Carved Ivory Phoenician Panels

C a r v e d

I v o r y
Fur nitur e P a ne l s f r o m N im r ud :
A C o he r e nt
Subgr o up
o f the N o r th
Sy r ia n Sty l e
I REN E
J.
WI N TER
De pa r tm e nt o f
A r t
His to r y ,
The
Univ e r s ity o f
P e nns y l v a nia
I N THE C OLLEC TI ON o f The
Me tr o po l ita n
Mus e um
o f A r t a r e a num be r o f ca r v e d
iv o r y pl a que s
e xca v a te d
a t the
A s s y r ia n ca pita l
o f
N im r ud ,
a nd
d a ting
to the
e a r l y
f ir s t m il l e nnium B.C . The
pie ce s
ha v e be e n a c-
quir e d
f r o m the Br itis h Scho o l o f
A r cha e o l o gy
in
I r a q
in r e tur n f o r the Mus e um 's
s uppo r t
o f r e ne we d e xca v a -
tio n a t the s ite f r o m
1949-63,
und e r the d ir e ctio n o f Sir
Ma x E. L. Ma l l o wa n. I ncl ud e d in the
gr o up
a r e te n
pl a que s (f o r e xa m pl e , Figur e s I , 2,
3)
a nd two
co m pl e te
pa ne l s (f o r e xa m pl e , Figur e 4)
tha t
be l o nge d
to a
gr o up
o f
a ppr o xim a te l y
nine te e n d e co r a te d
pie ce s
o f f ur nitur e
s ta cke d in Ro o m
SW7
o f Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r a nd
a ppa r -
e ntl y
a ba nd o ne d whe n the
buil d ing
wa s
d e s tr o y e d
in
612 B.C .'
Tha t the s e
pie ce s
we r e d is co v e r e d s to r e d in a
m a jo r
buil d ing
in the
A s s y r ia n ca pita l
is no t
s ur pr is ing.
Fr o m
the ninth
thr o ugh
the s e v e nth ce ntur ie s B.C . the r e wa s
a
s te a d y
s tr e a m o f
iv o r y ,
bo th f inis he d
pr o d ucts
a nd
tus ks , a r r iv ing
in
A s s y r ia
a s
bo o ty
a nd tr ibute f r o m s ur -
r o und ing
na tio ns . This is d o cum e nte d in the
Ro y a l
i. The m o s t cha r a cte r is tic
pie ce s
f r o m SW7 we r e
publ is he d by
M. Ma l l o wa n in JV&R
I I , pp. 485-515.
The e ntir e co l l e ctio n wa s
the n
pr e s e nte d
in Ma l l o wa n a nd G.
He r r m a nn, SW7. The wo r ks in
the
Me tr o po l ita n
Mus e um a r e :
59.I 07.3 (SW7
no .
3, N D7917);
58.31.I (SW7
no .
7, N D6376); 59.107.6 (SW7
no .
8, N D7963);
59.107.7 (SW7no . 39, N D7925); 59.107.10 (SW7no . 51, N D79o 8,
pl a que 3); 59. I 7.4,5 (SW7
no . 63, pl a que s i,
2
N D7951); 58.31.2
(SW7
no .
67, N D6368); 59.107.15 (SW7
no .
87, N D7579);
59. 07.8 (SW7
no .
89, N D7930); 59.107. I (SW7
no .
95, N D79I o );
59.107.2 (SW7
no .
105, N D79o 0).
A nna l s f r o m
A s s ur na s ir pa l
I I
(883-859 B.C .)
to A s s ur -
ba nipa l (668-627 B.C .)
a nd is a l s o
f r e que ntl y d e picte d
o n
r e l ie f s ,
s uch a s tha t o f Se nna che r ib f r o m N ine v e h
(704-68I B.C .),
in which the
king's
s o l d ie r s
ca r r y
o f f
be d s , cha ir s , f o o ts to o l s ,
a nd ta bl e s f r o m a
co nque r e d
cita d e l
(Figur e 5).2
The
pie ce s
f r o m Ro o m
SW7
we r e
o r igina l l y
ca l l e d
be d -he a d s
by Ma l l o wa n; l a te r ,
Ma l l o wa n a nd Ge o r -
gina
He r r m a nn
co nv incingl y a r gue d tha t,
ba s e d
upo n
the d im e ns io ns o f the
co m pl e te pa ne l s
a nd the d is ta nce s
be twe e n the m a s f o und in the
r o o m , the y m a y
r a the r
ha v e be e n the ba cks o f cha ir s .3 Whil e it is cl e a r tha t
the s e m o r e o r l e s s
r e cta ngul a r pa ne l s
we r e no t
pa r t
o f
the
ty pica l
co uch with a
C -s ha pe d
he a d bo a r d s uch a s
the o ne
A s s ur ba nipa l
r e cl ine s
upo n
in his
ga r d e n
s ce ne
(Figur e 6)
o r the o ne
r e pr e s e nte d
in a
ca m p
s ce ne o n a
r e l ie f
o f Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I
(744-727 B.C .),4
we ca nno t
d e f inite l y s a y
tha t the r e we r e no be d s in this
pe r io d
with
r e cta ngul a r
he a d - o r f o o t-bo a r d s s im il a r to tho s e kno wn
f r o m
Egy pt
a nd
Sy r ia
in the La te Br o nze
A ge
o r a s
2. Fo r
A s s ur na s ir pa l I I ,
s e e
Lucke nbil l ,
A R
I , ??
459, 475-477,
479;
Sha l m a ne s e r I I I : A R
I , ??
585, 593, 625;
A d a d N ir a r i I I I :
A R
I , ? 740; Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I : A R
I ,
??
769, 804; Sa r go n
I I :
A R
I I , ?? I 7, 45, 172;
Se nna che r ib: A R
I I , ?? 240, 366;
Es a r ha d -
d o n: A R I I , ? 527.
3. SW7, pp. 3-9.
4.
R. D. Ba r ne tt a nd M.
Fa l kne r ,
The
Scul ptur e o f A s s ur na s ir pa l
I I , Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I a nd Es a r ha d d o n
f r o m
the C e ntr a l a nd So uthwe s t
P a l a ce s a t N im r ud
(Lo nd o n, 1962) P I .
LX.
25
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f o und in a n
e ighth-ce ntur y
to m b a t Sa l a m is .5
Ho we v e r ,
the f o r m tha t the SW7 cha ir s wo ul d ha v e ta ke n d o e s
s e e m to be m o r e co ns is te nt with the
high-ba cke d
cha ir s
s e e n o n r e l ie f s
o f Tigl a th P il e s e r , Se nna che r ib,
a nd A s -
s ur ba nipa l ,
a s we l l a s o n r e l ie f s f r o m C a r che m is h a nd
Zinjir l i
in N o r th
Sy r ia .
I n
m a ny
ca s e s the s e
cha ir s ,
d e -
picte d
in
pr o f il e , cl e a r l y
incl ud e d e co r a tiv e ca r v e d
pa n-
e l s in the l o we r
po r tio ns
a nd be l o w the
a r m r e s ts ,
s o
tha t d e co r a te d ba cks wo ul d a l s o be
e xpe cte d .6
A ppa r e ntl y
the d e co r a te d
pa ne l s
o f
SW7
we r e
o r igi-
na l l y
ba cke d o n
wo o d ,
which ha s no t be e n
pr e s e r v e d .
The
pa ne l s a v e r a ge
a bo ut
85
x
55
cm . in s ize a nd
co ns is t o f s e v e r a l
pl a que s
m o unte d
to ge the r :
a ce nte r
s e ctio n o f f r o m f o ur to s ix
co ntiguo us pl a que s , us ua l l y
f r a m e d a t
to p
a nd bo tto m
by
na r r o w
s tr ips .
The who l e
is the n
ge ne r a l l y
bo und
by
two o r thr e e
v e r tica l l y
a r -
r a nge d pl a que s
a t
r ight
a nd l e f t
(Figur e s 4,
7, 8,
9).
The no tio n
o f jo ining
s e v e r a l
pl a que s
to f o r m a
pa ne l
is a
l o gica l
o utco m e o f the s ize o f the
o r igina l
tus k. The
pr a ctice
ca n be o bs e r v e d
e a r l ie r ,
in the Ra s Sha m r a
be d o f a bo ut
1400 B.C .,
a nd co ntinue d into l a te r
tim e s ,
whe r e ,
f o r
e xa m pl e ,
a thr o ne m a d e f o r the
a r chbis ho p
o f Ra v e nna in the
C a r o l ingia n pe r io d
is
co m pr is e d
o f a
s e r ie s o f
pa ne l s
m a d e
up
o f f iv e
iv o r y pl a que s
f r a m e d
by
d e co r a te d ho r izo nta l a nd v e r tica l
s tr ips ,
a l l s e t in wo o d
(Figur e io ,
f r o m the thr o ne
ba s e ).
The
s ubje cts
o f the
SW7 pl a que s
a r e
r e m a r ka bl y
co ns is te nt: v a r ia tio ns o n s e a te d o r
s ta nd ing f igur e s ,
ge ne r a l l y gr a s ping
the te nd r il s o f a
pl a nt.
I n
m a ny
ca s e s ,
a s m a l l
winge d
s und is k
a ppe a r s
a t the
to p.
On
s e v e r a l
pa ne l s , pl a que s
o f
s y m m e tr ica l
v o l ute tr e e s
f r a m e the
f igur e d pl a que s
a t e ithe r
s id e ;
whe n the r e a r e
v e r tica l f r a m e s a t the
s id e s , the y
a r e
ge ne r a l l y
co m -
pr is e d
o f two o r thr e e
s upe r im po s e d f igur e d pl a que s ,
a s in
Figur e 9.
The
uppe r s tr ip
is
o cca s io na l l y
d e co r a te d
with a
l o ng winge d s und is k,
the bo tto m
s tr ip
m o r e
r a r e l y
with a na r r a tiv e s ce ne .
5.
H.
Ba ke r ,
Fur nitur e in the A ncie nt Wo r l d
(Lo nd o n, 1966) f igs .
83-85, 132-135 (XVI I I Dy na s ty );
C . F. A .
Scha e f f e r ,
"Le s f o uil l e s
d e
Ra s -Sha m r a /Uga r it, 15e , I 6e , 17e ca m pa gne s ," Sy r ia
XXXI
(1954) pl s . v iii-x;
V.
Ka r a ge o r ghis ,
Exca v a tio ns in the
N e cr o po l is o f
Sa l a m is I I I
(N ico s ia , 1974) pl .
LXVI I .
6. Se e B.
Hr o ud a ,
Die
Kul tur ge s chichte
d e s
a s s y r is che n
Fl a chbil d e s
(Bo nn, 1965) pl s . 14, 15.
The
s ugge s tio n
tha t the
SW7 pa ne l s
we r e
pa r ts
o f cha ir s r a the r tha n be d s is f ur the r
s uppo r te d by
the
s l ightl y
co nca v e cur v e o f the
pa ne l s
a cr o s s the ir wid th
(no te d
in
SW7, p. 3),
m o r e
a ppr o pr ia te
f o r a ba ckr e s t tha n a be d bo a r d .
STYLI STI C A FFI N I TI ES
A n e xa m ina tio n o f the
f igur e d pl a que s
m a ke s it cl e a r
tha t this co l l e ctio n
be l o ngs
to the N o r th
Sy r ia n gr o up
o f
iv o r y ca r v ings ,
a s
o r igina l l y
d e f ine d
by
F. P o ul s e n
a nd R. D. Ba r ne tt in r e f e r e nce to the iv o r ie s d is co v e r e d
by
F. Lo f tus in the So uth
Ea s t,
o r
Bur nt,
P a l a ce a t N im -
r ud in
I 853.
P o ul s e n
d is tinguis he d
the N o r th
Sy r ia n
f r o m the P ho e nicia n iv o r ie s d is co v e r e d
by
A . H.
La y a r d
in
1848-49
in the N o r th We s t P a l a ce o n the ba s is o f
d e ta il s a nd m o tif s r e l a te d to tho s e o n r e l ie f s a t C a r -
che m is h, Zinjir l i, Ma r a s h,
a nd Te l l Ha l a f -f o r e xa m -
pl e , ha ir s ty l e s ,
f l o r a l e l e m e nts a nd
tr e e s ,
f e m a l e
s phinxe s ,
a nd m us icia ns in
pr o ce s s io n
to wa r d a s e a te d
f igur e -a nd
a
ge ne r a l
a bs e nce o f
Egy ptia n
e l e m e nts .7
P o ul s e n's d is tinctio n wa s
d e v e l o pe d
f ur the r
by
Ba r -
ne tt,
who no te d no t
o nl y
the a bs e nce o f
Egy ptia n
f e a -
tur e s ,
but a l s o the
pr e s e nce
o f Hur r ia n a nd Hittite e l e -
m e nts inhe r ite d f r o m the s e co nd m il l e nnium . Ba r ne tt
a l s o d e s cr ibe d the
phy s io gno m ica l
f e a tur e s tha t cha r -
a cte r ize the
s ty l e :
o v a l
f a ce , high r e ce d ing f o r e he a d ,
l a r ge e y e s
a nd
no s e ,
s m a l l
pinche d m o uth,
a nd l ittl e o r
no chin.8
The s e f e a tur e s a r e
cl o s e l y pa r a l l e l e d
o n f ir s t-m il l e n-
nium
o bje cts
f r o m N o r th
Sy r ia (Figur e s
I
, 2).9 Sig-
nif ica ntl y ,
the s a m e co nv e ntio ns o ccur o n the SW7
pl a que s .
The SW7 iv o r ie s a l s o incl ud e s e v e r a l m o tif s
tha t ca n be f o und in Ba r ne tt's
Sy r ia n gr o up:
f o r e xa m -
pl e ,
the cha r io t s ce ne
(Figur e s 9, 13)
a nd the hum a n
f igur e s ho l d ing
a bl o s s o m in e a ch ha nd
(Figur e s 2, I 2,
I 4),
in a d d itio n to the wo m e n's cha r a cte r is tic
l o ng
ga r m e nt, v e r tica l l y s tr ia te d ,
with be a d e d
bo r d e r s ,
cl e a r l y l o nge r
a t the ba ck tha n a t the f r o nt
(Figur e s 3,
4,
12).
The
gr o up is , a cco r d ing
to P o ul s e n's
o r igina l
cr i-
te r io n, quite
f r e e o f the
Egy ptia n
e l e m e nts tha t a r e
f o und in a
ty pica l P ho e nicia n-s ty l e pl a que (Figur e 15).
N e v e r the l e s s ,
the r e a r e m ino r d if f e r e nce s be twe e n
7.
F.
P o ul s e n,
De r Or ie nt
und d ie f r iihgr ie chis che
Bil d kuns t
(Le ipzig,
1912) pp. 38-53.
8. R. D.
Ba r ne tt, C N I , pp. 40-44.
9. C o m pa r e
the r e l ie f s f r o m Te l l
Ha l a f , C a r che m is h,
a nd
Zinjir l i
in
Or thm a nn, USK, pl s .
8-i
I , 15-I 9, 56-59,
a nd the
Zinjir l i
s il v e r
pl a que s
in v o n
Lus cha n,
A iS
V, p s .
46k, 47d .
The
r e l a tio ns hip
be twe e n the s e
pl a que s
f r o m
Zinjir l i
a nd the
Sy r ia n-
s ty l e
iv o r ie s wa s no te d
by
O. W.
Mus ca r e l l a , "Ha s a nl u, I 964,"
The
Me tr o po l ita n
Mus e um
o f
A r t Bul l e tin
25 (1966) f igs . 5,
6.
26
FI GURE I
I v o r y pl a que .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t
Sha l m a ne s e r ,
N im r ud . The
Me tr o po l ita n
Mus e um o f
A r t,
Ro ge r s Fund , 59.107.4
FI GURE 2
I v o r y pl a que .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t
Sha l m a ne s e r . The
Me tr o po l i-
ta n Mus e um o f
A r t, Ro ge r s
Fund , 59.107.7
FI GURE 3
I v o r y pl a que .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t
Sha l m a ne s e r . The
Me tr o po l i-
ta n Mus e um o f
A r t, Ro ge r s
Fund , 58.31.2
27
**-"*'(
"YE
'.
? .a
t"
.~~~~-y
^-^ ^
r
.; ,
*
-e -.
?
gF
i,
__ _____
___
I
/~ -i p
FI GURE
4
I v o r y pa ne l .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r . The
Me tr o po l ita n
Mus e um o f
A r t, Ro ge r s Fund ,
59. 07.3
the
SW7
a nd the Lo f tus iv o r ie s tha t ca nno t be
e xpl a ine d
m e r e l y
o n the ba s is o f d if f e r e nt inte nd e d
us e ,
the Lo f tus
co l l e ctio n
co ns is ting
o f s m a l l
o bje cts (m ir r o r ha nd l e s ,
py xid e s )
a nd the
SW7 pa ne l s be l o nging
to f ur nitur e .
The s e d if f e r e nce s incl ud e v a r ia tio ns in m a l e a nd f e m a l e
ha ir s ty l e s
a nd in m e n's
ga r m e nts ,
a l l o f
which, a l tho ugh
pa r a l l e l e d
in
A s s y r ia n
a nd N o r th
Sy r ia n r e l ie f s ,
a r e no t
to be f o und
a m o ng
the Lo f tus iv o r ie s . I n
a d d itio n, SW7
FI GURE
5
Dr a wing
o f a
r e l ie f :
P a l a ce o f
Se nna che r ib,
N ine -
v e h
(o r igina l l o s t)
FI GURE 6
Re l ie f . P a l a ce o f
A s s ur ba nipa l ,
N ine v e h. The
Br itis h
Mus e um ,
no .
I 24920 (co ur te s y
the Tr us -
te e s o f the Br itis h
Mus e um )
pl a nt f o r m s , pa r ticul a r l y tr e e s ,
te nd to be
e xtr e m e l y
cur v il ine a r : hum a n l im bs a r e o f te n
a wkwa r d l y
a r ticu-
l a te d ;
a nd the
f igur e s
a r e
ge ne r a l l y l a r ge r
in
s ca l e ,
cr o wd ing
the
pl a que s (Figur e s 4, 7, 8).
A l l o f the s e
qua l itie s
a r e
co ns is te ntl y
e xhibite d within the SW7
gr o up,
a nd
s ugge s t
tha t the SW7
iv o r ie s f o r m a co he r e nt
s ubgr o up
o f the N o r th
Sy r ia n s ty l e .
I t is the r e f o r e
s ignif ica nt
tha t o f a l l the s im il a r itie s
tha t ca n be cite d be twe e n the iv o r ie s o f
SW7
a nd the
f ixe d m o num e nts o f N o r th
Sy r ia ,
the
pa r a l l e l s
cl us te r
a r o und two s ite s within twe nty kil o m e te r s o f e a ch
o the r :
Zinjir l i
a nd Sa kce Go zu.o 1
C l o s e l y co m pa r a bl e
a r e the
pl a que s r e pr e s e nting
s e a te d wo m e n
(Figur e s 8, I 6)
a nd a s te l a ca r v e d with
the s a m e
s ubje ct
o f the tim e o f Ba r Ra kib
(a bo ut 740-
725 B.C .),
f o und o uts id e Hil a ni I a t
Zinjir l i (Figur e
17).1
The s te l a be a r s a
winge d
s und is k in the
f ie l d ,
a s
I o .
The
co m pl e te r a nge
o f
pa r a l l e l s
in the m e a nd d e ta il s be -
twe e n the SW7 iv o r ie s a nd m a te r ia l f r o m o the r N o r th
Sy r ia n
a nd
A s s y r ia n
s ite s is
pr e s e nte d
in
SW7, pp. 19-35, 39-6I .
I s ha l l d is -
cus s o nl y tho s e
pa r a l l e l s
with wo r ks f r o m
Zinjir l i
a nd Sa kce
Go zii.
ii. Se e a l s o SW'7, p. 33
a nd no s .
46: 2, 3; 47-50.
-
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" ' " .": : ' ;~I ? . ?' ': ~('=r
'i,
' ~ ~ ."Y~'"': 4?
'~..~ ........- ...... .' ~ "~---- -~ ~-"~: ....~
....---il
'-' L;.': '
'
: -.
