LORD OF THE FLIES LORD OF THE FLIES LORD OF THE FLIES LORD OF THE FLIES LORD OF THE FLIES

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EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK LEADS TO SURVIVAL IN WILDERNESS
IGP Term Paper By
AMIT SHROFF (2009008) JAYRAM MAHALE (2009019) MANISH ARORA (2009022) PREM SHARMA (2009030) RAHUL PURBEY (2009034) SUPRIYO GHOSH (2009057)

Contents
LORD OF THE FLIES .................................................................................................................................. 3 EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK LEADS TO SURVIVAL IN WILDERNESS .............................................................. 3 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT.......................................................................................................... 4 Stage 1: Concerns with Inclusion, Dependency and Boundaries ............................................................ 4 Stage 2: Concerns with Individuality, Authority, and Conflict ................................................................ 5 Stage 3: Concerns with Trust, Structure, and Intimacy .......................................................................... 7 Stage 4: Concern with Productivity....................................................................................................... 8 Stage 5: Concerns with Fairness and Quality of Communication ........................................................... 8 Stage 6: Concerns with Separation and Termination .......................................................................... 10 Variations in group development ....................................................................................................... 10 LEADERSHIP........................................................................................................................................... 10 Trait Approach................................................................................................................................... 10 Charismatic Leaders........................................................................................................................... 11 Situational Approach ......................................................................................................................... 12 NORMS ................................................................................................................................................. 13 Explicit Norms.................................................................................................................................... 13 Implicit Norms ................................................................................................................................... 13 Idiosyncrasy Credits ........................................................................................................................... 14 References ............................................................................................................................................ 15

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LORD OF THE FLIES
EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK LEADS TO SURVIVAL IN WILDERNESS
The 1963 film Lord of the Flies, directed by Peter Brook, will be analyzed in this paper in terms of stages of group development, leadership, and norms. The stages of group development will be analyzed using the 6-stage model, explaining the criteria and significance of each stage along with behaviors from the movie associated with the according stage.

The leadership behaviors displayed by Jack and Ralph will be compared using the trait approach, charismatic leader approach, and the situational approach. Norms will be analyzed using explicit norms, implicit norms, and idiosyncrasy credits.

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STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Stage 1: Concerns with Inclusion, Dependency and Boundaries
Inclusion is being liked and accepted by the group. Because not much is currently known about the group, and inclusion is more important than individuality, in this stage the interactions are tentative, polite, and superficial as a way of gaining an understanding about what the group (and its members) are. Because of these factors, some people may feel defensive, sometimes not wanting to open up or give too much away about themselves before they know the same about others. Even with

defensiveness playing a role, conformity is high, and overt conflict is minimal to maximize inclusion. Examples of inclusion from Lord of the Flies might include the first meeting between the boy known as “Piggy” and Ralph; Piggy and Ralph seem to interact in a tentative manner, hesitating to even ask each other’s names. Another example is everyone being allowed to vote at the first meeting, as long as they obeyed the rules. Boundaries are used to define the limits of a group; who is in and who is out based on criteria for membership. Boundaries are useful for establishing a sense of unity within the group, often resulting in a dichotic form of thinking such as “us” and “them” where “they” are anyone not in the group.

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Examples of such boundaries are implied at the meeting, where everyone who obeys Jack’s rules are included, and those who do not are excluded from the group. After Jack has gained control over some of the other children, the boundaries are set that anyone can join his tribe, but they must obey him unconditionally. Dependency is high in this stage of group development, with many of the members being highly dependent on the leader for guidance and instruction. One factor in this dependency is the assumption that the leader is competent and benevolent. One slight condition is that group members are not so much trying to please the leader as a person as they are the authority figure the leader symbolically represents. Examples of dependency are abound in Lord of the Flies, but only a few

examples are Piggy’s dependency on Ralph, even though much of what Ralph says may have originally been Piggy’s idea, it is exactly this indirect voice that Piggy is so dependent on. When Jack decides to leave and create his own tribe, his followers are dependent on him for his strong leadership skills, which bring protection and food.

