sequence (para 6-2f(2))
valves, unloading (para 6-2h(1))
working line (para 6-2b)
T
testers
hydraulic-circuit (para 2-8a)
testing devices for electical circuits. See potentiometer, solenoid coil, relay, transformer, diode
torque (para 4-4b), (para 4-4c(2))
transformer (para 7-2b(4))
troubleshooting procedures for electrical circuits (para 7-2a)
analyze the symptom (para 7-2a(2))
identify the symptom (para 7-2a(1))
isolate the faulty circuit (para 7-2a(4))
isolate the single faulty function (para 7-2a(3))
locate/verify the cause of the malfunction (para 7-2a(5))
tube installation (para 2-9d)
tube maintenance (para 2-9d)
U
USASI. See symbols
graphical, United States of American Standards Institute (USASI)
V
valves (para 2-1a)
assembly of (para 5-6)
check (para 5-2c)
check, elements of (para 5-2c)
check, orifice (para 5-3e)
check, pilot-operated (para 5-2c(3))
check, pilot-operated-type (para 5-2c(3))
check, restriction-type (para 5-2c(2))
check, standard-type (para 5-2c(1))
closed-center spool (para 5-2e(2))
compensated flow for (para 5-4d)
compound-relief-type (para 5-1a(2))
control (para 2-1c(1)), (para 2-1d), (para 2-1d(1))
counterbalance (para 5-1d)
directional-control (para 4-4c(2)), (para 5-2), (para 5-5c(1))
directional-control, creep or drift problem (para 5-7b)
directional-control, four-way (para 5-2e)
directional-control, four-way poppet-type (para 5-2e(1))
directional-control, four-way sliding-spool (para 5-2e(2))
directional-control, load-drop problem (para 5-7b)
directional-control, oil problem (para 5-7b)
directional-control, shifting problem (para 5-7b)
disassembling (para 5-5b)
dividing (para 3-7e)
failures (para 5-5)
flow equalizer (para 5-3f)
flow-control (para 5-3)
flow-control, bleed-off-circuit installation (para 5-4c)
flow-control, installation of (para 5-4)
flow-control, meter-in-circuit installation (para 5-4a)
flow-control, meter-out-circuit installation (para 5-4b)
gate (para 5-3a), (para 5-3b)
globe (para 5-3b)
inlet (para 3-5b)
manually operated four-way (para 5-2e(3))
needle (para 5-3b)
open-center spool (para 5-2e(2))
outlet (para 3-5c)
oxidation of (para 5-5)
pilot-operated four-way (para 5-2e(4))
poppet (para 5-2a)
poppet-type (para 5-2)
poppet-type four-way Para 5-2e(1))
pressure-control (para 2-3e), (para 5-1), (para 5-5c(3))
pressure-control, troubleshooting of (para 5-7a)
pressure-reducing (para 5-1b)
pressure-reducing, pressure problem (para 5-7a(2))
pressure-regulating (para 2-1d(2))
pressure-sequence, function problem (para 5-7a(3))
pressure-sequence, movement problem (para 5-7a(3))
pressure-sequence, secondary operation problem (para 5-7a(3))
relief (para 3-7d), (para 5-1a)
relief, adjustment and pressure problem (para 5-7a(1))
relief, bypass (para 2-4b(1))
relief, noise or chatter problem (para 5-7a(1))
relief, nonadjustable cartridge-type (para 5-5c(5))
relief, overheating problem (para 5-7a(1))
relief, pressure problem (para 5-7a(1))
relief, troubleshooting of (para 5-7a(1))
relief-type,internal design of (para 5-1a)
repairing (para 5-5c)
restrictor (para 5-3d)
rotary-spool-type (para 5-2)
seats and poppets (para 5-5c(4))
sequence (para 5-1c)
sequence, application of (para 5-1c)
servicing (para 5-5a)
simple-relief-type (para5-1a(1))
sliding-spool (para 5-2b)
sliding-spool-type (para 5-2)
solenoid-operated two-and four-way (para 5-2e(5))
troubleshooting of (para 5-7)
two-way (para 5-2d)
unloading-type, unloading problem (para 5-7a(4))
variations of flow-control (para 5-3)
volume-control (para 5-5c(2))
volume-control, flow-variation problem (para 5-7c)
volume-control, improper-flow problem (para 5-7c)
volume-control, oil-heating problem (para 5-7c)
volume-control, pressure problem (para 5-7c)
XC-series pressure-reducing (para 5-1b(2))
X-series pressure-reducing (para 5-1b(1))
velocity (para 1-3a), (para 1-4d)
venturi throat (para 2-4b(2))
volumetric output (para 3-2)
W
weight para 1-1a)
water (para 1-1a)
wipers (para 4-2)
work (para 1-4e)
working parts of a pump (para 3-8a)
Y
yoke (para3-8b(1)(c))