?'-:
,'. : ,- ,.I
l c
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _.....
??
: 1.' -,~
,..
t . .....~;..
i, ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ .. ..... ~t
"-"'"
~~I ~~~6~~~C ~~~ I ;ci~~~~~: ..,,, .I
: ..
~~~~~~~~~~~-..%
.~~~~f ~ -a r . .... "': ~~
-.
!tr r ?
,'"i u ?
Le
.,,,,., r _;
.; . .
.?,
......,,.....~ ,,.. ,,~-..",&.~".., ~. . ,..~ ~,?
-
.
-...
29
FI GURE
7
I v o r y
pa ne l .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t
Sha l m a ne s e r .
I r a q Mus e um ,
Ba ghd a d , 61898 (pho to :
Wm .
C o l l ins So ns a nd
C o ., Lo nd o n)
!- :
d l . -
"
?r
???;
iT1
r
r ?l
-.-?-
-?? ''cSk';; )?-l b-C ?-L*C : * ;?-
?*'*
-i:
t-.
c.
i P .
?.
?5. i.C u? : ??7
v i-?=
FI GURE 8
I v o r y pa ne l .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r .
I r a q
Mus e um ,
62721 (pho to :
Wm . C o l l ins So ns a nd
C o .)
FI GURE
9
I v o r y pa ne l .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t
Sha l m a ne s e r .
I r a q Mus e um , 62722
(pho to :
Wm . C o l l ins So ns a nd
C o .)
FI GURE 10
I v o r y pa ne l .
Thr o ne o f the A r ch-
bis ho p
Ma xim ia n. C a the d r a l o f
Ra v e nna
.
' ~
'
'"? ~?d o
a num be r o f
pl a que s
f r o m
SW7.
The
SW7
wo m e n
7 C
^?B Bf kL
-a l l s it o n
s qua r e s to o l s ,
f e e t
r e s ting
o n f o o ts to o l s . On
s o m e
pl a que s the y gr a s p
the te nd r il s o f
pl a nts
be f o r e
i| -
~
,
4
? ^
'? j2" ;A
the m with o ne ha nd , ho l d ing
a n
o bje ct
in the o the r ;
ge ne r a l l y , ho we v e r , the y
r e a ch to wa r d a s m a l l ta bl e s e t
*f i.tl B
g e
H l
x
a t !~
^
'
m in the br a nche s o f a
f l o we r ing
tr e e . The ta bl e s a r e cr o s s -
4
i
.
i '
,
'
!
3
l e gge d , te r m ina ting
in bul l 's
f e e t; the y
a r e
inv a r ia bl y
'
.^
'.if i
^
: t, ': "jf l M^
't]
I pil e d
high
with d is he s a nd
l a y e r s
o f br e a d . The
a r r a nge -
m e nt o f f o o d o n the
ta bl e s ,
e v e n to the incl us io n o f a
?
?;i
XK
,
,_.
. v l o w, f o o te d bo wl , is a l s o s e e n o n the ta bl e be f o r e the
: *1..,Ti~ :
? s e a te d wo m a n o f the
Zinjir l i s te l a ;
the ta bl e s '
s ha pe ,
F
;
J~i
?
.,
l 1'
-
^i
cr o s s e d l e gs , a nd v e r tica l
s uppo r t pie ce a r e l ike wis e
I H1
[-.^
r
*
s im il a r . The
f l e e cy
ta s s e l e d cl o th tha t co v e r s the Zin-
: ^g^p^^^^
;
^4 ~~~jir l i
cha ir a nd the
s ha pe d
f o o ts to o l a r e a l s o
d e picte d
o n the
iv o r ie s ,
a nd the
s ingl e
l o tus bl o s s o m with s ho r t
FI GURE I I
Sil v e r
pl a que . Zinjir l i.
Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n,
Be r l in - - .
(pho to : co ur te s y
Vo r d e r a s ia tis che A bte il ung,
.i
Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n) ,i
^
FI GURE I 2 2
I v o r y py xis f r a gm e nt.
Bur nt
P a l a ce ,
N im r ud .
.
The Br itis h
Mus e um ,
no .
131141 (co ur te s y
The
Tr us te e s o f the Br itis h
Mus e um )
FI GURE
I 3 ?
.
I v o r y py xis .
Bur nt
P a l a ce ,
N im r ud . The Br itis h^ t
Mus e um ,
no . 181
73 (co ur te s y
The Tr us te e s o f . _
1
the Br itis h
Mus e um )
?
. . t. . Mh~
.
.1.^ .
*
y
cur v il ine a r s te m , he l d by the Zinjir l i wo m a n in he r
l e f t ha nd , is l ike wis e
pa r a l l e l e d
o n o ne o f the
pl a que s .'2
A s ce ne s im il a r to tha t o f the iv o r ie s a nd the
Zinjir l i
s te l a is r e pe a te d o n a s il v e r pl a que f r o m
Zinjir l i (Figur e
I
I ).
A no the r
cl o s e l y
r e l a te d
r e pr e s e nta tio n
is f o und o n
a
ba d l y
we a the r e d r e l ie f f o und by J. Ga r s ta ng ne a r the
ba s e o f the m o und o f
Sa kqe Go zuii, whe r e a s im il a r ta bl e
in a ba nque t s ce ne is o utf itte d with f o o d a nd a l o w,
f o o te d bo wl .'3 Unf o r tuna te l y , it is no t po s s ibl e to d e te r -
m ine wha t s o r t o f ga r m e nt the s e a te d f igur e is we a r -
.r
?_nk _i
12. Fo r the tr e l l is -f r inge ta s s e l s , s e e SW7, no . 46: 2 (m y Figur e
')?
~
....'" -8)
a nd p. 33; f o r the f o o ts to o l , SW7, no . 47 (m y Figur e i6); f o r
the l o tus bl o s s o m , SW7, no . 48.
13. J. Ga r s ta ng, "Exca v a tio ns a t Sa kge Ge uzi in N o r th Sy r ia :
P r e l im ina r y Re po r t f o r 19o 8," LA A A I (I 90o 8) pl . xxxv : I .
32
FI GURE
14
I v o r y pl a que .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r .
I r a q Mus e um , 62705 (pho to :
Wm . C o l l ins So ns
a nd
C o .)
FI GURE
15
I v o r y pl a que .
Ro o m SWI 2, Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r .
I r a q Mus e um , 65508 (pho to :
Wm . C o l l ins So ns
a nd
C o .)
33
FI GURE I 6
I v o r y pl a que .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r .
I r a q Mus e um , 60553 (pho to :
Wm . C o l l ins So ns
a nd
C o .)
ing, a l tho ugh
the cha ir s e e m s id e ntica l in
s ha pe
to tha t
o f the
s te l a ,
a nd to the s o r t o f cha ir the
SW7
pa ne l s
pr o ba bl y
o nce a d o r ne d . The
f igur e ,
s e a te d to the
r ight,
r e a che s o ut with the
r ight
a r m to wa r d the f o o te d
bo wl ,
a s d o e s o ne o f the wo m e n o n the
SW7 pl a que s (Fig-
ur e
I 6).
A l l o f the wo m e n o n the
SW7
iv o r ie s ha v e the s a m e
ha ir s ty l e :
thr e e o r f o ur
l o ng
co r ks cr e w cur l s d o wn the
ba ck o f the he a d be hind the
e a r ,
with o ne
l o ng
cur l f a l l -
ing
in f r o nt o f the
e a r ,
a nd s ho r t cur l s o n the br o w. I t is
a
s ty l e
o f m e n's a nd wo m e n's co if f ur e tha t is
ty pica l
o f
FI GURE
17
Ste l a .
Zinjir l i,
a bo ut
735-720
B.C . Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n, VA 2995 (pho to : co ur te s y
Vo r d e r a s ia -
tis che
A bte il ung,
Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n)
r e l ie f s a nd
s cul ptur e
f r o m
Zinjir l i
a nd
Sa kce
Gzii o f
the
pe r io d
o f Ba r Ra kib-f o r
e xa m pl e ,
o n the f e m a l e
s phinx
o r tho s ta t f r o m Hil a ni I I a t
Zinjir l i
a nd o n the
m a l e
s phinx
r e l ie f f r o m Sa kce Go zi
(Figur e i8).14
Se a te d m a l e
f igur e s
a r e r a r e in the
SW7 a s s e m bl a ge .
Whe n
the y
d o
o ccur , the y
a r e witho ut the s m a l l ta bl e
a nd
ge ne r a l l y
r e a ch into the br a nche s o f a tr e e . Ho w-
e v e r ,
o n two
pl a que s ,
the cus hio ne d cha ir ha s a
high,
14. USK, pl s . 64b, 5
1b. N o te
e s pe cia l l y
the id e ntica l
s ingl e
cur l
in f r o nt o f the e a r a nd the f o ur be hind in
51
b.
34
FI GURE 18
Re l ie f . P a l a ce
po r tico ,
Sa kce
Go zu. Se co nd ha l f o f the
e ighth
ce ntur y
B.C .
A r cha e o l o gica l
Mus e um , A nka r a ,
1811
FI GURE
19
Re l ie f s . P a l a ce
f a ca d e ,
Sa kce
Go zii. Se co nd ha l f o f the
e ighth
ce ntur y
B.C .
A r cha e o l o gica l
Mus e um ,
A nka r a
I 807,
i8io
35
~i..r ;~,C ~~u=r
- e --.- - r A
FI GURE 20
Re l ie f .
N o r d ha l l e nba u, Zinjir l i.
A bo ut
735-725
B.C . Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n, VA 3007 (pho to :
co ur -
te s y
Vo r d e r a s ia tis che
A bte il ung,
Sta a tl iche Mu-
s e e n)
a ngl e d
ba ck l ike tha t o f the
Zinjir l i
a nd Sa kce Go zii
e xa m pl e s ,I 5
a nd o n a thir d
pl a que
we s e e
a ga in
the
s a m e f o o ts to o l .
6
On the ce ntr a l
pl a que
o f a
co m pl e te pa ne l (Figur e 7),
a m a l e
f igur e
is s e a te d o n a
cr o s s -l e gge d
s to o l tha t e nd s
in bul l 's
f e e t,
l ike the ta bl e in
Figur e
I 6. The m a l e
f igur e
r e s ts his f e e t o n the ba cks o f two bul l s tha t f o r m his f o o t-
s to o l . A s I
po int
o ut
l a te r ,
the us e o f bul l s in this co nte xt
m a y
be a r e f e r e nce to the
id e ntity
o f the s e a te d
f igur e .
This is the
o nl y e xa m pl e
o f a s e a te d
f igur e ho l d ing
a
r a is e d bo wl o r
cup,
a s o n the
Zinjir l i
s te l a . I t ca n be
co m pa r e d
a s we l l with a
f r a gm e nt
o f a r e l ie f o f Ba r
Ra kib
him s e l f ,
a l s o f r o m
Zinjir l i,
o n which the
king
a l s o ho l d s a n
o pe n
bo wl in his o uts tr e tche d ha nd .17
The s e a te d
f igur e
o f the
iv o r y pa ne l
is f l a nke d
by
two
pl a que s
o n e a ch s id e
d e picting winge d gr if f in-d e m o ns
ho l d ing
l us tr a l co ne s a nd
bucke ts ,
a nd "he r o s " with
s m a l l a nim a l s o v e r the ir
s ho ul d e r s ,
a l l
f a cing
the ce n-
te r . The
gr if f ins ' o pe n
be a ks with e xte nd e d
to ngue s ,
ha ir a nd
to pcur l s ,
a nd d o wnwa r d
cur v ing
s ho r t
wings
a r e m o s t
cl o s e l y pa r a l l e l e d by
the
gr if f in-d e m o ns
o n the
pa l a ce
o r tho s ta ts a t
Sa kce
Go ziu
(Figur e I 9).18
The
tr a d itio n o f
ca r r y ing
a n a nim a l o v e r the s ho ul d e r o c-
cur s o n
ninth-ce ntur y
r e l ie f s a t
C a r che m is h,
in the
pr o -
ce s s io n o f m a l e
f igur e s
o n the
King's Ga te ,
a nd o n o ne
o f the o r tho s ta ts o f the C ita d e l Ga te a t
Zinjir l i.'9
A n
e v e n cl o s e r
pa r a l l e l
is to be f o und o n the o r tho s ta t f r o m
Ba r Ra kib's N o r d ha l l e nba u a t
Zinjir l i,
whe r e
d e s pite
d if f e r e nce s in the
pr o po r tio ns
o f the
f igur e s ,
a
v ir tua l l y
id e ntica l
ga ze l l e
with cur v e d ho r n is ca r r ie d o n the
15. SW7,
no .
51: 1, 51: 4.
16.
SW7,
no .
52.
17. USK, pl .
67d .
18. Sim il a r itie s in
s ta nce , po s itio n
o f the
uppe r
ha nd
ho l d ing
the
co ne ,
a nd
pr o po r tio n
o f the
f igur e s o utwe igh
d if f e r e nce s in
d r e s s o r the f a ct tha t the Sa kce Gzii
gr if f in-d e m o ns
ha v e f o ur
wings .
I t is
s ignif ica nt
tha t in bo th ca s e s the
wings
a r e s ho wn bo th
r a is e d a nd l o we r e d . The r e a r e
e xa m pl e s
within the SW7 gr o up
o f
f o ur -winge d cr e a tur e s ,
f o r
e xa m pl e , SW7,
no s .
3, 67,
a nd
68,
which
d e picts
a m a l e
ge nius we a r ing
a s ho r t kil t. Sim il a r
gr if f in-ge nii
a r e
a l s o
d e picte d
o n a
pa ir
o f
a -jo ur pl a que s
f r o m the
te m pl e
o f Ha l d i
a t
A l tinte pe
a nd f r o m
To pr a k Ka l e ,
in Ur a r tu
(s e e
T.
Ozgiiu,
A l tinte pe
I I
[A nka r a , 1969] pl . xxxI I
a nd
C N I ,
W.I
3). The y
s ha r e
with the Sa kce Gzii r e l ie f s a nd the SW7
iv o r ie s the s a m e ha ir a nd
f o r e he a d
cur l s , d is tinctiv e l y cur v ing wings ,
a nd
o pe n be a k;
the
To pr a k
Ka l e
gr if f ins
we a r a tunic be ne a th a
l o ng
be l te d s kir t id e n-
tica l to tha t wo r n in
SW7,
no .
25. C o ns id e r ing
the cl o s e ne s s o f the
Ur a r te a n wo r ks to tho s e f r o m SW7
a nd Sa kce
Gzii,
a nd the cl o s e
po l itica l
tie s be twe e n N o r th
Sy r ia
a nd Ur a r tu
thr o ugh
the f ir s t
ha l f o f the
e ighth ce ntur y B.C .,
I wo ul d
s ugge s t
tha t the s tim ul us
f o r the Ur a r te a n
iv o r ie s ,
o r
po s s ibl y
the iv o r ie s
the m s e l v e s ,
ca m e
f r o m N o r th
Sy r ia .
Ev id e nce f o r this f r o m v a r io us
co nte m po r a r y
s o ur ce s is
ga the r e d
in
m y unpubl is he d
d o cto r a l d is s e r ta tio n,
"N o r th
Sy r ia
in the
Ea r l y
Fir s t Mil l e nnium B.C ., with
Spe cia l
Re f e r e nce to
I v o r y C a r v ing" (C o l um bia Univ e r s ity , I 973)
pp.
I 25-I 30.
19. C . L.
Wo o l l e y
a nd T. E.
La wr e nce ,
C a r he m is h I I
(Lo nd o n,
1921) pl s . B.22b-B.24;
A iS
I I I , pl . xxxv I I : uppe r r ight; USK, pl s .
3o e -h, 57b.
36
FI GURE 21
Re l ie f . Encl o s ur e
ga te ,
Sa kce Go zii.
A bo ut
m id -e ighth ce ntur y
B.C . Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n, VA 97I (pho to :
co ur te s y
Vo r d e r a s ia tis che
A bte il ung,
Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n)
s ho ul d e r s o f o ne o f the
king's
a tte nd a nts
(Figur e 20.)20
The he r o 's d is tinctiv e
ha ir s ty l e -thr e e
r o ws o f
l a r ge
s pir a l
cur l s -ca n be s t be
co m pa r e d
to tha t o f o ne o f the
l io n-s l a y e r s
o n the hunt r e l ie f o f the
Sa kce Go zii pa l a ce
e ncl o s ur e
(Figur e 2I ).21
The
o v e r ga r m e nt
wo r n
by
the
a nim a l be a r e r f r o m
SW7
s upe r f icia l l y
r e s e m bl e s bo th
the
l o ng
co a t o f
A s s y r ia n
a r m o r tha t is
r e pr e s e nte d
a s
ho r izo nta l r o ws o f r o und e d
l a ppe ts
to ind ica te m e ta l
s ca l e s ,22
a nd the
cut-a wa y ga r m e nt o bv io us l y
m o d e l e d
20. A iS
I V, pl . 63; USK, pl . 64c.
I t is no t
s ignif ica nt
tha t the
ga ze l l e 's
he a d o n the
Zinjir l i
r e l ie f is no t tur ne d whil e tha t o f the
SW7 pl a que
is . On the r e l ie f s o f the
King's
Ga te a t
C a r che m is h,
the he a d s o f a nim a l s ca r r ie d
by
m a l e
f igur e s
in
pr o ce s s io n
a l l
v a r y
in
po s itio n.
The tur n o f the he a d is the r e f o r e no t
ne ce s s a r il y
a
cr ite r io n o f
s ty l e
o r d a te .
21. A s im il a r
ha ir s ty l e , a l tho ugh
with
tighte r
cur l s a nd s o m e -
tim e s
l o ng
ha ir a t the
na pe
o f the
ne ck,
is wo r n
by
the chil d r e n o f
A r a r a s o n r e l ie f s o f the
King's
Buttr e s s a t C a r che m is h
(D.
G.
Ho ga r th,
C a r che m is h I
(Lo nd o n, I 914] pi. B.7;
USK, pl . 3if ).
I n
a l l
ca s e s ,
the ind iv id ua l s who we a r the ir ha ir in this m a nne r a r e
be a r d l e s s ,
a nd a t C a r che m is h
the y
a r e
d e f inite l y
chil d r e n. This
m a y
the r e f o r e be a co nv e ntio n f o r
r e pr e s e nting y o uth-in
this
ca s e ,
the
y o uthf ul hunte r /he r o .
I be l ie v e it is a
phe no m e no n
d is tinct
f r o m the
"Gil ga m e s h"
he r o o f te n s ho wn o n
A s s y r ia n
r e l ie f s -f o r
e xa m pl e
a t Kho r s a ba d -whe r e the
f igur e
is
r e pr e s e nte d f r o nta l l y ,
with ha ir
a r r a nge d
in
l a r ge s pir a l
cur l s to the
s ho ul d e r s ,
a nd who s e
a nte ce d e nts
go
ba ck to A kka .d ia n
cy l ind e r
s e a l s
(T.
A . W. Ma d h-
l o o m ,
The C hr o no l o gy o f N e o -A s s y r ia n
A r t
[Lo nd o n, 1970] p. 86).
o n the
A s s y r ia n,
wo r n
by
the s e co nd
l io n-s l a y e r
o f the
Sa kce Go zii hunt r e l ie f .
Ho we v e r ,
G. He r r m a nn ha s
co nv incingl y a r gue d
tha t the a nim a l be a r e r 's o v e r -
ga r m e nt
is r a the r m a d e o f a
wo o l l y , l o o pe d
f a br ic.23
I nd e e d ,
the
ge ne r a l
f o r m o f
e v e r y ga r m e nt r e pr e -
s e nte d o n the Sa kce
Go zii hunt r e l ie f is
d upl ica te d
o n
the
SW7
pl a que s :
the
be l te d , o pe n
s kir t o f the
s pe a r m a n
co m pa r a bl e
to tho s e o n a num be r o f
pl a que s
tha t s ho w
m e n with bucke ts
gr a s ping
br a nche s o f the
tr e e ;24
the
22. Se e n o n r e l ie f s : Ba r ne tt a nd
Fa l kne r , Scul ptur e , pl s . LXVI I ,
cxxI I ;
a ctua l
pie ce s
o f ir o n s ca l e a r m o r we r e unco v e r e d
by
Ma l l o -
wa n in Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r (N &R I I , p. 490, f ig. 336).