Stage 2: Concerns with Individuality, Authority, and Conflict
Although stage 2 may seem unpleasant, and it most often is unpleasant, it is needed for efficient functioning in later stages of group development when the group members need to know how to work even though they have differences. The apparent hostile environment in the group serves as a way to understand other group members and how to interact with one another.

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Individuality is each group member behaving in a manner that expresses themselves as unique, with their own ideas. Because of the increase in personal

expression and ideas, there is a decrease in conformity and compliance. An Example of such behavior is Jack constantly asserting himself as a leader, or challenging Ralph’s leadership. Simon’s visions and fainting place him as an individual in the eyes of

others, but it is his expression of ideas, such as the beast being the children themselves, that shows his individuality. Piggy is constantly trying to show his

individuality through his ideas, but seems to always fail unless he is talking to Ralph. Authority acts as a scarce resource in the second stage of group development; it is sought after by many in the group, with the leader being challenged directly or indirectly by other group members that may be trying to increase their own influence over the group, or maybe just lower the leader’s influence over the group. A group member does not have to challenge the leader directly to gain influence, but more subtle forms can be chosen to increase one’s influence over the group. Jack constantly challenges Ralph’s official leadership throughout the movie, explained later. Other, more indirect, ways in which Jack and his choir challenged Ralph’s authority is by disregarding the fire to go hunting. Conflict is a result of more active participation by the group members and willingness to share views that differ from others. The group members no longer feel the need to avoid controversial issues and are more willing to engage in open conflict. Striking examples of open conflict in Lord of the Flies that have not been addressed previously in this paper, is the constant way Jack is bullying Piggy,
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specifically when Jack steals Piggy’s glasses.

This results in Ralph and Piggy

confronting Jack and his tribe for stealing the glasses, which escalates in Piggy’s death, and the eventual hunting of Ralph.

Stage 3: Concerns with Trust, Structure, and Intimacy
Trust is helped by interactions in stage 2, allowing members to feel comfortable expressing disagreement without being penalized or excluded. Trust is also important in group members believing that other group members will invest their portion of time, resources, and effort. Trust is given out by Ralph to everyone at first, but soon he learns that he cannot trust Jack after Jack and his choir abandon the fire: the most important thing on the island to the group at the time, from a utilitarian point of view. Structure is important in the dividing of responsibilities, such as labour, among the group members; this results in roles and norms. A role is a pattern of behavior that a particular person is assumed to fill. Norms will be discussed later. Because of the increased automation of the group, the leader’s directiveness is no longer needed as strong as before, and thus declines. Many examples of structure will be used later in the discussion on norms, but there is a very strong structure to Jack’s tribe; Jack dictates and everyone listens, or else. Ralph attempted to institute structure in his tribe at the beginning by dividing, or allowing people to choose between, the labour of maintaining the fire, or building shelters. Intimacy is the result of effectively handled conflict and encouraged cooperation. The group develops a stronger sense of cohesiveness identified by members feeling attached and committed to the group. Cohesiveness increases the member’s

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perception of the membership value, thus increasing conformity in order to minimize risk of possible exclusion from such a group perceived as valuable. Cooperation is encouraged by Jack when he knowingly waters the seed that is the idea of the beast’s existence, thus increasing cohesiveness and intimacy through shared goals. Cooperation is encouraged by Ralph when he suggests the divided

responsibilities of fire and shelter, for each group to work together for a common goal.

