UC-NRLF

BRITISH COLUMBIA

BIRDS
JOHN FANN1N

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LIST

BKITISE COLUMBIA B1EDS
BY

JOHN FANNIN, CURATOR PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, VICTORIA,
Associate

B. G.

Member American

Ornithologists' Union.

SEPTEMBER, 1891.

VICTORIA,

B. C.

:

Printed by RICHARD WOLFBNDEN, Printer to the Queen' Most Excellent Majesty.

LIBRARY

)LOGY LIBRARY

PREFACE
In presenting this list of British Columbia Birds, I am fully aware of its incompleteness, and regret very much its
lack of

more

definite information respecting certain species.

The

the way of procuring reliable data conthe birds of this Province are very great. British cerning Columbia is a country of "magnificent distances" a
difficulties in

country where the modes of travel are slow and expensive compared with other portions of the Dominion a country where "distribution" is a problem in itself; so much so,
that to obtain specimens of all our birds one must travel the entire length and breadth of the Province. The

Cascade Mountains form an absolute barrier to
species,

many
off

east

and

other species of which is the habitat of others which are strangers to the waters separating the Island from the Mainland ; and

The Gulf of Georgia shuts from Vancouver Island, the west coast
west.

throughout the Province there occur other lines, purely imaginary, over which certain species never pass.

The labour
list has,

of collecting together the material for this

of the following personal friends,

however, been greatly lightened by the co-operation who, occupying widely

separated portions of the Province, have furnished me with valuable notes concerning the birds of their respective districts
;

and to these
:

I

now

offer

my

sincere thanks for their

kind assistance

To Mr. W. B. Anderson, of Fort Simpson and Comox ; Mr. James Porter, of Dease Lake, Cassiar Capt. and Miss Cox, of Cape Beale Light House Mr. Allen C. Brooks, of
; ;

Chilliwhack

;

Mr. Geo. Hyde, of Beaver Pass, Cariboo

Mr. R. V. Griffen, of Similkameen the late and Mr. H. W.
; ;

Harvey

of Clinton.

iv.

PREFACE.

In the present arrangement the Province is divided into four sections, designated as follows 1st. "The Coast," or "Coast Line of the Province," re:

ferring to species strictly maritime 2nd. "West of the Cascades,"

;

meaning

all

the country

west of the Cascade Mountains
3rd.

;

" East of

the

Cascades," meaning the dry, open
;

country immediately east of the Cascade Mountains
4th.

and

"The Rocky Mountain

District,"

which takes in

the wooded country beyond and reaching to the

Rocky

Mountains.

The physical
table

features of these divisions, together with a
precipitation,
&c.,

showing temperature, found in the Appendix.

will

be

However
some,
if it

unsatisfactory the present list may appear to serves to awaken an interest in our feathered

friends

and stimulate further and more careful research
<fec.,

as to their distribution, habits,

the effort will not be

altogether a barren one.

JOHN FANNIN,
Curator Provincial Museum.

VICTORIA, B.

C.,

September, 1891.

INDEX.
Page.

A.
Allen's

Humming-bird

30
28
14
6

Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker American Bittern
Black Tern

Coot
Crossbill

15

34
42
2

Dipper Eared Grebe
,,

Golden-eye Golden Plover
Goldfinch

11

18

35
26
4

Hawk Owl
Herring Gull
,,

Long-eared Owl

25 32
8

Magpie Merganser
Osprey Pine Grosbeak
Pipit
,,

25

34 42
42

Redstart

Rough-legged
,,

Hawk

23
10
11

Scaup Duck
Scoter

,,

Sparrow-hawk

25
9

Widgeon
White-fronted Goose

12
7

White Pelican
Ancient Murrelet
Arctic Tern
Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker

3
6

28

Arkansas Kingbird Audubon's Warbler

30
.

.41

vi.

INDEX.

B.
Bachelder's

Woodpecker

28
16

Baird's Sandpiper

Bald Eagle
Band-tailed Pigeon

24
21

Barn Swallow
Barrow's Golden-eye
Belted Kingfisher Black-bellied Plover

38
11

27
18

Black Brant
Black-chinned Humming-bird Black-footed Albatross

13

30
6

Black headed Grossbeak
Black-headed Jay Black Merlin

38 32

24
19
41
2

Black Oyster-catcher
Black-throated Gray Warbler Black-throated Loon

Black Turnstone
Black Swift
Blue-winged Teal Bonaparte's Gull

19

29
9

5

Bohemian Waxwing
Brewer's Blackbird Brewer's Sparrow
Buff-breasted Sandpiper Buffle-head

39

34
36
18
11

Bullock Oriole

33
26 c.

Burrowing Owl
Cackling Goose
California

13
Pelican
7

Brown
Creeper

43
33
27
5

Crow
Cuckoo
Gull

Murre

.

.

4

INDEX.

vii.

Page.

California Partridge

20 34
22

Purple Finch Vulture
Calliope

Humming

bird

30
12

Canada Goose Canadian Ruffed Grouse
Canvas-back
Carolina Rail
Cassin's

20

10
15
3

Auklet
Purple Finch Vireo

34 40
42

Catbird

Cedar Bird

.

.

t

39

Chesnut-backed Chickadee

44
17
9
1

Cinnamon Solitary Sandpiper Cinnamon Teal
Clark's Grebe

Clarke's Nutcracker
Cliff

33

Swallow

38
21

Columbia Sharp-tailed Grouse
Cooper's

Hawk
D.

23

Cowbird

33

Downy Woodpecker
Duck Hawk Dusky Horned Lark Dusky Horned Owl Dwarf Hermit Thrush
E.
Evening Grosbeak
P.
Flicker

27

24 32 26 45

34

29 37
7

Forbush's Finch
Fork-tailed Petrel

Franklin Grouse
Franklin's Gull
.

20
5

viii.

INDEX.

G.
Gadwall
Gairdner's
9

Woodpecker

28
36
4

Gambel's Sparrow Glaucus-winged Gull

Golden Eagle Golden-crowned Sparrow Gray-crowned Finch
Gray-crowned Leucosticte

23 36 35

34 30
20
14

Gray Kingbird Gray Ruffed Grouse Great Blue Heron
Great Gray Owl Greater Yellow-legs

25
17
9

Green-winged Teal Grinnel's Water Thrush
'

41

Grouse
Gulls

.

20
,

4

H.

Hammond's Flycatcher Harlequin Duck
Harris's

31
11

Woodpecker Heermann's Gull
Hepburn's Leucosticte

27
5

35
41
1

Hermit Warbler Holbcell's Grebe

Hooded Merganser Horned Grebe
Hudsonian Curlew
Hutchin's Goose
I.

8
1

18

12

Intermediate Sparrow Ivory Gull

36
4

K.
Kennicott's Screech

Owl

26

Kingbird

3Q

INDEX.

ix.

Page.

Kingbird, Arkansas

30 30
18
16

Gray
Kildeer Plover

Knot
L.

Lapland Longspur
Lazuli Bunting Leach's Petrel

35

38
7

Least Sandpiper Lesser Scaup Duck
Lesser
Lewis's

16

10 12

Snow Goose
Woodpecker

29
37 14
31

Lincoln's Sparrow Little Brown Crane
Little Flycatcher

Long-billed Curlew
Long-billed Dowitcher

18
16

Long-tailed Chickadee

44
11
2

Long-tailed

Duck

Loon
Black-throated
Pacific

2 2 2

Red^throated
Louisiana Tanager Lutescent Warbler

38

40

M.
Macgillivray's Warbler Macown's Longspur

41

35
8

Mallard

Marbled Godwit Marbled Murrelet

17
3

Marsh Hawk Mountain Bluebird
,,

22 45

Chickadee
Partridge

44
19

x.