Such s ca l e
a r m o r wa s a l s o us e d f o r ho r s e s
(W. La m be r t, "Sul ta nte pe
Ta bl e ts
VI I I : Sha l m a ne s e r in
A r a r a t,"
A na t. Stud . I I
[1961] pp.
1
50-I 5);
ho we v e r ,
a s bo th wo o l a nd a r m o r a r e
a ppr o pr ia te
m a te r ia l s f o r
ho r s e
co v e r ings ,
it is no t
po s s ibl e
to
co ncl us iv e l y id e ntif y
this
l o o pe d
o r
l a ppe t pa tte r n
o n the
SW7
iv o r ie s .
23. SW7, pp. 23-24.
This s e e m s
e s pe cia l l y
cl e a r in the s im il a r
ga r m e nt
wo r n
by
m e n in the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t s e r ie s o f iv o r ie s ,
in
which the
l a ppe ts
a nd
l o o ps
a r e
v e r y
m uch l ike the bo r d e r o f the
ga r m e nt (Figur e s 2, 14, 24).
The s e
l o o ps
ca n a l s o be o bs e r v e d a t
the bo r d e r o f the cl o a k o f Ba r
Ra kib,
which wa s
s ur e l y
o f f a br ic,
no t
m e ta l ,
a s
d e picte d
o n a r e l ie f f r o m
Zinjir l i (A iS I V, pl . LXVI I ;
USK, pi. 66c).
G. He r r m a nn in SW7 d o e s r e s e r v e the
po s s ibil ity
tha t o ne o f the
r e pr e s e nta tio ns (no . 21) m a y a ctua l l y
ind ica te
a r m o r , ho we v e r ,
a s the
l a ppe ts
a r e s o
cl e a r l y
v is ibl e .
24. SW7,
no s .
23, 24.
37
FI GURE 22
Hunt
s ce ne ,
d e ta il o f
Figur e 9 (pho to :
Wm . C o l l ins So ns a nd
C o .)
s ho r t kil t with a
d ia go na l f l a p
f r o m which ta s s e l s f a l l
be twe e n the
l e gs ,
which is a l s o wo r n
by
f o ur m a l e
f ig-
ur e s o n a
co m pl e te pa ne l ;25
a nd the be l te d
wr a pa r o und
co a ts o f the m e n in the cha r io t wo r n a l s o
by
two o f the
f igur e s
in the cha r io t o f the
SW7
hunt s ce ne
(Figur e 22).
This hunt s ce ne o ccur s o n a ho r izo nta l
pl a que
tha t
m a ke s
up
the ba s e o f o ne o f the
co m pl e te pa ne l s (Fig-
ur e
9),
a nd s ho ws f o ur m e n in a cha r io t
cha s ing
two
bul l s be f o r e the m a nd
a tta cking
a bul l to the r e a r o f the
cha r io t. The
pr a ncing
ho r s e s we a r bl a nke ts a nd
m e d a l l io nl ike ta s s e l e d o r na m e nts a t the s ho ul d e r . The
cha r io t is hitche d
by
a
y o ke
a nd a n
e l l iptica l d r a f t-po l e
d e co r a te d with
pa ne l s
o f r o s e tte s . The
s ix-s po ke d
whe e l
o f the cha r io t is s e t to wa r d the r e a r o f the cha r io t bo x.
The d r iv e r a nd a bo wm a n a bo ut to s ho o t we a r the
wr a pa r o und wo o l l y co a t; the y
a nd a
thir d , pa r tia l l y
hid d e n, f igur e
f a ce the two bul l s a he a d . De ta il s o f the
a r che r 's
ge a r
a r e
ca r e f ul l y
d e l ine a te d . He we a r s a
l e a the r wr is t
gua r d
o n the l e f t ha nd a nd a
f inge r gua r d
o n the
r ight ha nd ,
which
pul l s
ba ck the
bo ws tr ing.
The
o nl y
o the r
r e pr e s e nta tio n
I kno w o f o n which the s e f e a -
tur e s ha v e be e n s o
s cr upul o us l y
r e co r d e d is o ne o f the
r e l ie f s o f Ba r Ra kib f r o m the N o r d ha l l e nba u a t
Zinjir l i
(Figur e 23). The r e ,
the
wa l king
bo wm a n ha s his bo w
s l ung
o v e r the l e f t
s ho ul d e r ,
whil e he ca r r ie s two a r r o ws
in his
r ight
ha nd a nd the
f inge r
a nd wr is t
gua r d s
in his
l e f t.26
A f o ur th
f igur e
in the
cha r io t, we a r ing
a
l o ng ga r -
m e nt with a
f r inge d
s ha wl o v e r o ne
s ho ul d e r ,
l e a ns o ut
o v e r the ba ck o f the cha r io t to
s pe a r
a bul l be hind . The
bul l , co l l a ps ing
o n o ne
kne e ,
is a s
l a r ge
a s the e ntir e
cha r io t
co m pl e x
be f o r e him . The o the r two bul l s a r e
a l s o e no r m o us a nd
pr e s s a ga ins t
the
uppe r
a nd l o we r
bo r d e r s o f the
pl a que .
The
s im il a r ity
be twe e n this hunt
pl a que
a nd the hunt
r e l ie f f r o m
Sa k;e
Gzii ha s be e n
po inte d
o ut
by
a num -
be r o f s cho l a r s .27 The
winge d
s und is k a bo v e the cha r io t
o f the r e l ie f is id e ntica l to the s und is ks in the
uppe r
pl a que s
o f the hunt
pa ne l :
in bo th the d is k ha s a be a d e d
bo r d e r , pe nd a nt
v o l ute s o n e ithe r
s id e ,
a nd a f a n o f ta il
f e a the r s be twe e n. The v o l ute cur l s
s pr ing d ir e ctl y
f r o m
the
cur v ing pinio ns
o f the
wings ,
whil e two
r e gis te r s
o f
wing
f e a the r s e xte nd to e ithe r s id e .28 The ho r s e s o f bo th
the
iv o r y pl a que
a nd the r e l ie f a r e in the s a m e
po s tur e
a nd we a r the s a m e
pa r a phe r na l ia ;
the cha r io ts a r e s im -
il a r l y s ha pe d
a nd
a ppo inte d ,
with the s a m e
d r a f t-po l e ;
25. SW7,
no . 65.
26. A l s o no te d in
SW7, p. 69.
27.
Fo r
e xa m pl e ,
N &R
I I , p. 490;
D.
Us s is hkin,
"On the Da te
o f a
Gr o up
o f I v o r ie s f r o m
N im r ud ,"
BA SOR
203 (1971) pp. 22-27.
28. This is in d is tinctio n to the
winge d
d is k a s
r e pr e s e nte d
in
A s s y r ia n gl y ptic (E. P o r a d a , C o r pus o f
N e a r Ea s te r n Se a l s in N o r th
A m e r ica n C o l l e ctio ns I : The C o l l e ctio n
o f
the
P ie r po nt Mo r ga n Libr a r y
[Wa s hingto n, D.C ., 1948]
no s .
640-646, 648-650),
in which the
Ha tho r cur l s a r e
r e pl a ce d by
a s ho r t cur l icue tha t
a ppe a r s jus t
a bo v e the s un whil e the ta il f e a the r s s o m e tim e s tur n a t e ithe r e nd
into v o l ute s with te nd r il s
e xte nd ing
d o wn f r o m the d is k. I t is a l s o
d is tinct f r o m the
winge d
d is k o n
P ho e nicia n-s ty l e
wo r ks
(C JVI ,
S.146),
whe r e the d is k is
ge ne r a l l y
f l a nke d
by
ur a e i. Thus the
"Ha tho r " cur l s a nd
cl e a r l y
d e f ine d
pinio ns
s e r v e to m a r k the N o r th
Sy r ia n s ty l e
in the
e a r l y
f ir s t m il l e nnium B.C .
(s e e
I . Winte r ,
"P ho e nicia n a nd N o r th
Sy r ia n I v o r y C a r v ing
in His to r ica l C o n-
te xt:
Que s tio ns
o f
Sty l e
a nd Dis tr ibutio n," I r a q 38 [1976] pp. 4-6).
38
-00.
---m
a nd the f o ur r o s e tte s o n the
po l e
o f the
pl a que m a y
be
co m pa r a bl e
to the f o ur r o s e tte s in the f ie l d o f the r e l ie f .
The
o nl y m a jo r
d if f e r e nce is tha t the cha r io t whe e l ha s
e ight s po ke s
o n the
r e l ie f ,
a nd
o nl y
s ix o n the
iv o r y .
On the
r e l ie f ,
the hunte d l io n is a tta cke d
by
two
f ig-
ur e s o n f o o t.
Ho we v e r ,
the
d ia go na l
thr us t o f the
s pe a r
he l d
by
bo th ha nd s o f the hunte r o n the
r ight
o f the
r e l ie f is
v e r y
s im il a r to tha t o f the
s pe a r
o f the hunte r o n
the
iv o r y .
The m o s t
e xtr a o r d ina r y s im il a r ity
in the two
r e pr e s e nta tio ns
is in the
d is pr o po r tio na te l y l a r ge
s ize o f
the hunte d a nim a l s .
FI GURE
23
Re l ie f .
N o r d ha l l e nba u, Zinjir l i.
A bo ut
735-
725
B.C . Sta a tl iche
Mus e e n,
VA
3000
The o the r
pl a que s
tha t
a cco m pa ny
the
SW7
hunt
s ce ne in
Figur e 9
incl ud e a
winge d
f e m a l e
ge nius
in the
ce nte r a nd
e ight
m a l e
f igur e s
in s ho r t tunics with
o pe n
co a ts who
gr a s p
the
cur v ing
br a nche s o f a
f l o we r ing
tr e e . This l a s t the m e is
by
f a r the m o s t co m m o n o f the
r e pr e s e nta tio ns
in the
SW7 gr o up.
On the v e r tica l s id e
pl a que s ,
the m e n s ta nd o n s e v e r a l r o ws o f a s ca l e
pa t-
te r n-a co m m o n co nv e ntio n f o r
r e nd e r ing
e a r th o r
gr o und
s ince
Ea r l y Dy na s tic
a nd A kka d ia n tim e s in
Me s o po ta m ia .29
The
pa r ticul a r po s e
o f
r e a ching
to -
wa r d the
pl a nts
with the a r m e xte nd e d to
e y e
l e v e l o r
a bo v e f ind s its cl o s e s t
pa r a l l e l
o n a bo ne tube ca r v e d in
Sy r ia n s ty l e
f r o m the Lo f tus co l l e ctio n.30 I t
m a y
a l s o be
co m pa r e d
to the o r tho s ta t f r o m the
pa l a ce
f a ca d e a t
Sa kC e Go zu,
whe r e two
m e n,
s ho wn with bo th a
winge d
d is k a nd a
pl a nt,
r e a ch
upwa r d
to
gr a s p
the bud
is s uing
f r o m a
cur v ing
te nd r il
(Figur e I 9).
The s ta nd a r d tr e e in the
SW7
co l l e ctio n co ns is ts o f a
l o ng, und ul a ting
s te m f r o m the s ho o ts o f which is s ue
d if f e r e nt
ty pe s
o f f l o we r s . The
f igur e s
o n the
pl a que s
e ithe r
gr a s p
o ne o r two o f the
pl a nt's
te nd r il s o r r e a ch
to wa r d the f l o we r s . The m o tif o f a m a n with a tr e e
o ccur s f r o m e a r l ie s t tim e s in the a r t o f the N e a r
Ea s t,
a nd ne e d no t be d o cum e nte d he r e . The
r o und ing
o f
f o r m s a nd the
e xa gge r a te d
cur v e s a r e cha r a cte r is tic o f
the N o r th
Sy r ia n s ty l e .31 Ho we v e r ,
the
pa r ticul a r
kind
o f
co il ing
"te nd r il " tr e e is
unique .
The
o nl y
cl o s e
pa r a l -
l e l s to o ur tr e e s a r e the
pa py r us pl a nts
with twine d
s ta l ks tha t f l a nk a
f r o nta l l y po s e d
m a n in a
l o ng
d r e s s
o n a n
iv o r y
f r o m A r s l a n
Ta s h,
a nd the e v e n m o r e
tightl y
twine d te nd r il s twis te d a r o und a ce ntr a l s ta l k
o n a n
iv o r y
in the Lo f tus co l l e ctio n.32 On ne ithe r o f
the s e , ho we v e r ,
d o the te nd r il s cur v e o ut
be y o nd
the
m a in tr unk a s
the y
d o o n the
SW7 pl a que s .
One o f the f l o we r s tha t
gr o ws
o n the tr e e s is a
l e a f y
cl us te r tha t r e s e m bl e s the
pa l m e tte pl a nts
o f P ho e nicia n
iv o r ie s , y e t
o m its the
s y m m e tr ic
v o l ute s a t the s te m
junctur e
tha t a r e
a l wa y s
ind ica te d o n P ho e nicia n e x-
a m pl e s (co m pa r e Figur e s
i a nd
I 5).
This
s im pl e pa l -
m e tte ha s a n a nte ce d e nt in the tr e e s f r o m the I nv e s titur e
29.
H.
Fr a nkf o r t, C y l ind e r
Se a l s
(Lo nd o n, 1939) pl s . xv I I : c, h;
xv I I I : a , g, j, k;
xix:
a ,
c.
30. C N I , S.69.
31.
D.
Opitz
a nd A .
Mo o r tga t,
Te l l
Ha l a f I I I (Be r l in, 1955) pl .
94a ; C N I , S.I 45, S.47, S.69;
A iS V, pl . 46k.
32.
F.
Thur e a u-Da ngin
e t
a l .,
A r s l a n Ta s h A tl a s
(P a r is , 1931)
pi.
xxxI I I :
43; C N I , S.3.
39
FI GURE
24
I v o r y pl a que .
Ro o m
SW7,
Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r .
The Br itis h
Mus e um ,
no .
132692 (co ur te s y
the
Tr us te e s o f the Br itis h
Mus e um )
m ur a l a t
Ma r i,
d a te d to the
e a r l y
s e co nd
m il l e nnium ,33
a nd is f o und a l s o o n a ba s a l t r e l ie f f r o m the Bit Hil a ni
a t
C a r che m is h, s ho wing
a bul l m a n
gr a s ping
the
l o ng
s te m o f a
pa l m e tte pl a nt v e r y
m uch l ike o ur s .34 On this
ba s is ,
I ha v e
s ugge s te d
it a s a cr ite r io n f o r the N o r th
Sy r ia n s ty l e .
The s e
l e a f y pa l m e tte
cl us te r s a r e o f te n
co m bine d o n the s a m e
pa ne l
with o the r f l o we r s tha t a r e
r e pr e s e nte d
e ithe r a s two
o utcur v ing pe ta l s
with a ce n-
tr a l r o und
bul b,
o r a s s e v e r a l
o utcur v ing po inte d pe ta l s
(Figur e 9).
On a f e w
o cca s io ns ,
a l l thr e e
ty pe s
is s ue
f r o m the s a m e tr e e
(Figur e 8),
whil e o n o ne
co m pl e te
pa ne l ,
the thr e e v e r tica l s id e
pl a que s
e a ch be a r a tr e e
with a d if f e r e nt o ne o f the thr e e
ty pe s
o f f l o we r .35
Within the
SW7
gr o up,
a d is tinctiv e s e r ie s o f
pl a que s
d e picts
m e n
we a r ing
o d d
f l o we r po t
he l m e ts a nd co r k-
s cr e w cur l
ha ir s ty l e s .
Of
the s e ,
s e v e r a l s ho w m e n
gr a s p-
ing
the te nd r il s o f the
ty pica l
tr e e
(f o r e xa m pl e , Figur e s
2,
I 4),
whil e o the r s
r e pr e s e nt
two id e ntica l
f igur e s
s ta nd ing
s id e
by s id e , ho l d ing
ha nd s
(f o r e xa m pl e , Fig-
ur e
24).36
The s e d is tinctiv e
pie ce s
incl ud e a
r e gis te r
a bo v e the hum a n
f igur e s
in which a
winge d s ir e n,
ho l d -
ing
a bl o s s o m in e a ch o uts tr e tche d
ha nd , a ppe a r s
in the
pl a ce
o f the s und is k. The
pl a que s
a l s o incl ud e l o we r
r e gis te r s
in which a co ucha nt f e m a l e
s phinx
o r l io n a nd
s o m e tim e s a
s ty l ize d
f l o r a l e l e m e nt a r e
r e pr e s e nte d .
The
ga r m e nts
o f the s e m a l e
f igur e s
ha v e
a l r e a d y
be e n
d is cus s e d in
r e ga r d
to the
wo o l l y
co a t tha t r e s e m bl e s
a r m o r . The
o nl y
co ncr e te
pa r a l l e l
f o r the
co m po s ite
f o r m o f the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t is to be f o und o n a ninth-
ce ntur y
o r tho s ta t f r o m the C ita d e l Ga te a t
Zinjir l i (Fig-
ur e
25), a l tho ugh
it is
po s s ibl e
tha t o ne o f the f e m a l e
he a d s in the r o und a nd a f e m a l e
s phinx
ca r v e d in r e l ie f
f r o m the N im r ud iv o r ie s we a r s im il a r he a d d r e s s e s .37
33.
A .
P a r r o t,
Sum e r
(N e w Yo r k, 1959) f ig. 346.
34.
C . L.
Wo o l l e y
a nd R. D.
Ba r ne tt,
C a r che m is h I I I
(Lo nd o n,
1952) pl . B.49a ;
USK, pl . 35d .
35. SW7,
no .
46, pl a que s I , 4 (m y Figur e 8);
no .
2, pl a que s 1-3.
36. SW7,
no s .
38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44.
37.
N &R
I I , f ig. 499,
f r o m r o o m
SEi,
Fo r t
Sha l m a ne s e r ; f ig.
525,
f r o m r o o m
SW37.
40
FI GURE
25
Re l ie f . C ita d e l
ga te , Zinjir l i.
N inth
ce ntur y
B.C .
Or ie nta l
Mus e um , I s ta nbul , 771I (pho to :
Or i-
e nta l
Mus e um )
The ha ir o f the s e
f igur e s
is r e nd e r e d
d if f e r e ntl y
f r o m
tha t o f the r e s t o f the
SW7 gr o up:
thr e e
l o ng
co r ks cr e w
cur l s d o wn the ba ck o f the ne ck a nd s im il a r cur l s in the
be a r d . I t is a
ha ir s ty l e
kno wn f r o m s e v e r a l N o r th
Sy r ia n
r e l ie f s o f the
e ighth ce ntur y B.C .,
a s s o cia te d
by A kur ga l
with the "A r a m a e a n"
s ty l e .38
I t ca n be s e e n o n the
o r tho s ta ts o f the two m e n
o ppo s ite
a tr e e
(Figur e 19)
o r
the two m a l e
s phinxe s (Figur e I 8)
f r o m the
pa l a ce
a t
Sa kce Go zu,
a s we l l a s o n r e l ie f s f r o m bo th the N o r d -
ha l l e nba u o f Ba r Ra kib39 a nd Hil a ni I I I
(Figur e 26)
a t
Zinjir l i.
The N o r d ha l l e nba u r e l ie f s -bo th in the
king's
38.
E.
A kur ga l ,
The A r t
o f
Gr e e ce : I ts
Or igins (N e w Yo r k, 1968)
P - 53.
FI GURE 26
Re l ie f . Hil a ni
I I I , Zinjir l i.
Se co nd ha l f o f the
e ighth ce ntur y
B.C . Or ie nta l
Mus e um , 7730
(pho to :
W.