Stage 4: Concern with Productivity
Productivity is achieved when goals and roles are clear and the group is committed to achieving them. Ideal conditions for this are when the group members are comfortable with one another and used to working with each other with everyone actively participating. At this stage all communication, even disagreements, are taskoriented and focused on the goal while members continue to build and maintain their relationships. At the start of the group, Ralph assumes the group is ready for stage 4 and makes clear roles and goals involving the fire and shelters, already explained. Later Jack is preoccupied with getting meat, and then it is the act of the hunt and having fun, then the need for fire, and the wish to hunt and kill Ralph. All of these require

productivity and its constituent parts to work; clear goals to hunt, kill and burn, the active participation of all members in the hunt working together with clear communication.

Stage 5: Concerns with Fairness and Quality of Communication
Fairness is shown when group members begin to ask when their own needs are to be met. Members may look for what is best for them, compared to what is best for

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the group. Ralph ensures that everyone has a vote, whereas Jack does not seem to have anyone even suggesting what he should be doing;

Jack is obviously looking out for his own needs or wants. Piggy looks out for his own needs and the needs of the group throughout the entire movie, but he only looks out for his own needs when he feels threatened, such as when everyone was eating pork and Piggy asked for some without being offered any. Quality of Communication is when the group no longer needs communication in order to coordinate their efforts because communication is routine. As quality of

communication begins to decline, the connections between members weaken, therefore, the group may need to re-organize and move back to one of the previous stages, or it may move on to the final stage. Ralph attempted to establish this in the beginning with the conch, and it marginally worked, but eventually it was to the point where the conch was no longer respected, and Ralph’s group moved completely on to
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stage 6. At the same time communication under Jack is still efficient and mostly one way with Jack dictating and everyone else listening.

Stage 6: Concerns with Separation and Termination
During stage 6, the communication should summarize and celebrate the work completed by the group, assess the quality of both the task and the process, in other words, assess the means and the end product, and discuss further contact with members. This was not seen in Lord of the Flies, particularly when Ralph’s tribe There was no celebration, no

dissipates and turns on him by joining Jack’s tribe.

assessing, and the only further contact between members was that of the hunter and the hunted.

Variations in group development
Not every group moves though the stages in the order given, also some progress through each stage as different speeds, or may even skip a stage, or revisit a stage many times. Ralph seemed to believe that the group was farther ahead in the stages than they actually were, whereas Jack seemed to know what stage the group was at, and the best way to lead the group at the time.

LEADERSHIP
Trait Approach
The trait approach is also known as the great person theory of leadership and suggests that all great leaders possess certain traits that set them apart from most other human beings, specifically drive, self-confidence, creativity, leadership motivation, and particularly flexibility (Zaccaro, Foti, & Kenny, 1991; as cited in Baron, Byrne & Watson, 2001). Drive is the desire for achievement combined with high energy and persistence.
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Self-confidence and creativity are inspirational to other members, allowing others to be confident in the leader, whom they think is competent. Leadership motivation is the desire to be in charge and exercise authority over others. Flexibility is the most

important factor; it is the ability to adapt to situational demands. In the movie Lord of the Flies, Jack is never at a moment when he is not showing self-confidence, arguably to the point of blatant arrogance a concrete example is when he leaves the original tribe to start his own tribe. Ralph shows drive insofar that he concentrates on getting

rescued and organizes the group for such a project. Jack shows leadership motivation in his dictatorship, and constant challenging of Ralph. Jack seems to be more flexible than Ralph, or perhaps only more perceptive to the group’s stage, being able to use his leadership style at a certain point in the group’s development, explained later under situational approach.

Charismatic Leaders
Charismatic leaders, also known as transformational leaders, are leaders who exert exceptionally powerful effects on large numbers of followers or on entire societies. These leaders tend to generate in their followers strong devotion and loyalty, enthusiasm for the leader and their cause, a willingness to sacrifice their own interests for the sake of the group’s goals, and exceptional levels of performance. They achieve this by proposing a vision, offering a route to the vision, and engage in framing (i.e. making the vision and route purposeful.) Comparing Jack and Ralph on these criteria, it is obvious that Jack is the better charismatic leader; his devotion and loyalty crushed (literally in one case) Ralph’s following. Jack’s followers jump to Jack’s demands, whereas Ralph was not even sure

