= =
gh P P A F P
top bot
+ = = ;
g V W F
displaced f displaced B
= =
0
2
0 0
2
2
1
2
1
gy v P
gy v P
f f f
+ + =
+ +
g V W F
displaced f displaced B
= =
d
Av
F =
( )
L
P P R
t
V
8
2 1
4
Conceptual quiz
Blood flows through a coronary artery that is partially blocked by
deposits along the artery wall.Through which part of the artery is the
flux (volume of blood per unit time) largest?
a) The narrow part.
b) The wide part.
c) The flux is the same in both parts.
Bernoulis equation
Consider the consequences of the work
energy theorem on the tube of fluid to the
right. Lets do this assume no viscosity.
y
2

y
1
P
1
P
2
( ) V P P x A P x A P
x F x F W
= =
=
2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1 1 1
0 0
PE PE KE KE W
f f
+ =
Using m=V and rearranging terms we get:
) (
2
1
2
1
1 2
2
1
2
2 0 0
y y mg mv mv PE PE KE KE
f f
+ = +
1
2
1 1 2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
gy v P gy v P + + = + +
( ) ) (
2
1
2
1
1 2
2
1
2
2 2 1
y y Vg Vv Vv V P P + =
The pressure on the left does positive work
on the fluid and the pressure on the right does
negative work. In this absence of viscosity,
this is all of the work.
The workenergy theorem says:
The only change to the tube is that we replace a section to the lower left and add a
section to the upper right. The change in the kinetic and potential energy of the
tube is:
Example
A liquid ( = 1.65 g/cm
3
) flows through two horizontal sections of
tubing joined end to end. In the first section the crosssectional area is
10.0 cm
2
, the flow speed is 275 cm/s, and the pressure is 1.20 x 10
5
Pa. In the second section the crosssectional area is 2.50 cm
2
. Calculate
the smaller sections (1) flow speed and (2) pressure.
answers to (1)
a) 11 m/s
b) 3 m/s
c) 0.7 m/s
d) 15 m/s
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
Pa x Pa x Pa x P
s m s m m kg Pa x P
v v P P v P v P
s cm s cm
cm
cm
v
A
A
v v A v A
4 4 5
2
2 2
3 5
2
2
2
2
1 1 2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 1 1
10 64 . 2 10 36 . 9 10 2 . 1
/ 00 . 11 / 75 . 2 / 1650
2
1
10 2 . 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2)
/ 1100 / 275
5 . 2
10
1)
= =
+ =
+ = + = +
= = = =
Example
The water in a beaker is about 0.1 m deep. A small hole opens about
0.01 m from the bottom. What is the speed of water emerging from this
hole?
( ) ( )
( )( ) s m s m v
y y g v y y g v
gy v gy v P P
gy v P gy v P
/ 4 . 1 / 09 . 8 . 9 2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1 2 2 1
2
2
1
2
1 2
2
2 2 1
1
2
1 1 2
2
2 2
= =
= =
+ = + =
+ + = + +