Schie l i,
De uts che s
A r cha o l o gis che s
I ns titut, I s ta nbul )
o wn be a r d cur l s a nd in the
r ingl e ts
o f his a tte nd a nt
m us icia ns ,
with the ir
tightl y
co il e d
s pir a l
co r ks cr e ws
e nd ing
in
o pe n
cur l s -a r e cl o s e s t to the tr e a tm e nt o f
cur l s o n the
iv o r ie s ,
whil e the a tte nd a nt
f igur e
f r o m
Hil a ni I I I
pr o v id e s
a
go o d pa r a l l e l
to the
wa y
tha t the
cur l s cur v e
up
r a the r tha n
s im pl y ha ng s tr a ight
d o wn
a t the
na pe
o f the ne ck. The s a m e s o r t o f
l o ng
cur l s bil -
l o wing
o ut in the ba ck a nd
l o ng
be a r d cur l s a r e ca r e -
f ul l y r e pr e s e nte d
o n
Sy r ia n ca ptiv e s be ing
s ubd ue d
by
s o l d ie r s o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I in his wa l l
pa intings
f r o m
Til
Ba r s ib,40
a nd o n
f o r e ign
m e r ce na r ie s in o ne o f the
39.
A iS
V, pl s . 60,
62.
40.
F.
Thur e a u-Da ngin,
Til Ba r s ib A tl a s
(P a r is , 1936) pl .
xxiv .
41
FI GURE 28
Winge d
f e m a l e
f igur e ,
d e ta il o f
Figur e
2
FI GURE
27
Re l ie f . P a l a ce o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r
I I I ,
N im r ud .
A r cha o l o gis che s
I ns titut d e r
Univ e r s ita t, Zur ich,
1916
king's
ba ttl e r e l ie f s f r o m N im r ud
(Figur e 27);
it is a
s ty l e
d is tinct f r o m the
A s s y r ia ns '
o wn co if f ur e .
The
winge d
f e m a l e
f igur e s
tha t
a ppe a r
in the
uppe r
r e gis te r s
a r e m o s t unus ua l
(Figur e 28).
The ir f a ce s a r e
br o a d a nd
r o und , ty pica l
o f
Sy r ia n
f e m a l e
r e pr e s e nta -
tio ns ,
a s o n the f e m a l e
s phinx
co l um n ba s e s o f
Zinjir l i
a nd
Sa kce
Go zii
(Figur e
29).
The
pr o po r tio ns
o f o ut-
s pr e a d wings
a nd ta il f e a the r s to he a d be a r
s tr iking
r e -
s e m bl a nce to the br o nze s ir e n ca ul d r o n a tta chm e nts
tha t ha v e be e n a ttr ibute d to N o r th
Sy r ia n
m a nuf a ctur e
(Figur e 30).4'
I n this
ca s e ,
the hum a n a ttr ibute s a r e
pl a ce d d ir e ctl y
a bo v e the s ta nd a r d
winge d d is k,
s o tha t
the d is k be co m e s the cr e a tur e 's
br e a s t,
a nd s he is s e e n
a s if
f l y ing
he a d -o n. P l a ce m e nt o f the s e s ir e ns in the
s a m e
po s itio n
o n the
iv o r y pl a que s
a s tha t
o ccupie d by
the
s im pl e
s und is k
s ugge s ts
a co nne ctio n in
m e a ning
a s
we l l .
Sim il a r l y ,
the co ucha nt
s phinxe s
a nd l io ns in the
l o we r
r e gis te r s
ca n be
co m pa r e d
to the
s phinxe s
tha t
o ccupy
the
s pa ce
be l o w the cha ir s o f s e a te d
f igur e s
o n
o the r
SW7 pl a que s .
41.
0. W.
Mus ca r e l l a ,
"The Or ie nta l
Or igin
o f Sir e n C a ul d r o n
A tta chm e nts ," He s pe r ia
XXXI
(1962) pp. 317-329;
H.-V. He r r -
m a nn, Die Ke s s e l d e r o r ie nta l is ie r e nd e
Ze it (Be r l in, 1966) pp. 64-67.
Fo r a d is cus s io n o f the bl o s s o m s he l d
by
the s ir e ns o n the
iv o r y
pl a que s ,
s e e
be l o w, p. 45.
WORKSHOP S
C l e a r l y ,
a l l o f the
SW7 pl a que s
co nta in r e l a te d s ce ne s
o r e l e m e nts . A t the s a m e
tim e ,
in
co m po s itio n
a s we l l a s
in
e xe cutio n,
the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t s e r ie s s e e m s to co n-
s titute a
s e pa r a te
unit within the
co l l e ctio n, s ugge s ting
tha t it wa s co nce iv e d a nd e xe cute d
a pa r t
f r o m the r e s t.
C r ite r ia f o r ind iv id ua l
wo r ks ho ps
ha v e be e n
put
f o r th
in the r e ce nt
publ ica tio n
o f
SW7.42 Dis tinctio ns d r a wn
ind ica te tha t within a
s ingl e wo r ks ho p,
d if f e r e nt
pl a que s
o f the s a m e
pa ne l m a y
ha v e be e n d o ne
by
d if f e r e nt
ha nd s ,
a nd the r e f o r e tha t a
wo r ks ho p
co nta ine d s e v e r a l
a r tis a ns .43 One
pr incipa l wo r ks ho p
is
d is tinguis he d ,
who s e wo r k co ns is ts o f the
m a jo r ity
o f
pie ce s , incl ud ing
the hunt
pa ne l (Figur e 9).
The s e a te d m a n a nd
gr if f ins
pa ne l (Figur e 7),
the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t
gr o up (Figur e s
2,
14, 24),
a
pa ne l
tha t s ho ws m e n
a ctua l l y s ta nd ing
in
the br a nche s o f the
tr e e ,44
a nd a no the r
pa ne l
o n which
kil te d m e n a nd
l o ng-r o be d
wo m e n s ta nd
upo n
a co m -
po s ite
f l o r a l
winge d
d is k with r o s e tte
ce nte r ,45
a r e co n-
s id e r e d the
pr o d ucts
o f d if f e r e nt
wo r ks ho ps .
Ev id e nce
f o r this is
v e r y co nv incing,
a s e a ch o f the
s ubgr o ups
in-
cl ud e s f e a tur e s tha t d if f e r in
r e nd e r ing
a nd in
co nce p-
tio n f r o m tho s e o f the m a in
gr o up.
42. SW7, pp. 35-39.
43. SW7,
no .
3
a nd
p. 73.
44. SW7,
no . 21.
45. SW7,
no .
65.
42
iW 2V
FI GURE
29
C o l um n ba s e . Hil a ni
I I I , Zinjir l i.
Se co nd ha l f o f
the
e ighth ce ntur y
B.C . Or ie nta l
Mus e um , 7731
(pho to :
Or ie nta l
Mus e um )
FI GURE
30
Br o nze ca ul d r o n a tta chm e nt.
Ol y m pia . Eighth
ce ntur y
B.C . N a tio na l
Mus e um , A the ns , B3040
(pho to :
N a tio na l
Mus e um )
N e v e r the l e s s ,
a s e a ch o f the s e s ubd iv is io ns s til l m a in-
ta ins its cl o s e s t
pa r a l l e l s
with the
e ighth-ce ntur y
r e l ie f s
o f
Zinjir l i
a nd Sa kce
Go zii,
it d o e s no t s e e m
ne ce s s a r y ,
a s
a r gue d
in the
publ ica tio n,
to a s cr ibe to the s e wo r k-
s ho ps
d if f e r e nce s e ithe r in tim e o r
pl a ce .
Once the r a w
m a te r ia l wa s a v a il a bl e in a n
a r e a ,
it is
po s s ibl e
tha t a
s ingl e
ce nte r co ul d
s uppo r t
a num be r o f
co e xis ting
wo r ks ho ps ,46
a l l o f which co ul d d e m o ns tr a te a
r a nge ,
no t
o nl y
in the
qua l ity
o f
wo r km a ns hip
but a l s o in
s ty l e ,
f r o m a r cha is tic to "m o d e r n" a nd
incl ud ing
the
r a r e ,
inno v a tiv e ,
o r
unique pie ce .47
A s im il a r ca s e ca n be o bs e r v e d in the r e l ie f s o f the
N o r d ha l l e nba u a t
Zinjir l i.
The r e is a cl e a r d if f e r e nce in
pr o po r tio n,
a tte ntio n to
d e ta il ,
a nd o v e r a l l
qua l ity
in
the r e l ie f o f the s e a te d Ba r Ra kib a nd his
s cr ibe ,
the
m us icia ns ,
a nd the a tte nd a nts with
jug
a nd a r che r 's
ge a r (s e e Figur e 23)48
f r o m the o the r a tte nd a nt
f igur e s
cha r a cte r ize d
by
the s ho r t a nd
s qua t ga ze l l e
be a r e r
d e picte d
in
Figur e
20.
A ppa r e ntl y ,
a t l e a s t two
s cul p-
to r s wo r ke d o n the o r tho s ta ts f o r the
buil d ing,
the m o r e
co m pe te nt wo r king
o n the m o r e
pr e s tigio us r o y a l
s l a b
a nd its
a d ja ce nt
bl o cks . A s im il a r s itua tio n
pe r ta ine d
in
the
ca r v ing
o f the P a r the no n
m e to pe s
in
f if th-ce ntur y
A the ns ,
whe r e d if f e r e nt
s cul pto r s
e xe cute d ind iv id ua l
s l a bs ,
which the n r e f l e cte d
v a r y ing d e gr e e s
o f
e xpe r tis e
a nd
r a nge d gr e a tl y
in
s ty l e
f r o m a r cha ic to cl a s s ica l .49
46. A s ,
f o r
e xa m pl e ,
in Ol d
Ba by l o nia n Sippa r ,
whe r e the r e
we r e
a ppa r e ntl y
r o ws o f
co ntiguo us go l d s m iths ' s ho ps (A .
L.
Op-
pe nhe im ,
"Tr a d e in the A ncie nt N e a r Ea s t,"
Vl nte r na tio na l
C o ngr e s s
o f
Eco no m ic
His to r y , Le ningr a d , 1o -14 A ugus t 197o [Mo s co w, 1970]
p. 18,
no te
46).
47.
A s f a r a s
qua l ity
is
co nce r ne d , d e s pite
the s a m e m o tif o f m e n
gr a s ping tr e e s ,
no te the
s ha r p
co ntr a s t be twe e n the a wkwa r d ,
co l um na r
f igur e s
o f
SW7,
no s .
64: 1-4,
with the ir s tickl ike a r m s ,
a nd the
we l l -pr o po r tio ne d
a nd m o d e l e d
f igur e s
o f no s .
65-66.
Mo r e
s ubtl e d is tinctio ns in
qua l ity
ca n be m a d e
a m o ng cl o s e l y
r e l a te d
pl a que s
s uch a s
SW7,
no s .
2, 4, 5, 19, 21, 26, 38, 40, 46,
in a l l o f
which a
f igur e gr a s ps
the te nd r il o r br a nch o f a tr e e . I n the m o r e
s ucce s s f ul
e xa m pl e s ,
the s ta l k
be nd s jus t
be l o w the
ha nd , s ugge s ting
the
we ight
a nd
pul l
o f the
f igur e 's a r m s ,
whe r e a s in l e s s s ucce s s f ul
o ne s ,
the cur v e s a r e
a r bitr a r y .
48.
A iS
I V, pl s . 60-62, f igs . 257,259; USK, pl s . 63b-d , f -h; 64a .
49.
F. Br o m m e r (Die Me to pe n
d e s P a r the no n
[Ma inz, 1967]
p.
174) s pe a ks
o f a
pe r io d
a t the m o s t o f
e ight y e a r s , po s s ibl y o nl y f iv e ,
a nd
quo te s
C . P ica r d to the e f f e ct tha t if a l l o f the
m e to pe s
ha d be e n
f o und in is o l a te d
ins ta nce s ,
the
r a nge
wo ul d ha v e be e n e xte nd e d
o v e r
thir ty y e a r s ,
f r o m a bo ut
460
to
430 B.C .,
r a the r tha n f r o m
447 to 439
a t m o s t.
43
I
A N A LYSI S A N D I N TERP RETA TI ON
OF DEC ORA TI VE SC HEME
Tha t the SW7
pa ne l s
we r e a l l co nce iv e d a s
pa r t
o f a
s ingl e "pr o gr a m "
is
e qua l l y
cl e a r whe n o ne e xa m ine s
the ir co nte nt. Fo r , wha te v e r the
s ty l is tic
v a r ia tio n in
ind iv id ua l wo r ks , the the m e o f a s e a te d o r
s ta nd ing
f igur e
with a tr e e a nd s o m e f o r m o f the
winge d
d is k
r e m a ins co ns ta nt.
Whe n o ne l o o ks a t the co l l e ctio n a s a who l e , it is
po s -
s ibl e to co m e a bit cl o s e r to
d e f ining
the
und e r l y ing
pr o gr a m .
N o ne o f the hum a n
f igur e s
we a r s the he a d -
ge a r
tha t wo ul d
im m e d ia te l y id e ntif y
a
d e ity .50
Ye t
tr a d itio na l l y ,
the s e a te d
po s itio n
is r e s e r v e d f o r d iv ine
o r
highl y pr e s tigio us pe r s o na ge s .5' Signif ica ntl y ,
whe n
the r e is a
s ingl e
s e a te d
f igur e
o r a
pa ir
in a
pa ne l , the y
o ccupy
the ce ntr a l
pl a que
o r
pl a que s . Fur the r m o r e ,
the
pa ir
o f bul l s tha t
co m po s e
the f o o ts to o l o f the s e a te d
m a l e o n the
gr if f in pa ne l (Figur e 7)
a r e
pr e cis e l y
the
a nim a l s a s s o cia te d with the
Sy r ia n
s to r m
go d
f r o m the
Hittite
Em pir e thr o ugh
the Ro m a n
pe r io d .52 Fina l l y ,
a t l e a s t o ne o f the s e a te d wo m e n
(Figur e 8)
ho l d s in he r
o uts tr e tche d ha nd a
l a r ge r ing
s im il a r to tha t he l d
by
a
s e a te d f e m a l e
go d d e s s
o n a r e l ie f o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I
f r o m the C e ntr a l P a l a ce a t N im r ud
(Figur e 31)
.53 The
s a m e
r ing
is he l d
by
a s e a te d
f igur e
o f I s hta r in the
pr o -
ce s s io n o f
go d s
f r o m Se nna che r ib's r o ck r e l ie f a t Ma l ta i,
a s we l l a s in the
uppe r po r tio n
o f the s te l a o f Es a r ha d -
d o n
(680-669 B.C .) f o und a t
Zinjir l i.54
A t Ma l ta i, a l l o f the m a l e
go d s
ho l d bo th a
r ing
a nd
a s ta f f ; f e m a l e d e itie s ho l d the
r ing
a l o ne . On bo th the
Ma l ta i a nd Es a r ha d d o n r e l ie f s , I s hta r is the
o nl y
s e a te d
f igur e .
He r cha ir is
s tr a ight-ba cke d ,
witho ut a r m s , a nd
its l o we r
po r tio ns
a r e d e co r a te d with
m y tho l o gica l f ig-
ur e s . The
s ha pe
o f the cha ir is no t unl ike s o m e o f the
cha ir s
r e pr e s e nte d
o n the SW7
pl a que s 55
a nd is a l s o
s im il a r to the s o r t o f cha ir we wo ul d
e xpe ct
the SW7
pa ne l s
to ha v e d e co r a te d . I n a d d itio n, a s wa s
pr e v io us l y
m e ntio ne d , a num be r o f cha ir s a nd s to o l s
d e picte d
o n
the
SW7
iv o r ie s incl ud e
winge d s phinxe s
be twe e n the
l e gs
o f the cha ir s , whil e a
s ingl e e xa m pl e
co nta ins a
co m pl e x
f l o r a l
a r r a nge m e nt
o f l o tus bl o s s o m s s im il a r to
tho s e in the tr e e be f o r e the s e a te d
f igur e .56
The a s s o cia -
tio n o f
Me s o po ta m ia n
I s hta r a nd the We s t Se m itic
go d -
d e s s A s ta r te with the f e m a l e
s phinx
ha s be e n
cl e a r l y
d e m o ns tr a te d .57 The l io n, which
r e pl a ce s
the
s phinx
o n
s o m e o f the
pl a que s
in the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t
gr o up,
is
KJ
FI GURE
3I
Dr a wing
o f a r e l ie f . P a l a ce o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I ,
N im r ud
(o r igina l l o s t)
a l s o a s s o cia te d with A s ta r te ; o n
e que s tr ia n
br id l e o r na -
m e nts ,
the
go d d e s s
o f te n s ta nd s o n l io ns o r l io ns ' he a d s ,
a s d o e s the I s hta r
f igur e
f r o m the
pr o ce s s io n
a t Ma l ta i.58
50. A s , f o r e xa m pl e ,
the he a d d r e s s e s wo r n
by
d iv ine
f igur e s
o n
ninth-ce ntur y r e l ie f s f r o m Zinjir l i a nd C a r che m is h, a nd
by
m a l e
s phinxe s o f the Sa kce Go zu pa l a ce (USK, pl s . 23a , b; 50c; 53c;
58d ,
f
).
51. Fr a nkf o r t, C y l ind e r Se a l s ,
pl s .
xiv : e , f ;
xx: b, j;
xxiv : f
(A kka d ia n);
xxv : d , e , i
(Ur I I I );
xxv i: k; xxv ii: a , b, g (Ol d
Ba by l o nia n);
xxx: k, 1 (Ka s s ite ).
52.
0. R.
Gur ne y ,
The Hittite s (Lo nd o n, I 952)
p. 141 ;J.
Ga r -
s ta ng,
The Hittite
Em pir e (Lo nd o n, 1929)
p. 304, f ig. 42.
53.
Ba r ne tt a nd Fa l kne r , Scul ptur e , pl s . xcii, xcI I I .
54. Hr o ud a , Kul tur ge s chichte , pl . 40: I ; A iS I , pl . I , f ig. 4.
55 SW7,
no .
51.
56. SW7,
no s .
41, 48, 50, 49.
57. C N I , p. 85,
no te i; E. P o r a d a , "Re v ie w o f Ba r ne tt, C a ta -
l o gue o f N im r ud I v o r ie s ," A JA
64 (1959)
p. 93.
58. SW7, no . 5 I : 1. The a s s o cia tio n o f the
go d d e s s
with l io ns is
d is cus s e d in H.
J. Ka nto r , "A Br o nze P l a que
with Re l ie f
De s ign
f r o m Te l l Ta ina t," JN ES 2 I
(1962)
pp. 93-117, e s p. pp.
o o 100-101.
A ga in, this a s s o cia tio n co ntinue s in Sy r ia into Ro m a n tim e s
(s e e
Ga r s ta ng, Hittite Em pir e , pp.
302-305).
44
The
s pind l e s
he l d
by
a s e a te d f e m a l e o n o ne o f the
pl a que s
is o f te n a s s o cia te d with A s ta r te 's cl a s s ica l co un-
te r pa r t, A phr o d ite /Ve nus , a l tho ugh
the
s pind l e
is a l s o
a n a ttr ibute o f A na th in s e co nd -m il l e nnium te xts f r o m
Uga r it.59
The
wa l king ge nius f igur e s
a r e
cl e a r l y
r a is e d
to a
"m y tho l o gica l " pl a ce by
the a d d itio n o f
wings ,
whil e the
wingl e s s f igur e s
o n o ne o f the
co m pl e te pa ne l s
ho l d
s ho r t,
cur v e d ba to ns o f te n he l d
by
the
go d s ,
a s o n
a r e l ie f f r o m A s s ur .60
Thus , a l tho ugh
it is no t ce r ta in
tha t
a ny
o f the
f igur e s
o n the
SW7 pl a que s r e pr e s e nt
go d s
o r
go d d e s s e s ,
the ir a ttr ibute s s e e m to a s s o cia te
the m with the d iv ine .
So m e s o r t o f
pl a nt
f o r m o ccur s in e a ch o f the
f igur e d
pl a que s .
The
im po r ta nce
o f the
pl a nt
e l e m e nts is ind i-
ca te d o n the
pl a que s
whe r e the r e a r e two m e n a l o ne
(f o r e xa m pl e , Figur e 24),
a s a
s e pa r a te r e gis te r
is
pr o -
v id e d a t the bo tto m in which a n ind iv id ua l f l o r a l v o l ute
is
d e picte d .
Se v e r a l
pl a que s
a l s o ha v e l o we r
r e gis te r s
tha t co nta in bud a nd l o tus o r
pl a nt
e l e m e nts
(f o r
e x-
a m pl e , Figur e s i, 8).