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if the tribe would come back if he blew the conch. Jack’s tribe showed a willingness to sacrifice their own interests when one of them volunteered or was chosen to play the part of the pig or beast in a mock hunt. Ralph only had Piggy watch over the smaller children as a personal sacrifice, which Piggy may or may not have volunteered for. If hunting a pig or another human can be considered an exceptional level of performance, then Jack’s tribe did show it. Either way, Ralph’s tribe did not show exceptional levels of performance. Using the charismatic leader approach, these differences in power can be linked to the visions, routes, and framing Jack and Ralph used. Ralph’s proposed vision

involved getting rescued as soon as possible, whereas Jacks was one of hedonism (hunting and fun), and protection. The route proposed by Ralph was that everyone has a responsibility to the group and must act accordingly; Jack’s proposed route was to hunt and follow him. The framing, or purpose, supplied by each is one of hedonism by Jack and collectivism by Ralph. Jack offers the boys the time of their lives, whereas Ralph only offers to get them back into school in a country at war though working together. It is obvious the choice of prepubescent males is that of hedonism over

collectivism in the movie.

Situational Approach
Using Hersey and Blanchard’s theory of situational leadership, which states that no one leadership style will work with every group all of the time, but the style used must match the level of the group’s development by varying intensity of task and relationship dimensions. The level of the group is related to the clarity of the group’s goals, the members’ commitment to the group and the group goals, along with the

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overall competence of the members. A competent member is able to complete the required tasks because they have been trained to do so, or have experience in such matters. In early stages of group development, it is best for the leader to behave directivly with high directive, or task related, behavior, while not being responsive, called. Soon the leader switches to a coaching style of leadership with high directiveness and high responsiveness. When the group has advanced sufficiently, a good leader will act supportive by maintaining a high responsiveness, but lowering task-directed behaviors. In the last stage of situational leadership, the leader is delegating, with low responsiveness and low directive behavior, basically allowing the group to function as they are now competent members.

NORMS
Explicit Norms
Explicit norms are developed and openly talked about, sometimes even written down, that describe the behavior that is preferred or to be avoided in the group. Examples from the movie are the agreement to maintain British society, to believe in the ghost, (early) that the holder of the conch is allowed to be the only one allowed to speak, and (later) that the conch is no longer respected.

Implicit Norms
Implicit norms are understood by group members, even though no one has ever talked directly about them, let alone written them out. Examples of such behavior are that it became acceptable to kill pigs, beasts, and eventually humans in a hunt. It was

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also understood that Piggy was to watch over the younger children and that it is acceptable to steal his glasses.

Idiosyncrasy Credits
Idiosyncrasy credits are permission to violate group norms, which are often granted to leaders. These are given to Simon very early in the film, when the choir shows up and Simon has a seizure; Jack explains that it is normal for Simon to act like that. Jack uses these idiosyncrasy credits very much throughout the film, especially once he forms his own tribe. Comparatively, these credits are not given to Piggy, whom most of the older children do not interact with; as a result Piggy is excluded by almost all older children. To conclude, it appears that Ralph assumed the group was at a further level of development and tried to act as a delegating leader would with a mature group, however the group was still in the early stages of development and thus the leadership style was ineffective. Jack seemed more sensitive to the group’s level of development and used a more effective leadership style, eventually bringing Ralph’s following to extinction. Under Jack, the group seemed to mature faster than earlier, possibly due to past experience, possibly due to his charismatic leadership style or leadership trait advantage over Ralph. From the start, Ralph seems to create more explicit norms, while Jack instigates more implicit norms and uses idiosyncrasy credits more liberally.

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References
Allen, L.(Producer), & Brook, P.(Director). (1963). Lord of the Flies [film]. Baron, R. A., Byrne, D., & Watson, G. (2001). Exploring social psychology (3rd Canadian edition). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon Canada.

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