INDEX.
Page.

Mourning Dove Myrtle Warbler

22

40

N.
Nighthawk
Norther's Hairy Woodpecker

29
27 15

Phalarope

Raven
Shrike

32 39 33
29

Northwest Crow
Northwestern Flicker

o.
Old Squaw
Olive-sided Flycatcher

11

31

Orange-crowned Warbler Oregon Chickadee ...

40
44
32

Jay Junco

.

37

Ruffed Grouse

20 38
25
P.

Towhee
Owls

Pacific Pacific

Fulmar Loon

6
2

Pallas's Gull

4

Pallid

Horned Lark

32

Parkman's

Wren
,
. .

43
]

Passenger Pigeon Peale's Falcon
Pectoral Sandpiper
Pied-billed

22 24
16
2

Grebe

Pigeon Guillemot

3

Pigeon
Pigeons

Hawk

24
21

Pileated

Woodpecker Pileolated Warbler
Pine Siskin
. .

28

42

.35

INDEX.

xi.

Page.

Pintail

9

Plumbeous Yireo Pochard
Prairie Falcon

40
10

24 38

Purple Martin

Pygmy Nuthatch Pygmy Owl
R.
Red-backed Sandpiper
Red-breasted

43
27

16

Hawk
Merganser Nuthatch

23
8

43
28 39

Sapsucker Red-eyed Vireo

Red-naped Sapsucker

28
15
,

Red Phalarope
Redhead
Redpoll Red-shafted Flicker
Red-throated Loon

10

35
29
2

Red-winged Blackbird Richardson's Grouse
Richardson's Merlin
Ring-billed Gull
"

33 20
25
5

Ring-necked Duck Rock Ptarmigan Rock Wren

10
21

42
37
,

Rocky Mountain Junco Ross's Snow Goose
Rough-winged Swallow

12

39

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

44
12

Ruddy Duck
Rufous Humming-bird Russet-backed Thrush

30 45
,

Rusty Song Sparrow

37

xii.

.

INDEX.
Page.

s.

Sage Grouse
Sanderling Sandhill Crane

21

17 15

Sandwich Sparrow Saw-whet Owl
Say's Phoebe

36 25
31

Semipalmated Plover
Sandpiper
Sharp-shinned Short-billed Gull
Short-eared

19
17

Hawk

22
5

Owl

25
6

Short-tailed Albatross

Shoveller
Slate-coloured

9

Junco Slender-billed Nuthatch
Snowflake

36 43

35
14

Snowy Heron Snowy Owl
Solitary Sandpiper

26
17

Sooty Grouse Sooty Song Sparrow
Spotted Sandpiper

20
37
18

Spurred Towhee Streaked Horned Lark
Steller's

37

32

Jay

32
19 12

Surf Bird
Surf Scoter

Swainson's

Hawk
T.

23

Trail's Flycatcher

31

Townsend's Solitaire

44
37
41 13
3

Sparrow Warbler

Trumpeter Swan
Tufted Puffin
.

INDEX.

xiii.

Page.

Tule

Wren

43
22
19

Turkey Vulture
Turnstone

v.
Varied Thrush
45

Vaux's Swift

.

30 35 43
7

Vesper Sparrow
Vigor's

Wren

Violet-green Cormorant Violet-green Swallow

39
39
15

Vireos
Virginia Rail

w
18

Wandering Tatler Warbling Vireo Western Bluebird
,,

39

45
36
.

Chipping Sparrow
Flycatcher

31

,,

Golden-crowned Kinglet

44 23
1

Goshawk
Grebe
Gull

4 26

Horned Owl Meadow Lark
Nighthawk
Red-tailed

33 29 23
45
17

Hawk

Robin
Sandpiper

,,

,,

Savannah Sparrow Tree Sparrow Vesper Sparrow Warbling Vireo Winter Wren Wood Pewee
Yellow-throat

36
36

35

40
43
31

42
.
.

Yellow Warbler

.

.

40

xiv.

INDEX.
Page.

Whistling Swan White-bellied Swallow

13

38
13
7

White-cheeked Goose
White-crested Cormorant

White-faced Glossy Ibis

14 28
"

White-headed Woodpecker

White-rumped Shrike
White-winged Crossbill White- winged Scoter
White-tailed Ptarmigan Williamson's Sapsucker

39

34
11

21

28
21

Willow Ptarmigan Willow Thrush
Wilson's Phalarope

44
16
16

Wilson's Snipe

Wood Duck
Wright's Flycatcher

10
31

Y.
Yellow-headed Blackbird
Yellow-legs

33
17

Yellow Warbler

.

.

.40

ERRATUM.
No.
Island.
6,

page

2,

breeds in the interior of Mainland and

1\ICHARDSONII

jPALCoCoLUMBARIUS SuCKLEYII

CHECK
Order

LIST.

PYGOPODES.
FAMILY PODICIPIDJE.

Diving Birds.
Grebes.

Suborder PODICIPEDES.

GREBES.

1.

Western Grebe.
(^Echmophorus
occidentalis.)

An abundant resident throughout the Province. Breeds round the lakes of the interior of the Mainland. A winter resident along the Coast, where, in some localities, such as Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet, it appears in great numbers.

clarkii.)

Taken
rare.

at Fort Simpson

by W. B. Anderson.

Probably

3.

Holboell's Grebe.
" Red-necked Grebe,"

(Colymbus

holbcellii.)

I found it breeding at large ; resident. on many of the lakes along the Cariboo road, above Clinton. winter resiHave taken it on Harrison Lake in July.

The Province

A

dent along the Coast.
4.

Horned Grebe.
(Colymbus
auritus.)

Breeds in the North. resident on the Coast. I observed it throughout the Summer at Dease Lake.

A winter

'1

CHECK LIST OP

5.

American Eared Grebe.
(Colymbus
nigricollis calif ornicus.)

An

abimdunt

resident.

in the interior.

Winters on the Coast. Breeds Frequents Victoria harbour during the

winter months.
6.

Pied-billed Grebe.
(Podilymbus podiceps.)

A resident,
species.

but not nearly so common as the two Breeds in the interior of the Mainland, *f /

last,
*

t-

*ffa4Mr*

Suborder CEPPHI.
FAMILY
7.

Loons.
LOONS.

URINATORID^E.

Loon.
" Great Northern Diver."

(Urinator imber.)

The Province at large ; an abundant resident. Breeds both on the Island and Mainland ; nest on the margin of
lakes.

8.

Black-throated Loon.
(Urinator arcticus.)

Taken at Burrard Inlet, and James Porter. Not common.
9.

at Dease Lake, Cassiar,

by

Pacific Loon.
(Urinator pacificus.)
"Pacific Coast of

California."

North America, from Alaska to Lower Ridgway's Manual North American Birds.

10.

Red-throated Loon.
(Urinator lumme.)

Two specimens taken off the mouth of Esquimalt harIn my experience rare. bour, January and March, 1891.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.

3

FAMILY ALCID^E.
11.

AUKS, MURRES, AND PUFFINS.

Tuffced Puffin.

(Lunda
Tolerably

cirrhata.)

Mainland.

along the coasts of the Island and Breeds on the islands of the Gulf.

common

SUBFAMILY

PHALERINJE.

AUKLETS, MURRELETS,

AND GUILLEMOTS.
12.

Cassin's Auklet.
(Ptychoramphus
aleuticus.)

" Pacific Coast of North America, from Aleutian Islands
to

Lower

California/'

Ridgway's Manual

of

North Amer-

ican Birds.
13.