I n
ge ne r a l ,
the
f igur e s
r e a ch to -
wa r d o r
gr a s p
the
cur v ing
br a nche s o f a tr e e . On o ne
pa ne l ,
the
f igur e s a ctua l l y
s ta nd in the
br a nche s ,
whil e
o n s e v e r a l
pl a que s ,
the tr e e s
s pr ing
f r o m a s che m a tic
r e pr e s e nta tio n
o f
e a r th,
ind ica te d
by
a
pa tte r n
o f o v e r -
l a pping
s ca l e s .6'
The r o l e o f the "s a cr e d tr e e " in the tr a d itio n o f the
a ncie nt N e a r Ea s t is we l l e s ta bl is he d .62
N e o -A s s y r ia n
te xts f r o m o ur
pe r io d
r e f e r to the cl o s e a s s o cia tio n be -
59.
Se e
SW7,
no .
51: 2,
a nd
C ML,
Ba a l I I ii a nd
3
a nd
p. 15.
I n this co nte xt. Ma l l o wa n ha s d is cus s e d a t
l e ngth
two
po s s ibl e
inte r pr e ta tio ns
o f the
"ba nque t s ce ne ,"
which he a s s o cia te d with
the l a d e n ta bl e s
d e picte d
o n s e v e r a l
SW7 pl a que s
with s e a te d
wo m e n. I d o no t f e e l we a r e
pr o v id e d
with
e no ugh
e v id e nce he r e
to a s s o cia te this
pa r ticul a r
s ce ne with e ithe r
f une r a r y r e pa s ts
o r
v icto r y
ce l e br a tio ns (SW7, pp.
i
-16),
but we m us t
r e co gnize
the
m a ny
s itua tio ns in which s uch "m e a l s "
pl a y
a
s ignif ica nt
r o l e . I n
a d d itio n to the s itua tio ns cite d
by Ma l l o wa n, the r e is the "s a cr e d
m a r r ia ge " (S. N .
Kr a m e r ,
The Sa cr e d
Ma r r ia ge
Rite
[Bl o o m ingto n,
I 969] p. 79),
s e d uctio n s ce ne s in
ge ne r a l ,
s uch a s whe n I s hta r
wr e s ts a num be r o f a ttr ibute s f r o m Enl il a t Er id u
(S.
N .
Kr a m e r ,
Sum e r ia n
My tho l o gy [P hil a d e l phia , I 961] pp. 65-68),
a nd
o f f e r ing
s ce ne s ,
s uch a s f o o d
pr o v id e d
f o r the
go d s (A .
L.
Oppe nhe im ,
Le t-
te r s f r o m Me s o po ta m ia [C hica go , 1967]
no .
I 44).
I n a l l
ca s e s ,
the
l a d e n ta bl e ha d a
po s itiv e s ignif ica nce .
The
unif y ing pr incipl e
m ight
be d e s cr ibe d a s
r e f l e cting
the a bund a nce tha t r e s ul ts f r o m
a
go o d r e l a tio ns hip
with the
l a nd ,
a nd he nce with the
go d s ;
ho w-
e v e r in is o l a te d ins ta nce s it is no t
a l wa y s po s s ibl e
to r e co ns tr uct to
which
s pe cif ic
na r r a tiv e a n ind iv id ua l
r e pr e s e nta tio n
r e f e r s .
60.
SW7,
no .
65,
a s
co m pa r e d
with Ma d hl o o m , C hr o no l o gy , pl .
LX: 4.
The m e n o n the
pa ne l
a l s o ho l d cur v e d ba to ns tha t
m a y
be
pa r a l l e l e d by o bje cts
he l d
by
d iv ine
f igur e s
e l s e whe r e .
twe e n the
f e r til ity
o f the l a nd a nd ca r e f o r the "s a cr e d
tr e e ."63 On tho s e
SW7 pl a que s
tha t co nta in a tr e e
a l o ne ,
the ba s is f o r the
co m pl e x
v o l ute d
pl a nt
is the
pa l m tr e e , pr o v id e r
o f
im po r ta nt s ta pl e s
o f l if e in a r id
cl im a te s .64 The two m o s t
f r e que nt
bl o s s o m s o n the
pl a que s
a r e the a bbr e v ia tio n o f the tr e e -the
pa l m e tte
-a nd the
l il y
o r l o tus . The l o tus is m o s t o f te n
d e picte d
a s a
s ingl e
bl o s s o m . I t
a ppe a r s he l d ,
o n a s ho r t
s te m ,
in
a d d itio n to
gr o wing
o n
tr e e s ,
a nd is
o cca s io na l l y
s ho wn
a s
pa r t
o f a n
a l te r na ting
cha in o f bud s a nd f l o we r s .
One
m a y
wo nd e r
why
the l o tus
pl a nt
is
s ingl e d
o ut
a nd
why
it
a ppe a r s
in the bud a nd bl o s s o m cha in. The
pa tte r n
is o f te n ta ke n
s im pl y
a s a n
o r na m e nt,
o r e l s e a s
a
r e pr e s e nta tio n
o f two
s ta ge s
in the l if e
cy cl e :
bir th
(bud )
a nd
m a tur ity (f l o we r ). Ho we v e r ,
I wo ul d s ub-
m it tha t the cho ice o f this
pa r ticul a r pl a nt
is a n
e xpl icit
r e f e r e nce to the f a ct tha t the m o s t
co m m o nl y r e pr e -
s e nte d
ty pe ,
the
C a e r ul e a ,
o r bl ue
l o tus , o pe ns
a nd cl o s e s
d a il y , f l o we r ing
f r o m s unr is e to
m id d a y ,65
a nd he nce is
a co ns ta nt r e m ind e r o f
r e ge ne r a tio n. Thus ,
the bud a nd
l o tus d o no t
r e pr e s e nt s pe cif ic s ta ge s
in the
pl a nt's l if e ,
s o m uch a s its
d a il y
r e ne wa l . I ts co nne ctio n with the
s un is cl e a r a s
we l l ,
a s the bl ue l o tus bud
o pe ns pr e cis e l y
a t d a wn a nd cl o s e s a t
m id d a y ,
whe n the s un is m o s t
d e s tr uctiv e .66 On the
iv o r ie s ,
the s e
s y m bo l s
o f
r e ge ne r a -
tio n a nd l if e
cy cl e s
a r e
quite
co ns is te nt with the
pr e s e nce
o f s a cr e d tr e e s a nd
d e itie s ,
a s we l l a s with the
s und is k,
d is cus s e d be l o w.67
6I . SW7, no s .
38, 39.
62. H.
Da nthine ,
Le
pa l m ie r -d a ttie r
e t l e s a r br e s s a cr is d a ns l 'ico no -
gr a phie
d e l 'a s ie o ccid e nta l e a ncie nne
(P a r is , 1938);
G. Wid e ngr e n,
The
King
a nd the Tr e e
o f Lif e
in A ncie nt N e a r Ea s te r n
Re l igio n (Upps a l a ,
I 951).
63. C N I , p. 89.
64. SW7,
no s .
2: 4, 9;
21:
i, 6; 22: I , 6; 89-94.
Se e
Oppe nhe im ,
A ncie nt
Me s o po ta m ia , p. 312,
with
r e ga r d
to the d a te
pa l m 's a bil ity
to withs ta nd the br a ckis h wa te r a nd s a l ina te d s o il cha r a cte r is tic o f
s o uthe r n
Me s o po ta m ia ,
a nd the d a te 's v a l ue a s a
s ta pl e
o f the
a ncie nt d ie t.
65.
G. A . D.
Ta it,
"The
Egy ptia n
Re l ie f C ha l ice ,"
JEA
49
(1963) p. 96.
66. The bud a nd l o tus the r e f o r e is a n
a ppr o pr ia te s y m bo l
f o r
f une r a r y
m o num e nts . Ta it
("The Egy ptia n
Re l ie f C ha l ice ," p. 99)
no te s tha t the
Egy ptia n
C a e r ul e a cha l ice is
f r e que ntl y
s ho wn in the
r itua l o f the
d e a d ,
a nd no t in
o r d ina r y ba nque t s ce ne s , a l tho ugh
he d o e s no t
e xpl icitl y
co nne ct the
Egy ptia n
co nce r n f o r the a f te r -
l if e to tha t
pa r ticul a r
bl o s s o m .
67.
E. R.
Go o d e no ugh (Je wis h Sy m bo l s
in the Gr e co -Ro m a n P e r io d ,
I V
[P r ince to n, 1954] pp. 25-43) d is tinguis he s
be twe e n "l iv e
s y m -
bo l s ," cha r ge d
with
m e a ning,
a s
o ppo s e d
to d e co r a tio n. I n the
a ncie nt N e a r
Ea s t,
the
r e pe titio n
o f
s y m bo l s ,
e v e n o f a d e co r a tiv e
45
A l tho ugh
the r o s e tte d o e s no t o ccur
f r e que ntl y
o n
the
SW7 iv o r ie s ,
the r e is o ne no ta bl e ins ta nce whe r e
the r o s e tte f il l s the ce nte r o f a f l o r a l s und is k
pl a ce d
a t
the bo tto m r a the r tha n a t the
to p
o f the
pl a que s
in a
co m pl e te pa ne l .68
I n
a d d itio n,
f o ur r o s e tte s
a ppe a r
o n
the
d r a f t-po l e
o f the cha r io t o n the hunt
pa ne l (Figur e
22), which,
a s no te d
a bo v e , m a y
be
co m pa r a bl e
to the
pr e s e nce
o f f o ur r o s e tte s in the f ie l d o f the
Sa kce
Go zii
hunt r e l ie f
(Figur e 21).
The a s s o cia tio n o f the r o s e tte
with the
Me s o po ta m ia n go d d e s s
I s hta r a nd with the
Sy r ia n m o the r -go d d e s s
Kuba ba is cl e a r . I t
a ppe a r s a to p
the he a d d r e s s o f the s e a te d I s hta r o n the r e l ie f o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I f r o m N im r ud
(Figur e 31)
a nd o n Kuba ba 's
po l o s
a nd r o be in r e l ie f s f r o m
Zinjir l i
a nd C a r che m is h.69
A s with the
l o tus ,
the
s ignif ica nce
o f this
pa r ticul a r
pl a nt
be co m e s cl e a r o nce o ne o bs e r v e s the r o s e tte in
na tur e . P l a nts tha t
gr o w
with
r a d ia ting
l e a v e s
l y ing
cl o s e to the
gr o und (ca l l e d
ba s a l
l e a v e s ,
o r
r o s e tte s )
a r e
a m o ng
the ha r d ie s t o f the
pl a nt kingd o m , l iv ing
in co n-
d itio ns uns uita bl e f o r m o s t
pl a nts , r e s is ting
we a the r
cha nge s ,
a nd
r e pr o d ucing r a pid l y .70
Thus the
r o s e tte ,
l ike the bud a nd
l o tus , r e pr e s e nts
tha t which e nd ur e s
a nd
ge ne r a te s , a nd ,
if the bo ta nica l
a na l o gy
is we l l
ta ke n,
is a n
a ppr o pr ia te s y m bo l
f o r
go d d e s s e s
a s s o cia te d
with
f e r til ity .
The
pr e s e nce
o f r o s e tte s o n the
Sa kce
Gzii r e l ie f a nd
o n the
SW7
cha r io t
s uppo r ts
the
s ugge s tio n
tha t the
d is pr o po r tio na te l y l a r ge
s ize o f the hunte d a nim a l s r e -
f l e cts a
s ignif ica nce be y o nd
tha t o f a s e cul a r hunt. C o n-
te m po r a r y kings
o f
A s s y r ia
a r e s ho wn
pa r ticipa ting
in
r o y a l
hunts a s
pa r t
o f the ir
ico no gr a phy
o f
po we r
a nd
s ucce s s ;
the r e l ie f s
pr o m ine ntl y d is pl a y e d
in the
pa l -
na tur e ,
s e r v e d to
inte ns if y
a s itua tio n a nd e v e n to
he ighte n
the
d r a m a ,
a s ca n be s e e n s o
cl e a r l y
in l ite r a r y co m po s itio ns . Re pe titio n
f ur the r
im pl ie s co ntinuity , pr e cis e l y by
no t
s ho wing
the
unique ,
but r a the r
by e xe m pl if y ing pr incipl e s
which
r e pe a t
a nd e nd ur e . I n
this
ca s e , the n,
the bud a nd
l o tus ,
a nd
pa r ticul a r l y
the bud a nd
l o tus
cha in,
wo ul d be a "l iv e "
s y m bo l ,
the
pa tte r n s y no ny m o us
with the r e cur r e nt
pr incipl e
it e m bo d ie s .
68.
SW7,
no .
65.
N o te tha t this o ccur s a l s o o n the s und is k o f
the
Zinjir l i
s e a te d wo m a n s te l e
(Figur e 17).
69.
M. Rie m s chne id e r . Die We l t d e r He thite r
(Stuttga r t, 1954)
pl . 48;
USK,
pi. 58c; Wo o l l e y
a nd
Ba r ne tt,
C a r che m is h
I I I , pl s .
B.39a , 64.
Fo r the r o s e tte 's a s s o cia tio n with
I na nna /I s hta r ,
s e e
M.-T.
Ba r r e l l e t,
"Le s d e e s s e s a i6l e s e t
a r m e e s ," Sy r ia
XXXI I
(1955) P . 244.
70.
E. L.
P a l m e r ,
"Ba s a l
Ro s e tte s ,"
N a tur a l
His to r y (N o v e m be r ,
I 960) pp. 36-45.
71.
Se e
A s s y r ia n kings hunting
in
A R, pa s s im ,
d is cus s e d f o r
a ce .7'
The hunt r e l ie f f r o m
Sa kce
Go zu wa s a l s o
highl y
v is ibl e ,
r e co ns tr ucte d
by
Us s is hkin a s o ne o f a
pa ir
s e t
o n e ithe r s id e o f the
ga te wa y
to the
pa l a ce
e ncl o s ur e .
Thus ,
e v e n if we ca nno t
id e ntif y
the
f igur e s
in the cha r -
io t o r the
pr e cis e s ignif ica nce
o f the
s ce ne ,72
we ca n
pe r ce iv e
tha t it is no ne the l e s s
cul tur a l l y cha r ge d
a nd
tha t the
im pl ie d po we r , pr o we s s ,
a nd
ca pa city
to
pe r -
f o r m a r e r e l a te d to the s a m e cul tur a l co nce r ns a s
pr o -
v id ing f e r til ity
f o r the l a nd .
We co m e the n to the r o l e o f the
winge d
s und is k a nd
s ir e n
f igur e s
within this co nte xt. On the r e l ie f o f two
m e n
o ppo s ite
a tr e e f r o m the
pa l a ce
f a ca d e a t
Sa kce
Go zii (Figur e I 9),
te nd r il s
e nd ing
in l o tus f l o we r s a ctu-
a l l y
e xte nd d o wn f r o m the s und is k to be
gr a s pe d by
the
f igur e s
be l o w. This is a l s o co m m o n o n
N e o -A s s y r ia n
cy l ind e r
s e a l s .73 On the
SW7 iv o r ie s ,
the d is ks d o no t
ha v e
pe nd a nt bl o s s o m s ,
but
co ns is te ntl y a ppe a r
in the
f ie l d a bo v e
f igur e s
who
gr a s p
te nd r il l ike br a nche s o r
f l o we r s o n a tr e e . On o ne
pa ne l , e v e r y pl a que
co nta ins
a
winge d
d is k in a d d itio n to the
l a r ge winge d
d is k
po r -
tr a y e d
o n a ho r izo nta l
pl a que
tha t e xte nd s a cr o s s the
e ntir e
pa ne l (Figur e 9).
I n the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t
gr o up,
the d is k ta ke s the f o r m o f a f e m a l e s ir e n
ho l d ing
bl o s -
s o m s
(Figur e 28);
o n a no the r
pa ne l ,
the d is k
a ppe a r s
in
a n unus ua l f l o r a l
co nf igur a tio n.74
Since the a s s o cia tio n
o f the
gr if f in
a nd the s un is a tte s te d in cl a s s ica l s o ur ce s
a nd ha s be e n
s ugge s te d
a l s o in the a ncie nt N e a r
Ea s t,75
it is
po s s ibl e
tha t the
gr if f in-d e m o n gua r d ia ns
o f the tr e e
o n the s e a te d m a n
pa ne l (Figur e 7) m a y
be
s ta nd ing
in
f o r the s un's
pr e s e nce .
I f this is
s o ,
the n this
pa ne l ,
which
is a ttr ibute d to a d if f e r e nt
wo r ks ho p
f r o m m o s t o f the
SW7
pie ce s , m ight
we l l
r e pr e s e nt
a
r a r e ,
no t
ne ce s s a r il y
r e l ie f s in H.
Fr a nkf o r t,
A r t a nd A r chite ctur e
o f
the A ncie nt Or ie nt
(Ba l -
tim o r e , 1954) pp. 99-o 01.
Two r e l ie f s with d iv ine
s y m bo l s
o n the
d r a f t-po l e s tr a p (Hr o ud a , Kul tur ge s chichte , pl . 26: 3, 4)
f ur the r
s up-
po r t
the
s ignif ica nce
o f this o ccur r e nce o n the
iv o r y (m y Figur e 22).
72.
The a nna l s o f Se nna che r ib r e co r d tha t o n the d o o r s o f the
king's pa l a ce
the r e we r e
d e picte d
s ce ne s o f A s s ur
go ing
to ba ttl e in
a
cha r io t,
with the d iv ine A m ur r u a s cha r io te e r a nd the "v icto r io us
pr ince " (pr e s um a bl y Se nna che r ib)
a l s o in the cha r io t.
Ra kib-e l ,
the cha r io te e r o f
El ,
wa s a
m a jo r d iv inity
in the A r a m a ic
pa nthe o n
(H. Fr a nkf o r t, Kings hip
a nd the Go d s
[C hica go , 1948]
p.
327).
Fo r
a d d itio na l r e f e r e nce s to
go d s , pa r ticul a r l y we a the r -go d s ,
in cha r i-
o ts ,
s e e M.
We inf e l d ,
" 'Rid e r o f the C l o ud s ' a nd 'Ga the r e r o f the
C l o ud s .' " Jo ur na l
o f
the A ncie nt N e a r Ea s te r n So cie ty
o f
C o l um bia Uni-
v e r s ity
5 (1973)
pp.
421-427.
73. P o r a d a , C o r pus ,
no s .
640-645.
74. SW7
no .
65.
75. C N I , pp. 73-77.
46
inno v a tiv e ,
but
ind e pe nd e nt
s o l utio n to a
pr o bl e m ,
whe r e the a ncie nt
iv o r y
ca r v e r wa s f a ce d with a
ge ne r a l
the m e a nd s e l e cte d a n ind iv id ua l
wa y
o f
d e a l ing
with it.
The s und is k a s
r e pr e s e nte d
o n
SW7 pl a que s
is d is tin-
guis he d by
two
l a r ge s pir a l
cur l s
f r a m ing
the d is k. The s e
cur l s a r e
ge ne r a l l y
a s s o cia te d with the cha r a cte r is tic
ha ir d o o f the
Egy ptia n go d d e s s
Ha tho r . The
a l l us io n,
a s we s ha l l
s e e ,
is
cl e a r l y
co ns cio us a nd m o s t
a ppr o pr i-
a te within the co nte xt o f the
SW7 pa ne l s ,
f o r in he r o wn
cul tur e Ha tho r
r e pr e s e nts
bo th "the cr e a tiv e f o r ce o f
the s un a nd a t the s a m e tim e e m bo d ie s the f e r til e a s -
pe cts
o f
v e ge ta tio n."76
This
pa r ticul a r
f o r m o f the s und is k f ir s t
d e v e l o pe d
in
A na to l ia
d ur ing
the
pe r io d
o f the Hittite
Em pir e (I 400-
1200
B.C .).77
Whil e the
s y m bo l
is
ge ne r a l l y
s e e n in a s s o -
cia tio n with
r e pr e s e nta tio ns
o f the
king,
the
pr e s e nce
o f
Ha tho r cur l s r e f l e cts A na to l ia n a s s im il a tio n o f
Egy p-
tia n e l e m e nts a t this
tim e ,78 e s pe cia l l y a ppr o pr ia te
s ince the Hittite
s un-d e ity
wa s a l s o f e m a l e . I t is
pr e -
cis e l y
a t tho s e f ir s t-m il l e nnium N o r th
Sy r ia n
s ite s tha t
ha d
s tr o ng
Hittite a nd N e o -Hittite tr a d itio ns tha t o ne
f ind s
e xa m pl e s
o f the
winge d
a nd v o l ute d d is k.79 The
bl e nd o f We s t Se m itic with Hittite tr a d itio ns
cl e a r l y
ha d
be gun d ur ing
the
s y ncr e tis tic pe r io d
o f the Hittite
Em pir e
in the l a te s e co nd
m il l e nnium ,
whe n s o ns o f the
76.
