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Main points of last lecture:

Tensile stress: F/A


Tensile strain: L/L
Relation between stress and
strain:
Pressure in fluids:
Buoyancy:
Main points of todays lecture:
Buoyancy:
Bernoulis equation
Viscous flow
Poisseuilles law
Physic 231 Lecture 23
V
V
B P
A
F
L
L
Y
A
F

= =

gh P P A F P
top bot
+ = = ;
g V W F
displaced f displaced B
= =
0
2
0 0
2
2
1
2
1
gy v P
gy v P
f f f


+ + =
+ +
g V W F
displaced f displaced B
= =
d
Av
F =
( )
L
P P R
t
V

8
2 1
4

Flow of an incompressible fluid


The density being constant means that
you can neither increase or decrease
the amount of water in the tube. The
volume of water that goes in must
equal the volume that comes out.
In time t, we have A
1
x
1
as the volume going in and A
2
x
2
as the
volume coming out. Thus:
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
v A v A t v A t v A x A x A = = =
Water is so difficult to compress that
it is pretty accurate to assume that its
density as liquid is constant. That has
a consequence for its flow along a
pipe.
Example
(a) Calculate the mass flow rate (in grams per second) of blood ( =
1.0 g/cm
3
) in an aorta with a cross-sectional area of 2.0 cm
2
if the flow
speed is 40 cm/s. (b) Assume that the aorta branches to form a large
number of capillaries with a combined cross-sectional area of 3.0 x 10
3
cm
2
. What is the flow speed in the capillaries?
s cm s cm
cm
cm
v
A
v v A v
s g s cm cm cm g
t
t Av
cm g
t
V
t
m
/ 027 . / 40
3000
2 A
A b)
/ 80 / 40 2 / 1 / 1 a)
2
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 1 1
2 3 3
= = = =
= =


Conceptual quiz
Blood flows through a coronary artery that is partially blocked by
deposits along the artery wall.Through which part of the artery is the
flux (volume of blood per unit time) largest?
a) The narrow part.
b) The wide part.
c) The flux is the same in both parts.
Bernoulis equation
Consider the consequences of the work
energy theorem on the tube of fluid to the
right. Lets do this assume no viscosity.
y
2
-
y
1
P
1
P
2
( ) V P P x A P x A P
x F x F W
= =
=
2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1 1 1
0 0
PE PE KE KE W
f f
+ =
Using m=V and rearranging terms we get:
) (
2
1
2
1
1 2
2
1
2
2 0 0
y y mg mv mv PE PE KE KE
f f
+ = +
1
2
1 1 2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
gy v P gy v P + + = + +
( ) ) (
2
1
2
1
1 2
2
1
2
2 2 1
y y Vg Vv Vv V P P + =
The pressure on the left does positive work
on the fluid and the pressure on the right does
negative work. In this absence of viscosity,
this is all of the work.
The work-energy theorem says:
The only change to the tube is that we replace a section to the lower left and add a
section to the upper right. The change in the kinetic and potential energy of the
tube is:
Example
A liquid ( = 1.65 g/cm
3
) flows through two horizontal sections of
tubing joined end to end. In the first section the cross-sectional area is
10.0 cm
2
, the flow speed is 275 cm/s, and the pressure is 1.20 x 10
5
Pa. In the second section the cross-sectional area is 2.50 cm
2
. Calculate
the smaller sections (1) flow speed and (2) pressure.
answers to (1)
a) 11 m/s
b) 3 m/s
c) 0.7 m/s
d) 15 m/s
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
Pa x Pa x Pa x P
s m s m m kg Pa x P
v v P P v P v P
s cm s cm
cm
cm
v
A
A
v v A v A
4 4 5
2
2 2
3 5
2
2
2
2
1 1 2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 1 1
10 64 . 2 10 36 . 9 10 2 . 1
/ 00 . 11 / 75 . 2 / 1650
2
1
10 2 . 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2)
/ 1100 / 275
5 . 2
10
1)
= =
+ =
+ = + = +
= = = =

Example
The water in a beaker is about 0.1 m deep. A small hole opens about
0.01 m from the bottom. What is the speed of water emerging from this
hole?
( ) ( )
( )( ) s m s m v
y y g v y y g v
gy v gy v P P
gy v P gy v P
/ 4 . 1 / 09 . 8 . 9 2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1 2 2 1
2
2
1
2
1 2
2
2 2 1
1
2
1 1 2
2
2 2
= =
= =
+ = + =
+ + = + +