Ancient Murrelet.
(Synthliboramphus antiquus.)

One specimen taken at Cape Beale, November, 1888, by Probably only Capt. Cox, and presented to the Museum. passing on its migrations along the West Coast of Vancouver Island.

14 Marbled Murrelet.
(Brachyramphus marmoratus.)

An abundant resident along the Coast. Breeds on Vancouver Island, on some of the smaller islands of the Gulf, and on the inlets of the Mainland. Frequents Victoria harbour during the winter months, where it is sometimes called the " Little Auk."
15.

Pigeon Guillemot.
(Cepphus columba.)

An abundant resident, from Race Rocks to Alaska. Breeds throughout its range eggs concealed in the crevices of rocks or beneath overhanging rocks, indifferently close to or far above the water,
;

4

CHECK LIST OP
SUBFAMILY ALCIN^JE.

16.

California Murre.
(Uria troile
californica.)

abundant.

distribution as last species, but not near so Appears to be more common during the winter months in the neighbourhood of Vancouver Island.

The same

Order

LONGIPENNES. Long-winged
Swimmers.
GULLS AND TERNS.

FAMILY LARID^E.
17.

Ivory Gull.
(Gavia alba.)
at Dease Lake, Cassiar, by James Presented to the Museum.

One specimen taken

Porter, Esq., Sept., 1889.
18.

Glacous-winged
abundant
;

Gull.

(Larus glaucescens.)

An

of the Gulf;

resident. Breeds on some of the islands frequents our harbours during the winter
gulls.

months
19.

one of our largest Gull.

Western
;

(Larus occidentalis.)
resident very abundant on the Coast during the winter months. I found it breeding in. the Similkameen Valley, but it probably also breeds on the Coast.
20.

A

Pallas's Gull.
(Larus cachinnans.)

A winter resident along the
21.

Coast.

American Herring
abundant

Gull.

(Larus argentatus smithsonianus.)
rior of the

resident. Breeds on the Coast and inteMainland. Frequents our harbours during the winter months. large, fine-looking gull.

An

A

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRLS.
22.

5

California Gull.
(Larus
calif ornicus.)

An

abundant

resident.

ter resident along the Coast, during in great numbers in our harbours.
last species.

winBreeds in the interior. which time it appears Much smaller than the

A

23.

Ring-biUed Gull.
(Larus delawarensis.)

A winter resident on the
during the summer.
24.

especially to the northward.

Breeds in the interior, Coast. I found it on Dease Lako

Short-billed Gull.

"Mew

gull."

(Larus brachyrhynchus.)

A winter

of May lakes in the Cariboo District, where it probably breeds, though they may have been on their journey farther north.
25.

resident on the Coast. During the fore part of this year (1891) I saw quite a number on the

Heermann's

Gull.

(Larus heermanni.)

Not common, though they appear to remain here during the summer. Four specimens (young of the year) were taken the latter part of July, off the mouth of Esquimalt harbour, by Dr. Hazell of this City.
26.

Franklin's Gull.
(Larus franklinii.)

This gull
27.

may be found

in the interior of the Mainland.

Bonaparte's Gull.
(Larus Philadelphia.)

Distributed throughout the length and breadth of the Province. An abundant resident, appearing in great numbers on the rivers of the Mainland during the olachan season (March and April). Summers in the interior.

6

CHECK LIST OP
SUBFAMILY

STEKNIN^E.

28.

Arctic Tern.
(Sterna paradissea.)

Only recorded from Dease Lake, Cassiar, where one specimen was taken by Mr. James Porter and presented to the Museum. It must, however, occur on the Coast, as it
reaches as far south as California.
29.

American Black Tern.
(Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis.)
January, 1882.
J. F.

Observed at Burrard

Inlet,

Order

TUBINARES. Tube-nosed
Swimmers.
DIOMEDEID^E.
ALBATROSSES.

FAMILY
30.

Black-footed Albatross.
(Diomedea
nigripes.)

"From coast of California to Alaska." Ridgway's Manual North American Birds. I have no record of this bird, and conclude that it passes along the west coast of Vancouver Island.
31.

Short-tailed Albatross.
(Diomedea albatrus.)

Tolerably common both coasts of Vancouver Island. few have been taken in the Straits and off the mouth of
Victoria harbour.

A

FAMILY
32.

PROCELLARIID^E.

THE

PETRELS.

Pacific Fulmar.

(Fulmarus glacialis glupischa.) " North Pacific, south along American Coast to
Mexico."

Western
Birds.

Ridgway's Manual of North American

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
33.

7

Forked-tailed Petrel.
(Oceanodroma
furcata.)

A winter

resident along both coasts of

Vancouver

Is-

land, but more abundant on the west coast. taken in Victoria Harbour.
34.

Have been

Leach's Petrel.
(Oceanodroma leucorhoa.)

Confined to the west coast of Vancouver Island.

Order
FAMILY
35.

STEGANOPODES.
mate Swimmers.
PHALACROCORACID.33.

TotipalCORMORANTS.

White-crested Cormorant.
(Phalacrocorax dilophus cincinatus.)
to Alaska, including both coasts of

From Race Rocks
Vancouver
Island,

Howe

ally enters Fraser River.

Sound, Burrard Inlet. Tolerably common.

Occasion-

36.

Violet-green Cormorant.
(Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus.)

abundant resident. Taken as far north as Fort Simpson (W. B. Anderson.) Breeds on the islands close
to Sidney Island. (Both these species are

An

known

here as Shags.)

FAMILY
37.

PELECANID^E.
Pelican.

PELICANS.

American White

(Pelecaiius erythrorhynchos.)

Not common. Said to breed in the Chilcotin country. One specimen taken on Shuswap Lake, October, 1890, and
presented to the
38.

Museum by

Col. Foster.

California

Brown

Pelican.

(Pelecanus californicus.)

Not common.
Fraser River
(J. C.

One specimen taken

at

the

mouth

of

Hughes, Nov., 1880), and in September

8

CHECK LIST OF

and wounded one on the above Seymour Creek, Burrard Inlet, but failed to I am inclined to think that Burrard Inlet is secure it. the northern limit of this bird's range.
of the following year I shot at
flats

Order

ANSERES.
ANATID^E.

Lamellirostral

Swimmers.
.

FAMILY

DUCKS, GEESE, AND SWANS.

39.

American Merganser.
(Merganser americanus.)

Found in most parts of the Province, though nowhere common. A few are taken every winter by gunners, both on Vancouver Island and the Mainland. Nests on the ground, in salt marshes, or on the margins of lakes. Known
as Fish-duck, Saw-bill, &c.
40.

Red-breasted Merganser.
(Merganser serrator.)

An
41.

abundant

resident.

Nests on the ground.

Known

also as Fish-duck, Saw-bill, &c.

Hooded Merganser.
(Lophody tes cucullatus.
)

This

is

also

an abundant

resident,

and more common
trees.

than the two

last species.

Nests in holes in

SUBFAMILY
42.

ANNATINJE.

RIVER DUCKS.

Mallard,
(Anas boschas.)

Breeds in almost every suitable resident. portion of the Province, from Vancouver Island to Cariboo, and from our southern boundary to Dease Lake. Generally found about fresh water or tidal waters at the mouths of Fraser River flats, Pitt and Sumas Meadows, are rivers. favourite resorts for this duck during the winter months.

An

abundant

BEITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
43.

9

Blue-winged Teal.
(Anas
discors.)

bird in this Province. few are taken every season at the mouth of Fraser River.
44.

A very rare

A

Cinnamon
rare

Teal.
visitant.

(Anas cyanoptera.)