E. L. B. Te r r a ce a nd H. G.
Fis che r ,
Tr e a s ur e s
o f Egy ptia n
A r t
f r o m
the C a ir o Mus e um
(Lo nd o n, 1970) p. 48. Ba r ne tt
(C N I , p. 82)
s ugge s te d
tha t the s e cur l s a s wo r n
by
f e m a l e
f igur e s
o n iv o r ie s f r o m
the Lo f tus C o l l e ctio n
m a y
ind ica te the C a na a nite
go d d e s s Qe d e s h
a tte s te d o n s e co nd -m il l e nnium m o num e nts ,
who is o f te n s ho wn
with Ha tho r l o cks a nd s und is k o n he r
he a d , ho l d ing
l o tus f l o we r s .
A l tho ugh
W. He l ck
(Be tr a chtunge n
zur
gr o s s e n
Go ttin und d e n ihr v e r -
bund e ne n Go tthe ite n
[Munich, 197I ]
p.
217)
ha s s ince s ho wn tha t
Qe d e s h
wa s no t a
d e ity
but r a the r a n
e pithe t, "qe d e s h,"
o r
ho l y ,
tha t wa s
a ppl ie d
to the
go d d e s s A s ta r te ,
the a s s o cia tio n with
pr inci-
pl e s
o f
f e r til ity
is cl e a r in
a ny
ca s e .
77.
Se e the
r e pr e s e nta tio n
o f
Tud ha l iy a
I V
(I 250-1220 B.C .)
a t
Ya zil ika y a ,
in E.
A kur ga l ,
A r t o f the Hittite s
(N e w Yo r k, 1962) pl .
xxix a nd
f ig. 78.
78.
K.
Bitte l ,
in a n a d d r e s s to the C o l um bia
Univ e r s ity
Se m ina r
o n the
A r cha e o l o gy
o f the Ea s te r n
Me d ite r r a ne a n,
Ea s te r n
Eur o pe
a nd the N e a r Ea s t
(De ce m be r 13, 1973), s pe cul a te d
o n the
po s s i-
bil ity
tha t the
Te m pl e
o f the Sto r m -Go d a t
Bo ga zko i
o we d its f o r m
a s a
f r e e s ta nd ing s a nctua r y
s ur r o und e d
by
a wa l l e d
co m pl e x
o f
s to r e r o o m s to
Egy ptia n pr o to ty pe s , r e s ul ting
f r o m co nta cts be -
twe e n the two
r e gio ns , e s pe cia l l y d ur ing
the l a te f o ur te e nth a nd
e a r l y
thir te e nth ce ntur ie s B.C . I n a m o r e r e ce nt
pa pe r by
K. K.
Rie m s chne id e r ,
"Who
Ta ught Ba by l o nia n
to the
Egy ptia ns ?,"
pr e s e nte d
be f o r e the
m e e tings
o f the A m e r ica n Or ie nta l
So cie ty ,
P hil a d e l phia ,
Ma r ch
I 6, 1976,
it wa s f ur the r
s ugge s te d
tha t the r e
Hittite
king
we r e ins ta l l e d in
A l e ppo
a nd in C a r che m -
is h. I l l us tr a tiv e o f this
pr o ce s s
a nd
pa r ticul a r l y a pt
f o r
the
pr e s e nt
d is cus s io n is a te xt f r o m Ra s Sha m r a o f tha t
tim e ,
in which the Hittite
s un-go d d e s s
o f A r inna is r e -
f e r r e d to a s the
"She pe s h"
o f A r inna -the na m e o f the
C a na a nite
s un-go d d e s s .80
Thus ,
o n tho s e o cca s io ns whe n a f e m a l e
f igur e
ho l d -
ing
bl o s s o m s
a ppe a r s
a bo v e the
winge d
d is k o n
SW7
iv o r ie s
(Figur e s 2, I 4, 24),
Ma l l o wa n ha s id e ntif ie d he r
with
She pe s h.81
I n
d r a wing upo n
the We s t Se m itic tr a -
d itio ns o f the
Uga r itic te xts ,
it is a s s um e d tha t the f ir s t-
m il l e nnium tr a d itio n in
Sy r ia
d id no t
r a d ica l l y cha nge
f r o m the s e co nd
m il l e nnium , a l tho ugh
no
co m pa r a bl e
bo d y
o f l ite r a tur e e xis ts f r o m the l a te r
pe r io d .
Who is this
go d d e s s She pe s h
a nd wha t we r e he r f unc-
tio ns ? I n the
po e m
o f
Ba 'a l , She pe s h
is no t a
m a jo r f ig-
ur e . She is ca l l e d
"l um ina r y
o f the
go d s ,"
a nd a s s uch
s e r v e s a s a
m e s s e nge r
f o r E1.82 She is s o m e tim e s d e -
s cr ibe d in he r d e s tr uctiv e
a s pe ct, "bur ning ho t,"
s o tha t
"the f ur r o ws in the f ie l d a r e cr a cke d with
d r o ught."83
But s he is a l s o e nl is te d a s a
he l pe r
o f
A na th,
a cco m -
pa ny ing
the
go d d e s s
d o wn into the e a r th to r e tr ie v e
Ba 'a l a nd thus r e tur n
f e r til ity
(a nd
l if e )
to the e a r th.84
I n the "P a nthe o n Lis t" f r o m Ra s
Sha m r a ,
s he is cite d
im m e d ia te l y
a f te r A na th.85
we r e Hittite s in r e s id e nce in the
Egy ptia n
co ur t in the
e a r l y
f o ur -
te e nth
ce ntur y .
79.
I n o ne
e xa m pl e (Wo o l l e y
a nd
La wr e nce ,
C a r che m is h
I I , pl .
A .
6: i),
the ce nte r d is k co nta ins the
f o ur -po inte d
s ta r r e l a te d to
the Hittite
"s igne r o y a l e ."
The co ntinua tio n o f s e co nd -m il l e nnium
m o tif s into N o r th
Sy r ia n
a r t o f the f ir s t m il l e nnium is m o s t
a ppa r e nt
in the
ba nque t
s ce ne s a nd
r e pr e s e nta tio ns
o f s e a te d
f igur e s :
f o r
e xa m pl e ,
the r e l ie f s o f
Ya gr i
a nd A l a ca Huy uk (H. Bo s s e r t,
A l ta -
na to l ie n
[Be r l in, 1942] f igs . 571, 516),
tha t co ntinue d in the ninth-
ce ntur y
r e l ie f s o f
Zinjir l i, C a r che m is h,
a nd
Ma r a s h,
a s we l l a s in
the
e ighth-ce ntur y e xa m pl e s
cite d e a r l ie r f r o m
Zinjir l i, Ma r a s h,
a nd Te l l Rif a 'a t
(USK, pl s . 57c, 2ic, 43i, 45b, 66d , 45d , g, 46a ,
47d , 48i).
80. R.
Dus s a ud ,
Le s
Re l igio ns
d e s Hittite s e t d e s
Ho ur r ite s , p. 335,
cite d in N &R
I I , p. 496,
no te
59.
8I .
SW7, pp. i6-18;
N &R
I I , pp. 496-498.
82.
C ML,
Ba a l I I I *C i
15.
83. C ML,
Ba a l Vv
17-18,
I I v iii
21-23,
I I I ii
24-25,
I I I iii
24-iv 3.
84. C ML,
Ba a l I i
7-15,
I I I iv
I 7-20.
Fo r a
s tud y
o f the s un-
go d d e s s ,
s e e A .
C a quo t,
"La d iv inite s o l a ir e
o uga r itique ," Sy r ia
XXXVI
(1959) pp. 90-10I ,
in which the
go d d e s s
is d e s cr ibe d a s a
m ino r
d e ity s e r v ing
a s a n "e l e m e nt o f s cie ntif ic
e xpl a na tio n"
in the
f e r til ity m y ths .
85. J. N o uga y r o l
e t
a l ., Uga r itica
V
(P a r is , I 968) pp. 45, I i,
20,
21.
47
I t is
te m pting
to
r e l y upo n
the s e
Uga r itic te xts ,
the
Ba 'a l
m y th
in
pa r ticul a r ,
a nd to s e e in the iv o r ie s a na l o -
gie s
to Ba 'a l the
s to r m -go d
a nd his
s is te r , A na th, pr o -
v id ing f e r til ity
to the
e a r th,
a id e d
by
the
s un-go d d e s s
She pe s h.
I t is
e qua l l y te m pting
to s e e in the s e a te d m a l e
f igur e
o f the
gr if f in pa ne l (Figur e 7)
Ba 'a l
him s e l f ,
his
f e e t
r e s ting
o n the bul l s o f the
s to r m -go d , cup
in ha nd ,
a nd f l a nke d
by a nim a l -be a r e r s ,
a s if this we r e a n il l us -
tr a tio n o f the o cca s io n d e s cr ibe d in the
m y th
in
which,
a f te r Ba 'a l 's d e f e a t o f
Ya m , "[the y ]
he l d a f e a s t f o r him
a nd
ga v e
him to
d r ink; [the y ] ga v e
a
cup
into his
ha nd ."86
Ye t be f o r e o ne
a ppl ie s
a
s pe cif ic s to r y
to the
r e pr e -
s e nta tio ns o n the
SW7
pa ne l s ,
it m us t be
po inte d
o ut
tha t the r e a r e
s im il a r l y e nticing
e l e m e nts in o the r
m y ths
o f the m id -s e co nd m il l e nnium B.c. Fo r
e xa m pl e , She p-
e s h a l s o
pl a y s
a be ne f ice nt r o l e in the
s to r y
o f "Sha ha r
a nd Sha l im "-twin
go d s
id e ntif ie d a s d a wn a nd d us k
a nd a s s o cia te d with
v iticul tur e ,
a t who s e bir th
She pe s h
m a ke s "te nd r il s a bo und with... a nd with
gr a pe s ."87
The
im a ge
o f the twin
f igur e s
in
f l o we r po t
he l m e ts
s pr ings
to m ind
(Figur e 24), pa r ticul a r l y
in
r e ga r d
to
the s ir e n
f igur e s
in the
s und is k,
a nd the te nd r il l ike
qua l ity
o f the br a nche s .
I t is a l s o
ne ce s s a r y
to
e xpl o r e
the
po s s ibil ity
tha t the
winge d
cr e a tur e s d o no t
r e pr e s e nt
the
s un-go d d e s s
a t
a l l . The bl o s s o m s he l d
by
s ir e n
f igur e s
o n o ur
pl a que s
86.
C ML,
Ba a l Vi
4-I 9.
87. C ML, p. 23;
Sha ha r & Sha l im i
25-26.
88.
Ka nto r ,
"A Br o nze
P l a que
with Re l ie f
De s ign
f r o m Te l l
Ta ina t," pp. 93-117;
R. D.
Ba r ne tt,
"N o r th
Sy r ia n
a nd Re l a te d
Ha r ne s s
De co r a tio ns ,"
in K.
Bitte l , e d .,
Vo r d e r a s ia tis che
A r chd o l o gie
(Be r l in, 1964) pp. 21-26. The r e is a s m a l l s il v e r
pe nd a nt
f r o m
Zinjir l i,
o n which a nud e f r o nta l
f e m a l e ,
he r a r m s be nt a t the
e l bo w,
ho l d s a bl o s s o m in e a ch ha nd (A iS V, pl . 47f ). A l tho ugh
the
f igur e
is no t id e ntif ie d
by ins cr iptio n,
s he is
ico no gr a phica l l y
the
s a m e a s tho s e
r e pr e s e nte d
o n the
e que s tr ia n pl a que s
d is cus s e d
by
Ka nto r a nd Ba r ne tt. I t s ho ul d be no te d a l s o tha t A s ta r te is the
o nl y
s e co nd -m il l e nnium
go d d e s s
m e ntio ne d in a f ir s t-m il l e nnium
te xt-a s o ne o f the s ix P ho e nicia n d e itie s ca l l e d to witne s s the
tr e a ty
o f Es a r ha d d o n with Ba 'a l us o f
Ty r e ,
a bo ut
671
B.C .
(R.
Bo r ge r ,
Die
I ns chr if te n A s s a r ha d d o ns , Ko nigs
v o n A s s y r ie n [Gr a z, 1956]
p. 109,
l ine
18).
89.
A cl o the d f r o nta l f e m a l e
ho l d ing
bl o s s o m s is
r e pr e s e nte d
o n
the Ma hr a d a
s te l e ,
f o und o uts id e o f Ha m a th
(C N I , f ig. I 4;
USK,
pl . 38g).
The
ins cr iptio n
id e ntif ie s he r a s "Gr e a t
Que e n
o f HA -
co untr y ." A cco r d ing
to
J.
D.
Ha wkins ,
"This co ul d be a
wr iting
o f
'Ha m a th,'
a s
Egy pt
is e l s e whe r e wr itte n
MI -co untr y -i.e .
Mizr i. The Gr e a t
Que e n
in tha t ca s e m us t be a
go d d e s s ,
a nd the
chie f
go d d e s s
o f Ha m a th wa s ca l l e d P a ha l a tis in o the r
co nte m po -
r a r y ins cr iptio ns , i.e .,
Ba 'a l a t"
(pe r s o na l co m m unica tio n).
Unf o r -
tuna te l y ,
it is no t cl e a r to wha t e xte nt Ba 'a l a t wa s co ns id e r e d a
s e pa r a te d e ity
o r a n
e pithe t.
C l o s e s t to o ur
winge d
f e m a l e s with
a r e
ge ne r a l l y
a s s o cia te d with
A s ta r te , go d d e s s
o f f e r -
til ity ,
o n bo th s e co nd - a nd f ir s t-m il l e nnium m o nu-
m e nts .88 I ha v e
a l r e a d y
r e f e r r e d to a ttr ibute s o f A s ta r te
in
co njunctio n
with
r e pr e s e nta tio ns
o f the s e a te d
wo m e n a nd f e m a l e
s phinxe s
o n s e v e r a l
pl a que s
f r o m
the
SW7
gr o up. Ho we v e r ,
it m us t be no te d tha t a t
pr e s -
e nt it is no t
po s s ibl e
to d e te r m ine if bl o s s o m s
pe r
s e
we r e r e s tr icte d in a s s o cia tio n to the
s ingl e go d d e s s ,
o r if
the y
co ul d s e r v e a s a ttr ibute s o f s e v e r a l f e m a l e d iv ini-
tie s .89
Fina l l y ,
the a s s im il a tio n o f the two chie f
go d d e s s e s
o f
the
Uga r itic pa nthe o n,
A na th a nd A thir a t
(A s ta r te ),
is
a tte s te d
d ur ing
the l a te s e co nd m il l e nnium 90 a nd is
r e f l e cte d in the
m y th
o f Ba 'a l whe r e bo th A na th a nd
A thir a t
ca r r y
Ba 'a l 's
cup.91
Giv e n this
a s s im il a tio n,
it is
s ignif ica nt
tha t in the
Uga r itic l ite r a tur e ,
A na th is
s o m e tim e s d e s cr ibe d a s a bir d o f
pr e y
with o uts tr e tche d
wings .92
A
pa r ticul a r l y s ugge s tiv e
r e f e r e nce o ccur s in
the
m y th
o f
A qha t,
in which A na th
jo ins
a f l o ck o f
e a gl e s ho v e r ing
a bo v e the he r o
d ur ing
a
m e a l ,
in o r d e r
to s te a l his d iv ine bo w.93
A qha t,
who is a s s o cia te d with
f e r til ity ,
is wa r ne d in the us e o f his
we a po n
tha t he m us t
o f f e r the f ir s t f r uits o f the cha s e to "his "
(pr e s um a bl y
Ba 'a l 's ) te m pl e .94
His
f a the r , Da ne l ,
is a chtho nic
d e ity ;
l ike
A qha t,
Da ne l is a s s o cia te d with the
pr o d uce
o f the
e a r th.95 One co ul d r e l a te this
s to r y
a s we l l to the
SW7
gr o up: winge d
f e m a l e s ir e ns with o uts tr e tche d
e a gl e 's
he a d a nd a r m s but no
bo d y
a r e the s ir e ns with bl o s s o m s incis e d o n
tr id a chna s he l l s tha t ha v e be e n f o und
thr o ugho ut
the N e a r Ea s t
a nd the Me d ite r r a ne a n.
Ho we v e r ,
the
f igur e
o n the s he l l s ha s ne v e r
be e n id e ntif ie d
(s e e
the
bibl io gr a phy
in S. Stucchi, "Un nuo v o
f r a m m e nto d i Tr id a cna
I ncis a ,"
Bo l l e tino d 'A r te
44 [I 959]
pp.
I 58- 66).
90.
W. F.
A l br ight,
The
A r cha e o l o gy
a nd
Re l igio n o f
I s r a e l
(Ba l ti-
m o r e , 1942) pp. 74-75.
Fo r
m o num e nts ,
s e e I . E. S.
Ed wa r d s ,
"A Re l ie f o f
Qud s hu-A s ta r te -A na th
in the Winche s te r
C o l l e ge
C o l l e ctio n,"
JN ES
14 (1955)
pp.
49-51, pl . iI , whe r e a nud e
go d -
d e s s
ho l d ing
a bl o s s o m in he r
r ight
ha nd a nd a
s e r pe nt
in he r l e f t
is s ho wn
s ta nd ing
o n the ba ck o f a l io n. The
a cco m pa ny ing ins cr ip-
tio n id e ntif ie s he r a s a l l thr e e
go d d e s s e s .
91. C ML,
Ba a l Vv
33-34.
I n a no the r Ra s Sha m r a te xt d e s cr ib-
ing
a
ba nque t
o f the
go d s (R.
S.
24.258,
tr a ns l a te d
by
C . Vir o ul -
l e a ud ,
in
N o uga y r o l
e t
a l ., Uga r itica V,
pp.
545-551),
A na th a nd
A s ta r te
pr e pa r e
a m e a l
to ge the r
f o r
(pr e s um a bl y )
El .
92.
Se e Vir o l l e a ud in
Uga r itica V, pp. 553-555, r e ga r d ing
R.S.
24.252.
93. C ML, A qha t
I I I i
20-21;
I I I i
30-32.
94. C ML, A qha t
V
36-38,
a nd p. 53
no te
13.
95. I m pl ie d
in
C ML, A qha t
I I I i
15,
I i
30-3
1. Dr iv e r no te s o n
p.
8 tha t A na th
cl e a r l y
inte nd s to r e v iv e
A qha t
a f te r he is ina d v e r t-
e ntl y
kil l e d
(I I I
i
16);
he m us t ha v e be e n r e s ur r e cte d a t the e nd o f
the
po e m ,
which is no w
m is s ing.
48
..i
- -- .4
)
--
FI GURE
32
Dr a wing
o f a br o nze
e que s tr ia n o r na m e nt,
Sa l a -
m is .
Eighth ce ntur y
B.C .
C y pr us Mus e um ,
N ico -
s ia
(pho to : co ur te s y
Dir e cto r o f
A ntiquitie s , C y -
pr us Mus e um )
wings
a s
A na th;
a nim a l be a r e r s a s
A qha t;
m e n with
pl a nts
to
e m pha s ize f e r til ity ;
a nd two l ike
f igur e s
in
the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t
s e r ie s ,
no t a s twins but r a the r a s
Da ne l a nd
A qha t.
