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I. Families of Curves

The equation of a family of curves may be found by means of its slope.

For the function y = f(x),

=

dx

dy

slope of the tangent line

=

dy

dx

slope of the normal line

slope =

1 2

1 2

x x

y y

x

y

1. Find the equation of a family of curves and the equation of the

particular curve passing through (#$,%) if the slope of the tangent at

any point is &x

$

' (x. )*!.

y=x

3

+2 x

2

+C

, +=%

2. Find the equation of a family of curves if its normal line at any point

passes through the origin.

3. ,hat is the equation of the family of curves if the tangent line, from

the point of tangency to the point "here it crosses the x#axis, is

bisected by the y -axis.

II. Orthogonal Trajectories

efinition: Orthogonal Trajectories

.f a curve intersects each member of a family of curves at a constant angle of

/01, then the curve is called an orthogonal tra2ectory of the family of curves.

.f

dx

dy

is the slope of the family of curves, then #

dy

dx

is the slope of the

orthogonal tra2ectory.

!teps .n Finding the 3rthogonal Tra2ectories

1. Find the differential equation of the given family. (Eliminate the arbitrary

constants)

2. 4eplace

dx

dy

"ith #

dy

dx

. This is the differential equation of the orthogonal

tra2ectories.

&. !olve the resulting differential equation.

!"ample: Find the orthogonal tra2ectories of each of the follo"ing

1. x - &y = +. 5ra" the figure.

2. +ircles through the origin "ith centers on the x - axis. 5ra" the figure. 6,

3. y ( x

$

' 7 ) ' $ = 0 )ns.

y

3

=C3lnx

4. x = + exp (#y

$

) )ns.

y=C e

x

2

.

5. Ellipses "ith centers at (0,0) and t"o vertices at (%,0) and (#%,0).

6. y = 7 ( csc x ' cot x)

#hysical Applications

III. $a%s of Gro%th an& ecay

The rate at "hich the amount of a substance changes is proportional to the

quantity of substance present at any time.

8et x = quantity (amount) of substance present at any time t

t = time

7 = proportionality constant

dt

dx

= rate of change

4ate Equation

dt

dx

x

dt

dx

= 7x

9eneral !olution x = +e

7t

!"ample : !olve the follo"ing

1. The population of a city doubles in :0 years. .n ho" many years "ill it

be four times as much; )ssume that the rate of change is proportional

to the number of inhabitants. )*! %00 yrs.

$. ) certain substance decomposes at a rate proportional to the amount

present. .f one#third of it disappears after %000 days, "hat is the

percentage lost in %00 days;

&. Thirty percent of a radioactive substance disappears in %: years.

Find the half#life of the substance. )*!. $/.%: yrs

*ote 'alf(life

, t

1/2

is the time at "hich the amount of substance is

one half of the original amount, equivalently,

x=0.5x

o

.

4. !ugar decomposes in "ater at a rate proportional to the amount still

unchanged. .f there "ere :0 lb of sugar present initially and at the end

of : hours this is reduced to $0 lb, ho" long "ill it ta7e until /0< of the

sugar is decomposed; 6,

5. ,ater lea7s from a cylinder at a rate proportional to the square root of

the volume remaining at any time. .f initially there are =( gallons

present and %: gallons lea7 out on the first day, ho" much "ill be left

after ( days; ,hen "ill there be $: gallons left; !,

)*! a) %= gals left, b) & days

!eat"or7

1. Find the orthogonal tra2ectories of circles through the origin "ith centers on

the x#axis.

2. !ugar decomposes in "ater at a rate proportional to the amount still

unchanged. .f there "ere :0 lb of sugar present initially and at the end of :

hours this is reduced to $0 lb, ho" long "ill it ta7e until /0< of the sugar is

decomposed;

IV. Temperature Change ()e%ton*s $a% of Cooling+'eating)

*e"ton>s la" of cooling or heating states that the rate at "hich the

temperature of a body decreases or increases is proportional to the

difference bet"een the temperature of the body and that of the medium.

8et T = temperature of the body at any time t

Tm = Temperature of the medium

t = time

7 = proportionality constant

k=+( heating) , k=(cooling)

dt

dT

= rate of change

4ate Equation

dt

dT

? (T - Tm) or

dt

dT

= 7 (T - Tm)

9eneral !olution T = Tm ' +e

7t

!"ample: !olve the follo"ing

1. .f a thermometer "hose temperature is @:

0

is

exposed to a room "here the temperature is &:1, and the

thermometer reading is =:1 after &0 sec, a) ho" long after the

exposure "ill the reading be :01; b) ,hat "ill be the thermometer

reading & minutes after the exposure; )*! %.@ min, ($

0

.

2. )t %00 pm, a thermometer reading @01 F is ta7en

outside "here

the air temperature is # %01 F. )t %0$ pm, the reading is $=1 F. at %0:

pm, the thermometer is ta7en bac7 indoors "here the air is at @01 F.

,hat is the thermometer reading at %0/ pm; 6,

3. ) body at a temperature of :01 F is placed in an

oven "hose temperature is 7ept at %:01 F. .f after %0 minutes the

temperature of the body is @:1 F, find an expression for the temperature

at any time and find the time required for the body to attain a

temperature that is "ithin a half degree of the oven temperature.

,eat%ork:

%. .nitially, there is :0 mg of a certain radioactive material present and after $

hours, it is observed that the material has lost %0 < of its original mass. Find a) the

mass of the material after ( hours b) the time at "hich the mass has decayed to one-

half of its initial mass (half-life of the material)

ans a) x = (0.(: mg

b) t = %&.%0 hrs.

$. ) body at a temperature of :01 F is placed in an oven "hose temperature is 7ept at

%:01 F. .f after %0 minutes the temperature of the body is @:1 F, find the time required for

the body to attain a temperature that is "ithin a half degree of the oven temperature.

ans. %A(.%= min

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