A

summer

Only two specimens, to

my

knowledge, have been taken in the Province Clinton, the other at Burnaby Lake.
45.

one near

Green-winged Teal.
(Anas
carolinensis.)

here. Breeds in the interior of the Mainland. Arrives in great numbers at the mouth of Fraser River during the fall and early winter. One of our best table ducks.
46.

A very abundant duck

Gadwall. "Gray Duck."
it

(Anas

strepera.)

Rare.

A few are taken

place where
47.

every season, but I know of no can be said they occur in any great numbers.

American Widgeon.

"Baldpate." (Anas americana.) abundant resident. In May of this year I found it It is quite combreeding round the lakes above Clinton. mon during the winter months on the coast.

An

48.

Shoveller.
" Broad-bill."

(Spatula clypeata.)

of the Mainland, chiefly east of the Cascades. During the month of May I found them in pairs on the lakes along the Cariboo Road, above rare winter visitant on the coast. Clinton.

An

abundant summer resident

A

49. Pintail.

"
Sprigtail."

(Dafila acuta.)

An

abundant

resident.

Breeds in the interior of the
where, in some
it

Mainland.

A winter resident on the coast,
on the Lower Fraser,

localities, especially great flocks.

appears in

10
50.

CHECK

LIST OP

Wood

Duck.

(Aix sponsa.)

A
many

summer

Breeds in Nowhere abundant. resident. Sumas, Chilliwhack, places along the Lower Fraser

Burnaby Lake.
51.

Redhead.
" Pochard."
resident.

A

found it ton and the 108-Mile House.
52.

(Aythya americana.) Winters on the coast. I breeding around a few of the lakes between Clin-

Not common.

Canvas-back.
(Aythya
vallisneria.)

A

resident.

Nowhere abundant, nor

is

it

so

much

sought after as either the mallard or teal. and May of this year, I found them in pairs

During April on the lakes near the 108-Mile House, Cariboo Road, where I was told by the residents they breed. Winters on the coast.
53.

American Scaup Duck.
" Blue- Bill."

(Aythya marila

nearctica.)

An
cades.

abundant resident. Breeds Winters on the coast.

chiefly east of the Cas-

54.

Lesser Scaup Duck.
(Aythya
afnnis.)

During the fore part of May, this year, I shot one of these ducks on a small lake on the top of the hills, about three miles from Ashcroft. There were seven or eight in the flock, and during a stay of four weeks in the upper country these were the only ones I saw, nor am I aware that they are at all common on the coast.
55.

Ring-necked Duck.
(Aythya
collaris.)

I have seen it in Victoria Harbour, and Mr. Brooks has taken it at Chilliwhack.

Not common.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
56.

11

American Golden-eye.
(Glaucionetta clangula americana.)

An
coast.
57.

abundant

Mainland.

resident. Breeds in the interior of the Winters on the (Nests in holes in trees.)

Barrow's Golden-eye.
(Glaucionetta islandica.)

During the breeding season, this year, I found this duck very abundant on nearly every lake along the Cariboo Road. I have never seen it on the coast, but Mr. W. B. Anderson has taken it at Fort Simpson, where he reports it rare. Nests in trees, same as last species.
58.

Buffle-head.
' '

Butter-ball,

"

(Charitonetta albeola

.

)

Resident. Very abundant. Breeds in the interior of the Mainland. Winters on the coast, during which time it frequents our harbours. Nests in holes in trees.
59.

Old Squaw.
"Long-tailed duck."
(Clangula hyemalis.)

An
60.

abundant

resident.

More frequent on the

coast.

Harlequin Duck.
(Histrionicus histrionicus.)

An

abundant

resident.

Breeds along the creeks close to

the salt water (Burrard Inlet, the interior of the Mainland.
61.

Howe

Sound), and also in

American

Scoter.

(Oidemia americana.) In my experience rare. Mr. Anderson has taken several at Fort Simpson, where he reports them not by any means common. I saw a small flock on the 10th May, this year, on a lake near the 108-Mile House, Cariboo Road.
62.

White-winged Scoter.
(Oidemia deglandi.)

Abundant resident. Winters on the coast, and is found during the summer both on the coast and interior of Mainland.

I have no record as to

its

breeding place.

12
63.

CHECK LIST OP

Surf Scoter.
"Coot."

(Oidemia perspicillata.)
coast waters.

Abundant everywhere on the
64.

Resident.

Ruddy Duck.
(Erismatura rubida.)

During the breeding season, this year, I found this duck quite common on the lakes along the Cariboo Road, where I have no doubt it breeds. A few are taken during the winter on the coast, but they are by no means common so
;

that, probably,

many go

south during the winter.

SUBFAMILY
65.

ANSERINE.

GEESE.

Lesser

Snow

Goose.

(Chen hyperborea.) winter resident on the coast. Tolerably abundant. During some winters large numbers congregate off the

A

mouth
66.

of Fraser.

Ross's
(Chen

Snow
rossii.)

Goose.

This goose has been taken at the mouth of Fraser River, and also on Shuswap Lake, but I am inclined to think that its occurrence here is rare.
67.

American White-fronted Goose.

(Anser albifrons gambeli.) abundant resident. Breeds both on the Island and Mainland. The young have been taken on Cowichan Lake.

An

68.

Canada Goose.
(Branta canadensis.)
very abundant resident.

A
the

Breeds throughout

the

interior of the Mainland.

Appears

in great flocks along

Lower Fraser River during the winter months, and

affords fine sport for the gunners.
69.

Hutchin's Goose.
(Branta canadensis hutchinsii.)
resident.

A
coast.

Known

" on the as " crow goose

Tolerably abundant.

Winters on

Lower

Fraser.

the I

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.

13

saw a pair of these geese, this season, in possession of Mrs. James Campbell, Cache Creek, which were taken by her when quite young, nearly two years ago. They were quite tame, and allowed to come and go at will.
70.

White-cheeked Goose.
(Branta canadensis occidentalis. )
at Chilliwhack by Allen C. Brooks.

Taken
71.

Cackling Goose.
(Branta canadensis minima.)

A
72.

whack by Allen

winter resident along the coast. C. Brooks.

Taken

at Chilli-

Black Brant.
(Branta nigricans.)

An abundant winter resident along the coasts of Island and Mainland. Breeds in the far north. Years ago they used to congregate in great numbers on the flats at Burrard
Inlet.

SUBFAMILY
73.

CYGNINJE.

SWANS.

Whistling Swan.
(Orlor columbianus.)

winter resident in the southern portions of the Province, and very abundant during the summer in some portions of the Mainland interior. The young have been taken on Vancouver Island.
74.

A

Trumpeter Swan.
(Orlor buccinator.)

it

I have only seen this bird at Dease Lake, Cassiar, where appears to be not uncommon. Mr. A. L. Poudrier, of the Government Survey, reports having seen on a lake in the Chilcotin district, last season, upwards of five hundred swans, but of what species he could not say.

14

CHECK LIST OF

Order

HERODIONES.
Ibises, &c.
FAMILY IBIDID^E.

Herons,

IBISES.

75.

White-faced Glossy
(Plegadis guarauna.)

Ibis.

Only two specimens known to be taken in the Province one on Salt Spring Island, the other at the mouth of Fraser
'>

River.

Suborder HERODII.
FAMILY

Herons, Bitterns, &c.
HERONS, BITTERNS.
BITTERNS.

ARDEID^E.

SUBFAMILY
76.

BOTAURIN^E.

American

Bittern.

(Botaurus lentiginosus.) throughout the greater portion of the ProvinceBreeds both east and west of Cascades.

" Staked river."

Common

SUBFAMILY
77.

ARDEIN^B.
/

HERONS.

Great Blue Heron.