A t the
pr e s e nt tim e ,
the e v id e nce s e e m s to be
we ighte d
to wa r d a n id e ntif ica tio n o f the SW7
s ir e n
f ig-
ur e s with the
s un-go d d e s s o nl y
be ca us e o f the
a ppa r -
e ntl y inte r cha nge a bl e pl a ce s o ccupie d by
the s ir e ns a nd
the
s im pl e winge d
s und is ks with Ha tho r
cur l s , s ugge s t-
ing
tha t the
s im pl e
d is ks a r e but a n a bbr e v ia te d r e nd e r -
ing
o f the s a m e
s y m bo l .96
This
e qua tio n
o f s ir e ns a nd
winge d
s und is ks wo ul d s e e m to be
s uppo r te d by
the
r e ce nt
d is co v e r y
o f a
pa ir
o f br o nze
e que s tr ia n
o r na -
m e nts in a l a te
e ighth-ce ntur y
to m b a t
Sa l a m is , C y pr us ,
o n which a f e m a l e s ir e n
f igur e
is s e e n o v e r the he a d o f a
nud e "m is tr e s s o f a nim a l s "
(Figur e 32).97
On o the r
e que s tr ia n
o r na m e nts o f s im il a r
d a te ,
this s a m e nud e
f e m a l e is
f r e que ntl y r e pr e s e nte d
with a
s im pl e winge d
d is k in the f ie l d a bo v e .98 A s o n the SW7
pl a que s , the n,
the two e l e m e nts s e e m to be
inte r cha nge a bl e
in o the r -
wis e s ta nd a r d
co m po s itio ns . N e v e r the l e s s ,
the r e d o e s
r e m a in the
e nigm a tic r e pr e s e nta tio n
o n the Bo m f o r d
pl a que -a n e que s tr ia n
f r o ntl e t o f N o r th
Sy r ia n s ty l e
a l tho ugh
o f unkno wn
pr o v e na nce -whe r e
we s e e
cl e a r l y
a
ha r py l ike
cr e a tur e with the he a d o f a wo m a n
a nd the
bo d y
o f a n
e a gl e , incl ud ing ta l o ns ,
in the f ie l d
a bo v e a nud e f e m a l e .99
I t is ind e e d unf o r tuna te tha t no r e l e v a nt f ir s t-m il -
l e nnium
l ite r a r y
te xts ha v e be e n
pr e s e r v e d
with which
to
co m pa r e
the
r e pr e s e nta tio ns
o n the
SW7
iv o r ie s . The
Uga r itic
te xts cite d a bo v e
a ppe a r
r e l a te d to the s ce ne s
r e pr e s e nte d
o n the
iv o r ie s , a l tho ugh
no d e f inite co r r e -
l a tio ns ca n be m a d e . This
m a y
be be ca us e the
r e pr e -
s e nta tio ns a r e no t
s pe cif ica l l y pa r a l l e l
to a
te xt; o r ,
if
the y a r e ,
be ca us e we d o no t ha v e the te xt. I n this r e -
ga r d ,
it is
im po r ta nt
to
ke e p
in m ind tha t the a ncie nt
iv o r y
ca r v e r wo ul d ha v e ta ke n a co m m o n cul tur a l
v o ca bul a r y
f o r
gr a nte d
a nd wo ul d no t
ne ce s s a r il y
ha v e
be e n
e xpl icit
in his
l ite r a r y
a l l us io ns .'1?
96.
Ma l l o wa n
(SW7, p. I 7)
ha s
s ugge s te d
tha t if the
winge d
s ir e n
f igur e s r e pr e s e nt
the f e m a l e
s un-go d d e s s ,
the n
pe r ha ps
the
winge d
d is k a l o ne
r e pr e s e nts
the s un in its m a l e
a s pe ct,
a r e f e r e nce
to the m a l e s o l a r d e itie s o f
ne ighbo r ing Ba by l o nia
a nd
A s s y r ia .
With this I m us t
d is a gr e e ,
f ir s t be ca us e the r e is no r e a s o n to a s s um e
s uch a r e f e r e nce in iv o r ie s
pr o d uce d
in N o r th
Sy r ia ,
a nd s e co nd
be ca us e a l l o f the
winge d
d is ks r e ta in the f e m inine a s s o cia tio n o f
the Ha tho r
cur l s ,
which a r e a bs e nt
o nl y
whe n the s ir e n
f igur e s
with
the ir o wn ha ir cur l s a r e
pl a ce d
a bo v e .
97.
The
pie ce s
a r e
ba d l y
co r r o d e d
(s e e Ka r a ge o r ghis ,
Exca v a -
tio ns in the
N e cr o po l is o f
Sa l a m is
I I I , pl . LXXXI X). De s pite
the s o l utio n
pr e s e nte d by
the
publ is he d d r a wings ,
I wo nd e r whe the r the s ir e n's
a ppe nd a ge s
a r e
s pr e a d
ta l o ns o r bl o s s o m s he l d in o uts tr e tche d
ha nd s .
98. Exa m pl e s
o ccur f r o m N im r ud
(J. J. Or cha r d ,
I v o r ie s
f r o m
N im r ud
(i949-1963),
Fa s cicul e I : :
Eque s tr ia n
Br id l e -Ha r ne s s Or na -
m e nts
[A be r d e e n, 1967] pl . xxv I I m )
a nd f r o m Go r d io n
(R.
S.
Yo ung,
"The
1961 C a m pa ign
a t
Go r d io n,"
A JA 66
[1962] pl . 46).
99. Ba r ne tt,
"N o r th
Sy r ia n
a nd Re l a te d Ha r ne s s De co r a tio ns ,"
pl . 11: 3.
I o o . On
Ba by l o nia n
na r r a tiv e a r t
be ing
a l l us iv e r a the r tha n
d e pictiv e ,
s e e A .
P e r kins ,
"N a r r a tiv e in
Ba by l o nia n A r t,"
A JA 6I
(1957) P . 55.
49
. I -. ?w P .- -
. ..5 . I
FI GURE
33
Re l ie f . P a l a ce o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I . De tr o it I ns titute o f
A r ts , 50.32
Thus ,
whil e we ca nno t f o r the
pr e s e nt
m a tch
pr e -
cis e l y
the
r e pr e s e nta tio ns
o n the iv o r ie s with kno wn
te xts ,
wha t is cl e a r is the
ge ne r a l co ns is te ncy
in the -
m a tic m a te r ia l f r o m
pa ne l
to
pa ne l : winge d d is k, pl a nt
FI GURE
34
Re l ie f . P a l a ce o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I . The Br itis h
Mus e um ,
no .
118907 (co ur te s y
the Tr us te e s o f
the Br itis h
Mus e um )
e l e m e nts , f igur e s
a s s o cia te d with
tr e e s ,
a nd l a d e n ta bl e s .
A l l o f the s e e l e m e nts r e f l e ct a co m m o n
m e a ning:
the
d a il y r is ing
o f the
s un,
l ike the
d a il y o pe ning
o f the l o tus
in its
f l o we r ing s e a s o n,
r e f l e cts tha t
co ntinuity ne ce s s a r y
FI GURE
35
Re l ie f . P a l a ce o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I . The Br itis h
Mus e um ,
no .
I I 8905 (co ur te s y
the Tr us te e s o f
the Br itis h
Mus e um )
f o r
l if e ,
which the n
r e quir e s
s us te na nce f r o m the e a r th
who s e a bund a nce is ce l e br a te d
by
the l a d e n ta bl e s .1I 0
N o r is the hunt o ut o f
pl a ce
in this co nte xt. The s ucce s s -
f ul
hunt,
l ike
wa r ,
e nd s in
v icto r y ; a nd ,
l ike the m o tif o f
the bud a nd
l o tus , im pl ie s
the
cy cl e
o f d e a th which
m us t
pr e ce e d
r e bir th. I t is
s tr iking
tha t bo th the
go d -
d e s s e s A na th a nd A s ta r te a nd the
s to r m -go d
a s we l l
co m bine in the m s e l v e s the d ua l
a s pe cts
o f
f e r til ity
a nd
wa r ;
a s if
f e r til ity
to o wa s wo n
thr o ugh s tr uggl e
a nd
thus the a chie v e m e nt the r e o f wa s to be ce l e br a te d a s a
v icto r y
a f te r ba ttl e .I 02
De s pite
ind iv id ua l
v a r ia tio ns , the n,
the
SW7
iv o r ie s
we r e
cl e a r l y pr o d uce d a cco r d ing
to a
s ingl e
ico no -
gr a phic pr o gr a m .
This
unity
in
co nce ptio n s tr o ngl y
s ugge s ts
tha t the s ce ne s no t
o nl y
ha d a
m e a ning,
but
a l s o a
pur po s e . A l tho ugh
the l inks to
f e r til ity m ight
im pl y
tha t the
pie ce s
we r e m o r e
a ppr o pr ia te l y
to be
a s s o cia te d with be d s tha n with
cha ir s ,
it is
e qua l l y po s -
s ibl e tha t the
pa ne l s
d e co r a te d cha ir s tha t s e r v e d s o m e
s pe cia l f unctio n,
s uch a s
s pe cif ic r e pa s ts
o r ce r e m o nie s .
The cha ir s
m a y
e v e n ha v e be e n
pa r t
o f
te m pl e
f ur ni-
tur e ; the y
a r e
s ignif ica ntl y
l ike tho s e
upo n
which the
go d d e s s e s
s it o n r e l ie f s f r o m Ma l ta i a nd
e l s e whe r e ,
a nd
s e e m to
e xe m pl if y
the "s e a t f o r a
go d [with]
a r e s t a t
[its ] ba ck," pr e s e nte d
to A thir a t in the
po e m o f Ba 'a l ,103
whil e in the
inv e nto r y
te xts o f
A s s ur ba nipa l
f r o m N ine -
v e h,
m e ntio n is m a d e o f ce r e m o nia l f ur nitur e us e d in
co nne ctio n with the cul ts o f
s pe cif ic
d e itie s .104
DA TI N G A N D HI STORI C A L
P ERSP EC TI VE
A s f a r a s the d a te o f the iv o r ie s is
co nce r ne d ,
the
chr o no l o gy
o f N o r th
Sy r ia
in this
pe r io d
is
e s s e ntia l l y
l inke d to tha t o f
A s s y r ia .
The be s t
pa r a l l e l s
f o r
A s s y r ia n
e l e m e nts o n the
SW7
pl a que s
co m e f r o m the r e l ie f s o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I -s uch a s the
ha ir s ty l e
o f
f o r e ign
m e r ce na r ie s a nd
pr is o ne r s (Figur e 27);
the co m m o n
co ur t
ga r m e nt
o f
l o ng-s kir te d
r o be with
f r inge d
s ha wl
wr a ppe d
a r o und the wa is t a nd o v e r o ne s ho ul d e r
(Fig-
ur e s
I , 33);
s a nd a l
ty pe ;l 05
the a r m o r wo r n
by
ho r s e -
m e n
(Figur e 34);
a
po s s ibl e
v a r ia nt o n the
f l o we r po t
he l m e t wo r n
by
a no the r ho r s e m a n
(Figur e 35);
a nd a
ta s s e l e d cl o th
co v e r ing
the
king's thr o ne ,
s im il a r to tha t
us e d o n the s e a ts o f the
iv o r y pl a que s .106
I n
a d d itio n,
the be s t
co m pa r is o n
f o r the co ucha nt l io ns tha t
a ppe a r
o n s e v e r a l
pl a que s
is with the l io ns o f the co l um n ba s e s
^
FI GURE
36
C o l um n ba s e .
P a l a ce ,
Te l l Ta ina t. Se co nd ha l f
o f the
e ighth ce ntur y
B.C . A ntio ch
Mus e um ,
6020
(pho to :
Or ie nta l
I ns titute , Univ e r s ity
o f
C hica go )
f r o m
Buil d ing
I I a t Te l l
Ta ina t,
which a r e d a te d a f te r
the
A s s y r ia n
a nne xa tio n o f P a ttina
by Tigl a th
P il e s e r
in
743
B.C .
(Figur e s
24,
36).107
io i. I t is
d ur ing
this
pe r io d
in
Egy pt
a nd P ho e nicia tha t the
co r o l l a r y
m o tif o f the inf a nt Ho r us ,
ca l l e d the "inf a nt
s un,"
s e a te d
o n a
l o tus ,
be ca m e
po pul a r
in a r t. Ta it
("The Egy ptia n
Re l ie f
C ha l ice ," p. I 35) s pe cif ica l l y
a s s o cia te s the m o tif with
r e juv e na -
tio n.
I 02. This
m a y e xpl a in why
bo th wa r r io r s a nd ca r e ta ke r s o f the
s a cr e d tr e e we a r the s a m e
ga r m e nt
o n the SW7 pl a que s .
The
o bs e r v a tio n wa s
m a d e ,
but no t
pur s ue d , by
G. He r r m a nn in
SW7,
p. 26; Ma l l o wa n, SW7, p. o 0,
d o e s r e f e r to the m e n
gr a s ping
tr e e s
a s
"po we r f ul wa r r io r s ,"
witho ut
ind ica ting, ho we v e r , why
he ca l l s
the m this .
103. C ML,
Ba a l I I ii
31-32.
104.
A . R.
Mil l a r d , "Fr a gm e nts
o f His to r ica l Te xts f r o m N ine -
v e h:
A s hur ba nipa l ," I r a q
XXX
(1968) p.
io 8:
(B.M. 83-1-18,
6o o + B.M.
123425):
be d o f ... wo o d with
pr e cio us
s to ne s f o r
Be l a nd
Be l tiy a
"f o r
pe r f o r m ing m a r r ia ge ";
be d o f e bo ny
o v e r l a id
with
go l d
f o r Ma r d uk.
105. Ma d hl o o m , C hr o no l o gy , p. 69.
I o 6. Thur e a u-Da ngin,
Til Ba r s ib
A tl a s , pi.
XLVI I . Fur nitur e
s ty l e s
d id no t
cha nge s ubs ta ntia l l y
f r o m the ninth
thr o ugh
the
s e v e nth ce ntur ie s B.C . a nd s o ca nno t be us e d in
chr o no l o gica l
a r gum e nts .
I 07. Sty l is tic s im il a r itie s ,
a s
po inte d
o ut
by He r r m a nn, SW7,
p. 88, m a y
be s e e n in the
o pe n m o uth, cr o uching po s tur e ,
a nd cl e a r
d is tinctio n o f the r uf f f r o m the r e s t o f the m a ne . Fo r the d a te o f
Buil d ing
I I a t Te l l
Ta ina t,
s e e R. C .
Ha ine s ,
Exca v a tio ns in the P l a in
o f
A ntio ch: The Str uctur a l Re m a ins
o f
the La te r P ha s e s
(C hica go , 197 I )
p.
66.
51
C l e a r l y ,
the
pa r a l l e l s
f r o m
Zinjir l i
a r e f r o m the
pe r io d
o f Ba r
Ra kib, king
o f a ncie nt Sa m 'a l f r o m a bo ut
730
to
720
B.C .
Str iking
s im il a r itie s ha v e a l s o be e n o b-
s e r v e d with the hunt r e l ie f o f the
pa l a ce
e ncl o s ur e o f
Sa kce Go zu,
d e m o ns tr a te d
by
Us s is hkin to d a te to the
f ir s t ha l f o f the
e ighth ce ntur y .108
I n a
pa pe r pr e s e nte d
be f o r e the A m e r ica n Or ie nta l
So cie ty
in
I 972,
I
s ug-
ge s te d
tha t the
r e l a tio ns hip a ppa r e nt
in r e l ie f s f r o m
Zinjir l i
a nd f r o m the
pa l a ce
a t Sa kce Go zu wa s d ue to
cl o s e
po l itica l
tie s be twe e n the two
s ite s ,
a nd tha t bo th
ha d
pr o ba bl y
be e n
pa r t
o f Sa m 'a l . I n
a ny e v e nt,
the
r e l ie f s f r o m the two s ite s we r e
pr o d ucts
o f the s a m e
wo r ks ho p
a nd a r e a l ike in o v e r a l l
s ty l e
a nd
s pe cif ic
d e ta il s o f
r e nd e r ing
a s we l l a s in
co nce ptio n.109 Thus ,
the
pa l a ce
o f
Sa kce Go zu,
whe the r the s ite wa s
po l iti-
ca l l y
a l l ie d with
Zinjir l i
o r
no t, e v id e ntl y be l o nge d
to
the s a m e cul tur a l tr a d itio n a nd
l o o ke d , pr e s um a bl y ,
to
the
l a r ge r
s ite f o r its
cr a f ts m e n,
m uch a s
So l o m o n,
in
buil d ing
his
te m pl e
a nd
pa l a ce
a t
Je r us a l e m ,
ca l l e d in
a r tis a ns f r o m
Ty r e .
10
I wo ul d
s ugge s t, the r e f o r e ,
tha t the
SW7 iv o r ie s ,
a s a
co he r e nt
s ubgr o up
within the N o r th
Sy r ia n s ty l e
o f the
e a r l y
f ir s t m il l e nnium
B.C .,
we r e
pr o d uce d
in the s a m e
cul tur a l co nte xt a s the
Zinjir l i
a nd
Sa kce
Go zu r e l ie f s -
in
Sa m 'a l , d ur ing
the
r e igns
o f bo th
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I
io 8. D.
Us s is hkin,
"The Da te s o f the N e o -Hittite Encl o s ur e a t
Sa kca go zii,"
BA SOR
pp.
18I
(1966) 15-23.
I n his a r ticl e cite d in
no te
26,
Us s is hkin tr ie d
unco nv incingl y
to s ho w tha t the iv o r ie s
s ho ul d ha v e be e n ca r v e d
pr io r
to the
Sa kce Go zui huht
r e l ie f ,
be -
ca us e o f the
s ix-s po ke d
cha r io t whe e l s a nd the f o r m o f the cha r io t
(BA SOR 203, pp. 26-27).
His
a r gum e nts
ha v e be e n r e f ute d
by
M.
A . Litta ue r a nd
J.
C r o uwe l
("The Da ting
o f a C ha r io t
I v o r y
f r o m
N im r un C o ns id e r e d Once
A ga in,"
BA SOR
209 [1973] pp. 27-33),
who d e m o ns tr a te tha t the
pr o f il e
o f the cha r io t bo x o n the
iv o r y
is
o ne kno wn f r o m the
r e ign
o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I
o n,
a nd tha t a l -
tho ugh
the
s ix-s po ke d
cha r io t whe e l is
ge ne r a l l y
a s s o cia te d with the
ninth
ce ntur y ,
the r e is a t l e a s t o ne cha r io t o f the
pe r io d
o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r tha t ha s
o nl y
s ix
s po ke s . Ul tim a te l y ,
Litta ue r a nd C r o uwe l
o pt
f o r a d a te in the
r e ign
o f
Sa r go n
I I o f
A s s y r ia (722-705 B.C .)
f o r
the hunt
iv o r y ,
be ca us e the
f o ur -pa s s e nge r
cha r io t f ir s t
a ppe a r s
in
r e l ie f s a t tha t tim e .
Ho we v e r ,
it m us t be
e m pha s ize d
tha t the iv o r ie s
a r e no t
A s s y r ia n,
but r a the r N o r th
Sy r ia n. Jus t a s the cha r io t with
a n
e ight-s po ke d
whe e l
a ppe a r e d
e a r l ie r in N o r th
Sy r ia
tha n in
A s s y r ia ,
the
f o ur -pa s s e nge r
v e hicl e
m a y
we l l ha v e be e n
d e v e l o pe d
f ir s t in
Sy r ia
a nd
s ubs e que ntl y a d o pte d
in
A s s y r ia .
I be l ie v e tha t
the e v id e nce a m a s s e d
by
Litta ue r a nd C r o uwe l is co ns is te nt with
the
s tr o ng a r gum e nts
f o r
d a ting
the r e s t o f the
SW7 gr o up
within
the
r e ign
o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I .
109. A kur ga l ,
in
Gr e e ce , p. 60,
no te d the
r e l a tio ns hip
be twe e n
the f e m a l e
s phinx
o r tho s ta t o f Hil a ni I I a t
Zinjir l i
a nd the m a l e
s phinx
o r tho s ta ts o f
Sa kce Go zu,
a s we l l a s tha t o f the l io ns f r o m
a nd Ba r Ra kib. This wo ul d a cco r d
r o ughl y
with the
d a te o f a bo ut
740-730 pr o po s e d by
Ma l l o wa n a nd
He r r m a nn a s the m o s t r e a s o na bl e
pe r io d
f o r the iv o r -
ie s '
pr o d uctio n.