^jcu 4 'W'fy faffC
78.

(Ardea herodias.) Abundant throughout the Province. in suitable places throughout its raAge.

U^i^'

^
.

j

^
;

Resident

breeder,

.-.

,
/

L&ft 1
/

Snowy

Heron.

^C/^9 ^^^^/^ 7 f ftJ/ &f $A / ^f^v^/^V^y {fliSt- \SO4K / / /
Inlet,

Rare. 1879.

(Ardea candidissima. ) Two specimens taken at Burrard

May,

Order

PALUDICOLJE.
Rails, &c.

Cranes,

Suborder

GRUES.

Cranes.
CRANES.

FAMILY GRUID^E.
79.

Little

Brown

Crane.

(Grus canadensis.)

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.

15

B. C. at large, but more abundant in the interior of the Mainland. During the fore part of May (this year) on a Cariboo Road, I trip from Clinton to the 108-Mile House,

met these birds
abundant.
80.

which were also in the same

in great flocks, while the larger species, locality, were not near so

Sandhill Crane.
(Grus mexicana.)

B. C. at large. Tolerably abundant. its range, but chiefly east of Cascades.

Breeds throughout

FAMILY RALLID^E.
SUBFAMILY
81.

RAILS AND COOTS.
RAILS.

RALLIN^E.

Virginia Rail.
(Rallus virginianus. )

Mainland and Island.
82.

Not common.

Breeds.

Carolina Rail.
' '

Sora.

"
(

Porzana

Carolina. )

Mainland and Island.
83.

Common east of Cascades.

Breeds.

American Coote.
(Fulica americana.)

An

abundant

resident.

Breeds round the lakes of the

Island and Mainland.

Order LIMICOLJE.
FAMILY
84.

Shore Birds.
PHALAROPES.

PHALAROPODID^E.

Red Phalarope.
Burrard Inlet
J. F.

(Crymophilus fulicarius.) Chilliwhack Allen C. Brooks.
85.

Northern Phalarope.
(Phalaropus lobatus.)

Abundant, during spring and fall, along coasts of Island and Mainland. Have taken it in July on Burrard Inlet.

16
86.

CHECK LIST OP

Wilson's Phalarope.
(Phalaropus tricolor.)
at Chilliwhack

Taken

Allen C. Brooks.
SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, &c.

FAMILY SCOLOPACID^E.
87.

Wilson's Snipe.
(Gallinago delicata.)

Island and Mainland. Resident. Tolerably abundant. Breeds in the interior of Mainland. Eggs taken at Enderby, May, 1891, by Mr. DeBlois Green.
88.

Long-billed Dowitcher. " Bed-breasted Snipe." (Macrorhamphus

scolopaceus. )

Island and the whole of the MainTolerably abundant. land. Breeds in the interior.
89.

Knot.
coast.

"Robin Snipe." (Tringa canutus.) Abundant during migrations, chiefly along the
90.

Pectoral Sandpiper.
(Tringa macula ta.)
fall

Taken near Victoria during spring and Not common.
91.

migrations.

Baird's Sandpiper.

(Tringa bairdii.) Chilliwhack Allen C. Brooks.
92.

Least Sandpiper.
(Tringa minutilla.)

is abundant along the coast during fall and I also found it quite common in the spring migrations. interior of the Mainland during the summer.

This bird

93.

Bed-backed Sandpiper.
(Tringa alpina pacifica.)
resident.

A very abundant
as early as August.

Appears in great numbers
fall,

along the coast during spring and

reaching Victoria

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS
94.

17

Semipalmated Sandpiper.
(Ereunetes pusillus.)
at

Collected

Duck's (east of Cascades) by

Clark

P.

Streater, July
95.

and September, 1889.

Western Sandpiper.
(Ereunetes occidentalis. )

An
96.

abundant

resident.

Is

found throughout the year in

the neighbourhood of Victoria.

Sanderling.
(Calidris arenaria.)

Collected at Fort Simpson by
97.

W.

B. Anderson.

Marbled Godwit.
(Limosa fedoa.)
of British Columbia.

The whole
Cascades.
98.

Breeds chiefly east of

Similkameen.

Greater Yellow

legs. (Totanus melanoleucus.

)

I

abundant resident 'along the coast during winter. found it breeding this season around the lakes above

An

Clinton.
99.

Yellow-legs.
(Totamis
flavipes.)

Tolerably common.
at Burrard Inlet.

I

found

it

throughout the summer

100.

Solitary Sandpiper.
(Totanus
solitarius.)

Found throughout the Province. Chilliwhack -Allen C. Brooks.
101.

Nowhere common.

Cinnamon

Solitary Sandpiper.
Clark P, Streator,

(Totanus solitarius cinnamoineus.)

"Summer resident in the interior." "Collection of B. C. birds, 1889."

18
102.

CHECK LIST OF

Wandering

Tatler.
Fort

(Heteractitis incanus. )

The Province at large. Breeds; tolerably common. Simpson W. B. Anderson.
103.

Buff-breasted Sandpiper.
(Tryngites subruncollis.)

Tolerably
104.

common throughout

the Province.

.Resident.

Spotted Sandpiper.
(Actitis macularia.) at large.

The Province
105.

Nowhere common.

Long-billed Curlew.
(Numenius
longirostris.)

Has been taken
tions.

at Beacon Hill during spring migrar Breeds at Okanagan, Similkameen.

106.

Hudsonian Curlew.
(Numenius hudsonicus.)

Fort Simpson,
nard.

W.

B. Anderson.

Cadboro Bay,

J.

May-

FAMILY
107.

CHARADRIID^E.

PLOVERS.

Black-bellied Plover.
(Charadrius squatarola.)

Abundant, during migrations, along the shores round and about Victoria. Taken in breeding plumage at Fort Simpson by W. B. Anderson.
108.

American Golden Plover.
(Charadrius dominicus.)

resident throughout the Province. found it breeding east of Cascades. Fort Simpson, W. Dease Lake, J. Porter. B. Anderson.
I

A

common summer

109.

Killdeer Plover.
(^Egialitis vocifera.)

Occurs throughout the Province. Is occasionally taken on the coast in the winter. I found it breeding east of
Cascades.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
110.

19

Semipalmated Plover.
(-ZEgialitis

semipalmata.)

Not common.

Taken

at

Cadboro Bay -A. H. Maynard.

FAMILY APHRIZIDJE.
111.

SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES.

Surf Bird.
(Aphriza virgata.)
coast line of the Province.

The
Griffin.

Howe Sound

R. V.

Fort Simpson

W.

B..

Anderson.

112.

Turnstone.
(Arenaria interpres.)

coast line of the Province. Anderson. James' Island J. F.
113.

The

Fort Simpson

W.

B.

Black Turnstone.
(Arenaria melanocephala.)
coast
line

The
Breeds.

of

the

Province.

Tolerably common.

FAMILY
114.

H^EMATOPODID^E.

THE OYSTER CATCHERS.

Black Oyster-catcher.
,

An

(Hsematopus bachmani.) abundant resident along the coast

of the Island

and

Breeds throughout its range. Eggs, generally two, laid on the bare rocks close to the water.
Mainland.

Order GALLINJE.
Birds.
FAMILY

Gallinaceous

TETRAONID^E.

GROUSE, PARTRIDGES, AND

QUAIL.
115.

Mountain Partridge.
"Quail."

(Oreortyx pictus. )
Island.

Common on Vancouver
fornia.

Introduced from

Cali-

20
116.

CHECK LIST OF
California Partridge.
(Callipepla californica.)
Island.

Vancouver
117.

Introduced from California.

Sooty Grouse.
"Blue Grouse/' (Dendragapus obscurus
fuliginosus.)
of the

West
islands.

Cascade Mountains, including
resident.

all

the larger

An

abundant

118.

Richardson's Grouse.
"Blue Grouse," "Mountain Grouse."
pus obscurus richardsonii.)

(Dendraga-

East of the Cascade Mountains, including the Rocky

Mountain
119.

District.

Abundant.

Resident.

Franklin Grouse.
"Fool-hen."

(Dendragapus

franklinii.)

Throughout the wooded portion of the interior of the Mainland, east of and including the Cascade Mountains.

An

abundant

resident.

120.

Canadian Ruffed Grouse.
(Bonasa umbellus togata.)

East of and including Cascades.
121.

An

abundant

resident.

Gray Ruffed Grouse.
(Bonasa umbellus umbelloides.)
District.

Rocky Mountain
122.

Soda Creek, Beaver Pass.

Oregon Ruffed Grouse.
(Bonasa umbellus
sabini.)

West

An

of the Cascades, including all the larger islands. abundant resident. also

Grouse,"

The three last species are known " Drummers," &c.

as

"Willow

is

NOTE. Although the "red" phase of the Ruffed Grouse more constant west of the Cascades, both red and gray

are found throughout the Province, with the tails indifferently reddish or grayish: so that the sub-division as it

stands

now

is

somewhat perplexing.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
123.

21

Willow Ptarmigan.
(Lagopus lagopus.)

Dease Lake, Cassiar
124.

James

Porter.

Rock Ptarmigan.
(Lagopus rupestris.)
of most of the mountains Abundant. of the

Summit
Island.

Mainland and

125.

White-tailed Ptarmigan.
(Lagopus leucurus.)
of

Summit
James
126.

Coast Range.
Porter.

most of the mountains of the Mainland except Beaver Pass George Hyde. Cassiar

Columbia Sharp-tailed Grouse.
"Prairie Chicken."
(Pediocsetes phasianellus co-

lumbianus.)

abundant resident east of the Cascades. During a through the interior I found this grouse very abundant along the Cariboo Road, from Pavilion Mountain to the 108-mile post; and a letter just received from Mr. E. Bell, of Clinton, says: "Prairie chickens are more plentiful this season than they have been for years."
trip, this season,

An

127.

Sage Grouse.
(Centrocercus urophasianus. )

Three specimens taken by G. B. Martin, M. P. P., at The bird is probably Osoyoos Lake in October, 1864.
accidental here.

Order

COLUMB^E.
COLUMBID^l.

Pigeons.
PIGEONS.

FAMILY
128.

Band-tailed Pigeon.
(Columba
fasciata.)

Irregularly through the Summer resident. Province.

southern

portions of Tolerably common.

the

22
129.

CHECK LIST OF

Passenger Pigeon.
(Ectopistes migratorious.)

Probably now extinct in this Province.
130.

Mourning Dove.
(Zenaidura macroura.)

Mainland and Island.

Nowhere common.

Order
FAMILY
131.

RAPTORES.
CATHARTID^E.

Birds of Prey.
AMERICAN VULTURES.

California Vulture.
(Pseudogryphus
calif ornianus.)

In September, 1880, I saw two of these birds at Burrard It is more than probable they are accidental visiInlet. tants here. Lord says: "Mouth of Eraser River. Seldom
visits

the interior."

132.

Turkey Vulture.
(Cathartes aura.)

Distributed throughout the Province, but nowhere common, though in September, 1887, I saw about a dozen together at the mouth of Harrison River.

FAMILY
133.

FALCONID^S.

FALCONS, HAWKS, EAGLES, &c.

Marsh Hawk.
(Circus hudsonius.)

Abundant chiefly on the Mainland Sumas, Chilliwhack, mouth of Fraser River. Also east of Cascades.
few are found throughout the Partially migratory. winter in the neighbourhood of Ladner's.
134.

A

Sharp-shinned Hawk.
(Accipiter velox.)
chiefly,

A few remain throughout the year migratory. couver Island. A smart, active little hawk, the
small birds.

Abundant,

west of the

Cascades.

Partially

on Vanterror of

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
135.

23

Cooper's

Hawk.
I

(Accipiter cooperi.)

In
Inlet
136.

my

experience rare.

have taken

it

at

Burrard

and on Vancouver Island.

Western Goshawk.
(Accipiter atricapillus striatulus.)

Tolerably

abundant west

hawk
137.

;

More the Province. the Cascades. large, fine-looking a scourge of the farmers' poultry yards.
of

common throughout

A

Western Red-tailed Hawk.
(Buteo borealis calurus.)

East and west of the Cascades. Very abundant. A great number "young of the Another hen harrier. "
year
138.

are taken in the neighbourhood of this city.

Red-breasted Hawk.
(Buteo lineatus elegans.)

Not very common. I have taken it at Burrard Inlet. Mr. W. B. Anderson found it at Fort Simpson, and Mr. Brooks at Chilli whack. I have no record of it on the
Island.
139.

Swainson's Hawk.
(Buteo swainsoni.) at Chilliwhack by Mr. Brooks.

Taken

UO.

American Rough-legged Hawk.
(Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis.)

have taken this hawk at Burrard Inlet, Brooks has found it at Chilliwhack. These are The records I have of its occurrence here. " Whole Check-List says of North America
I
:

and Mr.
the only A. O. U. north of

Mexico."
141.

Golden Eagle.
(Aquila chryaetos.)
east of the
it is

The whole of British Columbia, but chiefly Cascades and Rocky Mountain district, where dent. Rarely west to Vancouver Island.

a

resi-

24
142.

CHECK LIST OF

Bald Eagle.
(Haliseetus leucocephalus.)

The Province at large. A resident. The most abundant bird of prey we have, especially along the coast, where at the mouths of some of the rivers and inlets they congregate
in great numbers. Breeds throughout its range. Nest, a bulky affair, usually on the broken top of some lofty pine, though I saw one at Howe Sound not over twelve feet from the ground. This bird is the emblem of the Great Republic south of us but whatever virtues it may possess while in "the land of the free" to keep it in this exalted position, it certainly falls from grace when north of the Here it is a buzzard of the lowest forty-ninth parallel. type, stooping to the foulest kind of carrion.
;

143.

Prairie Falcon. (Falco Mexicanus

)

Taken
144.

at Chilliwhack by Allen C. Brooks.

Duck Hawk.
(Falco peregrinus anatum.)

Tolerably

common, both

Partially migratory. on Vancouver Island.

A

east and west of Cascades. few remain throughout the winter

145.

Peale's Falcon,
(Falco peregrinus pealei.)
I have taken it at Burrard Brooks has observed it at Chilliwhack.

Not common.
Mr..

Inlet,

and

146.

Pigeon Hawk.
(Falco columbarius. )
east and west of Cascades, and ranging well up Rocky Mountain District, in which locality I have

Common
into the

taken
147.

it

in its most perfect plumage.

Black Merlin.
(Falco columbarius suckleyi.)

A

common summer

resident along the coast.

Abundant

on Vancouver Island.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
148.

25

Richardson's Merlin.
(Falco richardsonii.)

Taken at Chilliwhack by Mr. Brooks, and near Victoria by A. H. Maynard. Not common.
149.

American Sparrow Hawk.

(Falco sparverius. ) Distributed throughout the greater portion of the Province. Very abundant. Breeds both on the Island

and Mainland.
150.

Nests in holes in

trees.

American Osprey.

"Fish Hawk." (Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. ) abundant summer resident throughout the Province. Breeds both on the Island and Mainland. Nest, usually on the broken top of a tree, not far from water.

An

Suborder STRIGES.
FAMILY
151.