"
A t this
tim e ,
Ba r Ra kib o f Sa m 'a l wa s a v a s s a l o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r o f
A s s y r ia .
A n
ins cr iptio n
wr itte n
by
Ba r Ra kib f o r his
f a the r ,
P a na m u
I I ,
d e s cr ibe s ho w the
e a r l ie r
king
ha d be e n kil l e d
"r unning
a t the s id e " o f the
A s s y r ia n king's cha r io t;
in o the r
wo r d s ,
whil e
f ighting
with the
A s s y r ia n a r m y , pr e s um a bl y a ga ins t
Da m a s cus
in
733.112
The
r e pr e s e nta tio n
o f
f o r e ign
bo wm e n o n the
r e l ie f s o f
Tigl a th
P il e s e r I I I
(Figur e 27)
thus ta ke s o n
gr e a te r s ignif ica nce
a s a n il l us tr a tio n o f the
ty pe
o f
e v e nt r e co r d e d in the A r a m a e a n
ins cr iptio n.
A nd a s
f ur the r
s uppo r t
f o r the
s ugge s tio n
o f the iv o r ie s ' m a nu-
f a ctur e in
Sa m 'a l ,
in a
s tud y
o f
f o r e igne r s r e pr e s e nte d
o n
A s s y r ia n r e l ie f s ,
M. Wa f l e r ha s s ho wn tha t the
pa r -
ticul a r ha ir d o o f co r ks cr e w cur l s
(a s
s e e n o n s e v e r a l o f
the iv o r ie s a s we l l a s o n the
"f o r e ign" bo wm e n)
is
pe -
cul ia r to m e n o f Sa m 'a l .113
Whil e we ca nno t
d e f inite l y
co ncl ud e tha t the iv o r ie s
co ul d no t ha v e be e n
be gun
be f o r e
Tigl a th
P il e s e r 's
r e ign,
o r
s ubs e que ntl y ,
in the
r e ign
o f
Sa r go n
I I
(722-
705 B.C .),
it is
l ike l y
tha t
the y
we r e e xe cute d a nd d e l iv -
e r e d to N im r ud
d ur ing Tigl a th
P il e s e r 's tim e . Ma l l o -
Hil a ni I I with the
ga te wa y
l io ns o f the Ha l l e nba u
P ,
a l s o a t
Zinjir l i,
thus
e s ta bl is hing
the
s ty l is tic unity
o f
s cul ptur e
f r o m a
buil d ing
d a te d to the
r e ign
o f Ba r Ra kib with wo r k f r o m Sa kce
Go zu. To this
m a y
be a d d e d cl o s e s im il a r itie s in the v a r io us
r e pr e -
s e nta tio ns o f Ba r
Ra kib,
a s we l l a s
a tte nd a nt-f igur e s
f r o m Hil a ni
I I I ,
with the Sa kce Go zu
king r e l ie f ,
a nd in the f e m a l e
s phinx
co l um n ba s e s f r o m bo th s ite s
(s e e m y unpubl is he d d is s e r ta tio n,
pp. 207-2 I 0).
I I o .
I
Kings 5.
I I . SW7, p.
62. The r e f e r e nce o n
p. 64 o f SW7
to the
pr e s e nce
o f "P ho e nicia n o r A r a m a e a n" f itte r s ' m a r ks o n the ba cks o f s e v e r a l
pl a que s s uppo r ts m y a r gum e nt.
The s e
m a r kings
we r e no t r e co r d e d
a t the tim e o f the ir e xca v a tio n be f o r e
the y
we r e m a s ke d in
pr o te c-
tiv e
ba nd a ge s . Ho we v e r ,
s ince the
pl a que s
a r e in the N o r th
Sy r ia n
s ty l e ,
the
m a r kings
a r e
pr o ba bl y
no t P ho e nicia n. The
pr e s e nce
o f
A r a m a e a n
s igns
wo ul d s e e m to r ul e o ut a
pr o v e na nce
s uch a s C a r -
che m is h,
whe r e the Hittite
hie r o gl y phic s cr ipt
wa s s til l
us e d ,
a nd
wo ul d be co ns is te nt with the
hy po the s is
tha t the iv o r ie s we r e
pr o -
d uce d in A r a m a e a n Sa m 'a l .
112. Fo r the
ins cr iptio n
o f
P a na m u,
s e e H. Do nne r a nd W.
Ro l l ig,
Ka na a nd is che und A r a m a is che
I ns chr if te n
I
(Wie s ba d e n, I 962)
pp. 223-224,
no .
215.
I I 3. M.
Wa f l e r , N icht-A s s y r e r ne ua s s y r is che r Da r s te l l unge n,
A l te r
Or ie nt und A l te s Te s ta m e nt 26
(N e ukir che n-Vl uy n, 1975)
p. 186
a nd
f igs . 104, io 6, 107.
52
wa n m a ke s it cl e a r tha t Fo r t Sha l m a ne s e r wa s us e d
by
Tigl a th
P il e s e r ."4
Wha t is
m o r e ,
in
738,
the
king
o f
Sa m 'a l ha d be e n incl ud e d in
Tigl a th
P il e s e r 's tr ibute
l is ts ,
in which
gif ts
o f
iv o r y
we r e no te d .15
The
SW7 iv o r ie s
m a y
we l l ha v e be e n tr ibute f o r the
A s s y r ia n king
f r o m his v a s s a l a t
Sa m 'a l ,
e ithe r P a na m u
o r Ba r
Ra kib, a l tho ugh,
a s it is a s s um e d tha t Ba r Ra kib
l iv e d into the
r e ign
o f Sha l m a ne s e r V
(726-722 B.c.),
it is
po s s ibl e
tha t the f ur nitur e wa s a
gif t pr e s e nte d
to
Sha l m a ne s e r o n his a cce s s io n to the thr o ne . Tha t s uch
a
gif t
wo ul d ha v e be e n co ns id e r e d
a ppr o pr ia te l y
l a v is h
is
im pl ie d
in the a nna l s o f the v a r io us
A s s y r ia n kings
who
pr ize d iv o r y
f ur nitur e a s
bo o ty
o r tr ibute . I t is e v e n
m o r e
e l o que ntl y s ugge s te d
in the
po e m
o f
Ba 'a l ,
in the
jo y
with which A thir a t r e ce iv e d he r
gif ts
o f a
cha ir ,
f o o ts to o l ,
a nd
ta bl e ,
f it "f o r a
go d .""6
SUMMA RY A N D C ON C LUSI ON
N o w tha t a l l o f the thr e a d s o f
s ty l is tic pa r a l l e l s
f o r the
SW7 iv o r ie s ,
the ir
ico no gr a phic co nte nt,
a nd chr o no -
l o gica l pl a ce m e nt
ha v e be e n d r a wn
to ge the r ,
the
s ig-
nif ica nce o f the
gr o up
be co m e s cl e a r . Fo r in this
s ingl e
co l l e ctio n we a r e
pr o v id e d
with no t
o ne ,
but f o ur co n-
cl us io ns
r e ga r d ing
f ine
iv o r y
wo r k in the
e a r l y
f ir s t m il -
l e nnium B.C .
Fir s t,
a s
r e ga r d s
ce nte r s o f
pr o d uctio n, Ba r ne tt,
in his
publ ica tio n
o f the N im r ud iv o r ie s e xca v a te d
by
Lo f tus
a nd
La y a r d , s ugge s te d
tha t the e ntir e
gr o up
wa s ca r v e d
a t
Ha m a th,
which he
pr o po s e d
a s the ce nte r o f
iv o r y
wo r king
in the
e a r l y
f ir s t m il l e nnium ."17 This wa s l a te r
s uppo r te d by Riis ,
who cite d wa s te f l a ke s o f
iv o r y ,
a s if
f r o m a
wo r ks ho p,
f o und in the e xca v a tio n o f the
pa l a ce
a t tha t
s ite .I I 8
Whe the r o r no t the r e wa s
iv o r y ca r v ing
a t Ha m a th is no t within the
s co pe
o f this
pa pe r
to d e te r -
m ine .
By d is tinguis hing
a
s ignif ica nt s ubgr o up
within
the
Sy r ia n s ty l e
a nd
a ttr ibuting
it to
Sa m 'a l , ho we v e r ,
I d o
s ugge s t
the e xis te nce o f a t l e a s t o ne l o ca l ce nte r o f
m a nuf a ctur e . Since Sa m 'a l wa s no t o ne o f the
l a r ge r
o r
we a l thie r s ta te s o f N o r th
Sy r ia
in the ninth a nd
e ighth
ce ntur ie s
B.C .,
s uch a co ncl us io n
im pl ie s
a m o d e l o f
m ul tipl e
ce nte r s o f
pr o d uctio n
o f f ine
iv o r y
wo r k a t this
tim e -o n the
pa tte r n
o f
Sy r ia n
citie s in m o r e r e ce nt
tim e s ,
whe r e m o s t
l uxur y pr o d uctio n
is ca r r ie d o ut in
ind e pe nd e nt o pe r a tio ns
in e a ch
m a jo r
ce nte r .119 The
v a l id ity
o f this
s ugge s tio n
f o r
a ntiquity
is
s tr e ngthe ne d
by
the
pr e s e nce
a t A l Mina o n the
Sy r ia n
co a s t o f
iv o r y
tus ks
pa r tia l l y
s a we d f o r
ca r v ing.
I t is
s uppo r te d
in the
A s s y r ia n
r e co r d s whe r e
r e ce ipt
o f
iv o r y
tus ks is r e co r d e d
f r o m bo th C a r che m is h a nd
P a ttina , s ugge s ting
tha t the
r a w m a te r ia l s
ne ce s s a r y
f o r l o ca l
pr o d uctio n
we r e a t
ha nd .120 A n
im pl ica tio n
tha t the e xis te nce o f v a r io us
ce nte r s o f
iv o r y pr o d uctio n
wa s
r e co gnize d
in
a ntiquity
its e l f is co nta ine d in the a nna l s o f Sha l m a ne s e r I I I o f
A s s y r ia ,
in which the chr o nicl e r
ca r e f ul l y d is tinguis he s
a m o ng
the
ty pe s
o f
iv o r y
f ur nitur e ta ke n a s
bo o ty
f r o m
d if f e r e nt citie s :
e bo ny
f ur nitur e s e t with
iv o r y
f r o m
C a r che m is h, iv o r y
f ur nitur e o v e r l a id in s il v e r a nd
go l d
f r o m Bit
A d ini,
a nd inl a id
("ta m l u") iv o r y
f ur nitur e
f r o m Da m a s cus .
I 2
I t is the r e f o r e
highl y l ike l y
tha t
upo n
f ur the r
s ty l is tic a na l y s is ,
a d d itio na l
s ubgr o ups
within
the
Sy r ia n s ty l e
o f
iv o r y ca r v ing
ca n be a ttr ibute d to
o the r ce nte r s o f
pr o d uctio n,
a nd tha t o the r
m e d ia ,
f o r
e xa m pl e m e ta l wo r k,
wo ul d a l s o
y ie l d
to s ubd iv is io n.
Se co nd ,
in a d d itio n to
im pl y ing
the e xis te nce o f
m a ny
iv o r y -wo r king ce nte r s ,
the
SW7 a s s e m bl a ge pr o v id e s
us with inf o r m a tio n a bo ut the
o r ga niza tio n
o f cr a f t
pr o -
d uctio n
d ur ing
this
pe r io d , unf o r tuna te l y
s o a bs e nt in
co nte m po r a r y
d o cum e nts . Fo r
e xa m pl e ,
we ca n s e e tha t
a
s ingl e
ce nte r co nta ine d
m ul tipl e wo r ks ho ps ,
a nd tha t
a n ind iv id ua l
wo r ks ho p
co ul d incl ud e s e v e r a l cr a f ts -
m e n.
Thir d ,
the
cl o s e l y
r e l a te d
pa ne l s
in the
SW7
co l l e c-
tio n e xhibit a
r a nge
in
qua l ity
a nd tr e a tm e nt o f the
s ingl e ico no gr a phic
the m e tha t a l l o ws us to
gl im ps e
s o l utio ns cho s e n
by
ind iv id ua l a r tis ts within the
pr o -
gr a m 's s pe cif ica tio ns
a nd tha t
s ugge s ts
the l im its o f
a ny
r igid l y
l ine a r no tio n o f
s ty l is tic d e v e l o pm e nt thr o ugh
tim e .
I 14. N &R
I I , p. 469.
I
I 5. A R
I ,
??
772,
8o 0.
I I 6.
C ML,
Ba a l I I ii
29-3I .
Fo r the v a l ue
pl a ce d
o n f ine
iv o r y
wo r k,
s e e R. S.
25.421
in
N o uga y r o l
e t
a l ., Uga r itica V, pp. 315,
3 7,
in which a
go d d e s s 's be a uty
is l ike ne d to the
pe r f e ctio n
o f a n
iv o r y pa ne l .
I
17. C N I , p. 46,
a nd r e a f f ir m e d in R. D.
Ba r ne tt,
"Ha m a th a nd
N im r ud ," I r a q 25 (1963) pp. 81-84.
I I 8. P .
J. Riis , Suka s I
(C o pe nha ge n, 1970)
p.
169.
119.
Se e P . K.
Hitti, His to r y o f Sy r ia (Lo nd o n, 1951) p. 49,
a nd
A . H. M.
Jo ne s ,
"A s ia n Tr a d e in
A ntiquity ,"
in D. S.
Richa r d s ,
e d .,
I s l a m a nd the Tr a d e
o f
A s ia
(Lo nd o n, I 970)
pp.
I -I o , e s pe cia l l y
p. 8.
I 20. A l Mina :
C VI , p. 165,
no te I . Ba l a wa t: L. W.
King,
The
Br o nze
Re l ie f s f r o m
the Ga te s
o f
Sha l m a ne s e r , King o f A s s y r ia (Lo nd o n,
1915) pl s . xxv I I I ,
xxxI I I .
I 21. A R
I ,
??
475, 476, 740.
53
A nd
f ina l l y , f o ur th,
the
v e r y r e co gnitio n
o f a
"pr o -
gr a m "-a ppr o pr ia te ico no gr a phic
the m e s r e l a te d to
cl a s s e s o f
o bje cts -m a ke s
cl e a r the cl o s e tie s tha t m us t
ha v e e xis te d be twe e n o the r cl a s s e s o f
o bje cts
a nd the ir
d e co r a tio n a t this tim e . This o bs e r v a tio n unite s the
SW7
iv o r ie s with a
co r pus
o f m o num e nts a s f a r -r e a ch-
ing
a s the cha ir o f the
a r chbis ho p
o f
Ra v e nna ,
with its
pa ne l s
o f the
e v a nge l is ts
a nd
Jo hn
the
Ba ptis t (Figur e
I o ),
a s we l l a s the
s cul ptur a l pr o gr a m s
o f cl a s s ica l a nd
m e d ie v a l a r chite ctur e . I n
f a ct,
it is
pe r ha ps pa r ticu-
l a r l y a pt
to cl o s e with the thr o ne o f the
a r chbis ho p,
a s it
ha s be e n
s pe cul a te d
tha t the f r o nt
pa ne l
il l us tr a te d he r e
is the
pr o d uct
o f a
Sy r ia n wo r ks ho p,
o r o f
Sy r ia n
cr a f ts -
m e n in
C o ns ta ntino pl e d ur ing
the s ixth
ce ntur y
A .D.'22
This
o pe ns up
the
s pe cif ic pr o bl e m
d is cus s e d he r e to
the br o a d e r co nte xt in which the thr o ne o f Ma xim ia n
is in a
v e r y
r e a l s e ns e the he ir to the
Sy r ia n iv o r y -ca r v -
ing
tr a d itio n o f the f ir s t m il l e nnium B.C . I t
s ugge s ts ,
d e s pite ga ps
in the
a r cha e o l o gica l r e co r d ,
a
co ntinuity
in tr a d itio n o f co ns id e r a bl e
im po r ta nce
in the l a te r his -
to r y
o f the a r t o f f ine
iv o r y wo r k,
o f which the
SW7
pa ne l s r e pr e s e nt
a
s ignif ica nt pa r t
o f the e a r l ie r
pha s e s .
A C KN OWLEDGMEN TS
A n e a r l ie r v e r s io n o f this
s tud y
f o r m e d a
po r tio n
o f
m y
d o c-
to r a l
d is s e r ta tio n,
"N o r th
Sy r ia
in the
Ea r l y
Fir s t Mil l e nnium
B.C .,
With
Spe cia l
Re f e r e nce to
I v o r y C a r v ing" (C o l um bia
Univ e r s ity , 1973).
I wis h to
a ckno wl e d ge
the co ns ta nt
s uppo r t
a nd
he l p
o f the A ncie nt N e a r Ea s t
De pa r tm e nt
o f The Me tr o -
po l ita n
Mus e um o f
A r t,
a nd in
pa r ticul a r
the
e nco ur a ge m e nt
o f P r ud e nce
O. Ha r pe r ,
who
thr o ugh
P r o f e s s o r Ed ith P o r a d a
o f C o l um bia
Univ e r s ity o r igina l l y pr o v id e d
the
o ppo r tunity
f o r m e to
be gin
wo r k o n this m a te r ia l . I a m a l s o
gr a te f ul
to
Ge o r gina He r r m a nn a nd Os ca r White
Mus ca r e l l a ,
f o r the ir
v a l ua bl e co m m e nts a f te r
r e a d ing
the
m a nus cr ipt,
a nd f o r
s tim ul a ting
co nv e r s a tio ns o v e r the co ur s e o f s e v e r a l
y e a r s .
I
wo ul d f ur the r l ike to tha nk Sir Ma x Ma l l o wa n a nd Ba r ba r a
P a r ke r ,
with who s e kind
pe r m is s io n
I wa s a bl e to e xa m ine
the n
unpubl is he d
iv o r ie s a t the I ns titute o f
A r cha e o l o gy ,
Lo nd o n,
in the
s pr ing
o f
I 971 whe n,
a s a Fe l l o w o f the
Sa m ue l H. Kr e s s
Fo und a tio n,
I ha d the
o ppo r tunity
to
pur -
s ue r e s e a r ch o n s e v e r a l o f the
pr o bl e m s
d is cus s e d he r e .
SOURC ES A BBREVI A TED
A iS
F. v o n
Lus cha n, A us gr a bunge n
in Se nd s chir l i
(Be r l in, 1893-
I 943)
A JA
A m e r ica n Jo ur na l
o f A r cha e o l o gy
A na t. Stud .
A na to l ia n Stud ie s
A R
D. D.
Lucke nbil l ,
A ncie nt Re co r d s
o f A s s y r ia a nd
Ba by l o nia
I , I I
(C hica go , 1926, 1927)
BA SOR
Bul l e tin
o f
the A m e r ica n Scho o l s
o f
Or ie nta l Re s e a r ch
C ML
G. R.
Dr iv e r ,
C a na a nite
My ths a nd
Le ge nd s (Ed inbur gh,
I 956)
C N I
R. D.
Ba r ne tt, C a ta l o gue o f
the N im r ud I v o r ie s in the Br itis h
Mus e um
(Lo nd o n, 1957)
JEA
Jo ur na l
o f Egy ptia n A r cha e o l o gy
JN ES
Jo ur na l
o f
N e a r Ea s te r n Stud ie s
LA A A
Liv e r po o l
A nna l s
o f A r cha e o l o gy
a nd
A nthr o po l o gy
N &R
SW;
USA
M.
Ma l l o wa n,
N im r ud a nd its Re m a ins
(N e w Yo r k, I 966)
7
M. Ma l l o wa n a nd G.
He r r m a nn,
I v o r ie s
f r o m
N im r ud
(1949-9631),
Fa s cicul e I I I : Fur nitur e
f r o m SW7,
Fo r t Sha l -
m a ne s e r
(A be r d e e n, 1974)
W.
Or thm a nn, Unte r s uchunge n
zur
s pd the tis che n
Kuns t
(Bo nn, I 971)
I 22. R.
Hinks , C a r o l ingia n
A r t
(Lo nd o n, I 935)
pp.
43, 44.
54

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