Owls.
&c.

BUBONID^].

HORNED OWLS,

American Long-eared Owl.

(Asio wilsonianus.) Rare. I have taken it on Vancouver Island only.
152.

Short-eared Owl.
(Asio accipitrinus.)

Abundant, both on the Island and Mainland.
on the coast throughout the winter.
153.

Remains

Great Gray Owl.

(Scotiaptex cinereum.) I have one specimen that was killed at ChilliRare. whack, November, 1887. Another was taken at Stuart Lake, 1891, and presented to the Museum by Mr. W. E.
Trail.

154.

Saw-whet Owl.
(Nyctala acadica.)

I have taken it in the winter at Burrard Inlet, and a few have been taken on Vancouver Island. Mr. Anderson reports it from Fort

Not by any means common.

Simpson.

26
155.

CHECK LIST OF
Kennicott's Screech Owl.
(Megascops asio kennicottii.)

abundant resident throughout the Province. Breeds in the neighbourhood of this city. Also on the Mainland, east and west of Cascades.
NOTE. It appears that from a collection of Kennicott owls made by Mr. E. H. Forbush near this city, in November, 1888, and February, 1889, a certain amount of evidence was procured which may lead to the consideration of a subdivision of the species. It is to be hoped, though, that before final action is taken in the matter further material may be gathered, as the tendency in the direction of creating sub-species on a mere phantom of evidence is already stretched beyond a safe tension.
156.

An

Western Horned Owl
(Bubo virginianus subarcticus. abundant resident throughout the Province.
)

An

Mr.

C. P. Wolley, of this city,

found

it

breeding this season on

the mountains near Bridge River.
157.

Dusky Horned Owl.
(Bubo virginianus saturatus.)
abundant resident west
of the Cascades.

An
158.

Snowy Owl.
(Nyctea nyctea.)

Resident in the northern portions of the Province. South, during some winters only, to the mouth of Fraser River and Vancouver Island.
159.

American

Hawk
of

Owl.

(Surnia ulula caparoch.)

A

Vancouver kameen.
160.

resident east Island.

Cascades. West, occasionally, to Breeds along the valley of the Simil-

Burrowing Owl.
(Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea.)

Not common. I have only found them in the neighbourhood of Kamloops, but have heard of them at Ashcroft.
East of Cascades.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
161.

27

Pygmy

Owl.

(Glaucidium gnoma.)

Common

throughout the Province.

Order

COCCYGES. The
FAMILY

Cuckoos.

CUCULID^E.

CUCKOOS.

162.

California Cuckoo.
(Coccyzus americanus occidentalis. )

In May, 1881, I saw one of these birds at Burrard Inlet, and in June, 1382, the late Mr. J. C Hughes found a pair In June, 1887, I saw a pair at breeding at Kamloops. Skinner's Swamp, near this city, and from their actions I Later on concluded they were breeding in that locality. in the same year, one was shot near Mount Tolinie. They

may be

considered rare

summer

residents here.

FAMILY
163.

ALCEDINID^.

THE KINGFISHERS.

Belted Kingfisher.
(Ceryle Alcyon.)

An

abundant resident throughout the Province.

Order PICI.

The Woodpeckers.
WOODPECKERS.

FAMILY PICID^E.
164.

Norther's Hairy Woodpecker.
Com-

(Dryobates villosus leucomelas.) Eastern Cascade and Rocky Mountain sections.

mon
165.

resident.

Harris's
of

Woodpecker.
harrisii.)

(Dryobates villosus

West
resident.

Cascades,

especially

coastwise.

A

common

including the Cascades,

28
167.

CHECK LIST OP
Gairdner's Woodpecker.
(Dryobates pubescens gairdnerii.)

A common resident west of Cascades.
couver Island.
168.

Winters on Van-

Batchelder's Woodpecker.
(Dryobates pubescens orececus.)

"

Very common throughout the
Clark P. Streator.

interior.

Duck's and

Ashcroft."
169.

White-headed Woodpecker.
(Xenopicus albolarvatus. )

Cascade Mountains.
170.

Similkameen

R. V. Griffin.

Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.
(Picoides arcticus.)

East of and including the Cascades.
171.

Resident.

Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker.
(Picoides americanus dorsalis.)
of Cascades.

Mountains east
172.

North

to Cassiar.

Red-naped Sapsucker.
(Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis.)

I found this bird very

common

especially along the Cariboo Road. the Island.

east of the Cascades, I have not seen it 011

173.

Red-breasted Sapsucker.
(Sphyrapicus ruber.)

East and west of Cascades.
174.

Common.

Williamson's Sapsucker.
(Sphyrapicus thyroideus.)
at Similkameen by R. V. Griffin, June, 1882.

Taken
175.

Pileated Woodpecker.
(Ceophloeus pileatus.)

Common.

But more abundant on the

coast.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS
176.

29

Lewis's Woodpecker.

(Melanerpes torquatus.) East and west of Cascades. Rare on Vancouver Island.
177.

Flicker.
"Higholder."
(Colaptes auratus.)

Vancouver Island and Mainland.
178.

Very

rare.

Red-shafted Flicker.
(Colaptes cafer.)

East of Cascades.
179.

Common.
Flicker.

Northwestern

(Colaptes cafer saturatior.)

West of Cascades. Abundant. the neighborhood of Victoria.

A

number winter

in

Order

MACROCHIRES.
CAPRIMULGID^E.

Goatsuckers
GOATSUCKERS.

FAMILY
180.

Nighthawk.
(Chordeiles virginianus.)

East of Cascades.
181.

Summer

resident.

Western Nighthawk.
(Chordeiles virginianus henryi.)

of Cascades. Island and Mainland.

West

A

summer

resident.

Breeds on the

FAMILY
182.

MICROPODID^E.

SWIFTS.

Black Swift.
(Cypseloides niger.)

I know of no place in this Province migrant. where they fijid a resting place for the soles of their feet. They arrive in the neighbourhood of this city about the 10th of June, usually in company with the last species. They are continually on the wing, moving northward.

A

30
183.

CHECK LIST OP

Vaux's Swift.
(Chsetura vauxii.)

East and west of Cascades, but not, to
occurring on Vancouver Island.

my

knowledge,

FAMILY TROCHILID^E.
184.

HUMMINGBIRDS.

Black-chinned Hummingbird.
(Trochilus alexandri.)
;

Confined to the Mainland
185.

both slopes of the Cascades.

Rufous Hummingbird.
(Trochilus rufus.)

of Cascades. An abundant summer resident. only one, to my knowledge, found on the Island.

West

The

186.

Allen's

Hummingbird.

(Trochilus alleni.)

Eastern Cascade and Rocky Mountain Districts.
187.

Calliope

Hummingbird.

(Trochilus calliope.) East and west of Cascades.

Order

PASSERES.
TYRANNIES.

Perching Birds.
TYRANT FLYCATCHERS.

FAMILY
188.

Kingbird.
More common on the Main-

(Tyrannus tyrannus.) East and west of Cascades.
land.

A

summer

resident.

189.

Gray Kingbird.
(Tyrannus dominicensis.)

at Cape Beale, 29th Sept., 1889, by Miss Cox, and presented to the Museum.

One specimen taken

190.

Arkansas Kingbird.

(Tyrannus verticalis.) East and west of Cascades, but chiefly on the Mainland. I found it breeding at Ashcroft.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIKDS.
191.

31

Say's Phoebe.
(Sayornis say a.)

East and west of Cascades, but chiefly on the Mainland.

Summer
192.

resident.

Olive-sided Flycatcher.
(Contopus
borealis.)

East and west of Cascades,

A common summer resident.

193.

Western

Wood

Pewee.
east

(Contopus richardsonii.)

A common summer resident,
194.

and west

of Cascades.

Western Flycatcher.
(Empidonax
difficilis.)

A common summer resident east and
195. Little

west of Cascades.

Flycatcher. (Empidonax pusillus.
resident, chiefly west of Cascades.

A

summer

196. Trail's

Flycatcher. (Empidonax pusillus trailii.)
Westminster,
Streator, in 1889.

"New
Clark
P.

Mt. Lehman,
of

and

collection

birds

made

Ashcroft." in British

Columbia
197.

t

Hammond's

Flycatcher.

(Empidonax hammondi.)
Chiefly on the Mainland, east and west of Cascades. Common at New Westminster. Summer resident.

198.

Wright's Flycatcher.
(Empidonax obscurus.)
C. Brooks.

Taken at Chilliwhack by A.
dent.

Summer

resi-

32

CHECK LIST OF
FAMILY

ALAUDIDJE.

LARKS.

199.

PaUid Horned Lark.
(Otocoris alpestris leucolaema.)
I

East of and including the Cascades. the summit.
200.

have taken

it

on

Streaked Horned Lark.
(Octocoris alpestris strigata.) of Cascades. Fort Simpson,
Inlet, J. F.

West

Burrard

W. B. Anderson. Nowhere Chilliwhack, A. C. Brooks.

common.
201.

Dusky Horned Lark

(Otocoris alpestris merrillii.) Chiefly east of Cascades.

FAMILY CORVIDjE.
202.

CROWS, JAYS, MAGPIES, &c.

American Magpie.
(Pica pica hudsonica.)

An

abundant

resident.

of Cascades only couver Island.

Breeds east of Cascades. West rare straggler on Vanduring winter.

A

203.

SteUer's Jay.
(Cyanocitta
stelleri.)

abundant resident east and west of Cascades. Breeds both on the Island and Mainland.
204.

An

Black-headed Jay.
(Gyanocitta stelleri annectens.)

East of Cascade and Rocky Mountain Districts.
205.

Oregon Jay.
"Whiskey Jack."
soreus obscurus.

"Hudson Bay

Bird."

(Peri-

An
206.
*

abundant resident throughout the Province.

Northern Raven.
(Corvus corax principalis.)
resident throughout the Province, chiefly northward coastwise. Becoming rare in certain localities where,
it

A
and

twenty years ago,

was abundant.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
207.

33

California Crow.
(Corvus americanus hesperis.)

East and west of Cascades.
208.

Common

resident.

Northwest Crow.
yery abundant on the
coast.

(Corvus caurinus.) Chiefly west of Cascades, Resident.
209.

Clarke's Nutcracker.
"Clarke's crow."
(Picicorvus colum-bianus.)

resident east of Cascades. West, but very Abundant in the pine belts rarely, to Vancouver Island. along the Similkameen, and also along the Cariboo Road above Clinton.

A

common

FAMILY ICTERID^E.
210.

BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, &c.

Cowbird.

(Molothrus ater.) Similkaineen R. Y. Griffin.
211.

Yellow-headed Blackbird.
(Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus.)

A rare summer resident.
of Cascades.

I found

it

On the Mainland, chieflly east above Clinton this season.

212.

Red-winged Blackbird.
(Agelaius phoeniceus.)

Chiefly west of Cascades.

Breeds on Vancouver Island.

Common.
213.

Western Meadowlark.
(Sturnella

magna

neglecta.)

East and west of Cascades.

Abundant.

Winters on

Vancouver
214.

Island.

Bullock's Oriole.
(Icterus bullocki.)

East of Cascades only. at Cache Creek.

A rare

summer

resident.

Breeds

34
215.

CHECK LIST OP

Brewer's Blackbird.

(Scolecophagus cyanocephalus.) East and west of Cascades. Common in spring and fall at the mouth of the Fraser. Breeds in the neighbourhood
of Clinton.

FAMILY FRINGILLIDJE.
216.

FINCHES, SPARROWS, &c.

Evening Grosbeak.
(Coccothraustes vespertinus.)

East of Cascades, straggling west (in winter) to Lower Fraser and Vancouver Island. I found it near summit of Cascades, last of June.
217.

American Pine Grosbeak.
(Pinicola enucleator canadensis.)

East and west of Cascades, except Vancouver IslandFort Simpson W. B. Anderson.
218.

California Purple Finch.
(Carpodacus purpureus
calif ornicus.)

An
219.

abundant summer

resident, chiefly west of Cascades.

Breeds on the Island and Mainland.

Cassin's Purple Finch.
Tolerably common.

(Carpodacus cassini.) East and west of Cascades.
220.

American

Crossbill.

(Loxia curvirostra minor.)

An
221.

abundant resident throughout the Province.
Crossbill.

White-winged

(Loxia leucoptera.)

Rocky

Beaver Pass
222.

Mountain District. Geo. Hyde.

An

abundant

resident.

Gray-crowned Leucosticte.
(Leucosticte tephrocotis.)
District.

Rocky Mountain
to the Cascades.

In winter, occasionally, west

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
223.

35

Hepburn's Leucosticte.
"

Gray crowned Finch." Tephrocotis littoralis. the coast to the Rocky Mountains. Ashcroft, Fort Simpson W. B. Anderson. Clinton, Burrard Inlet.

From

224.

Redpoll.
(Acanthis
linaria.)

The Province at Mountain District.
225.

large,

but more

common

in the

Rocky

American Goldfinch.
(Spinus
tristis.)

Chiefly confined to the Mainland.

Both

slopes of the

Cascades and Rocky Mountain District.
226.

Pine Siskin.
" Pine Linnet."

(Spinus pinus.)

The Province
bourhood of
227.

at large.

An
fall

pearing in great flecks during
this city.

abundant resident. Apand winter in the neigh-

Snowflake.
(Plectrophenax nivalis.)

An
228.

abundant

resident.

More common

east of Cascades.

Lapland Longspur.

(Calcarius lapponicus.) at large. Nowhere common. Fort Simpson W. B. Anderson. Chilliwhack A. C. Brooks. Near Burrard Inlet J. F. Victoria A. H. Maynard.

The Province

229.

Macown's Longspur.
(Rhynchophanes mccownii.) A. C. Brooks.

N*.

Chilliwhack

230.

Vesper Sparrow.
(Poocsetes graniineus.)

East of Cascades.
231.

An

abundant summer

resident.

Western Vesper Sparrow.

"Bay-winged Bunting." (Poocsetes gramineus confinis.) Vancouver Island, Chiefly west of Cascades.

36
232.

CHECK LIST OF

Sandwich Sparrow.
(Ammodramus
sandwichensis.)
of Cascades.

An
on
233.

abundant summer resident west

Breeds

this Island.

Western Savanna Sparrow.
alaudinus.)

(Ammodramus sandwichensis Summer resident on the coast.
Brooks.
234.

Chilliwhack

A. C.

Intermediate Sparrow.
and

(Zonotrichia intermedia.) I found this bird very common east of Cascades, Mr. Brooks reports it from Chilliwhack.
235.

Gambel's Sparrow.
(Zonotrichia gambeli.)

of Cascades, especially on the coast. The most abundant small bird in the neighbourhood of Victoria, where throughout the spring months its somewhat monotonous song is heard from "morn till night."

West

236.

Golden-crowned Sparrow.
(Zonotrichia coronata. ;

An
237.

abundant summer

resident.

Western Tree Sparrow.
(Spizella monticola ochracea.)

Chilliwhack
238.

A. C. Brooks.

Western Chipping Sparrow.
(Spizella socialis arizonse.
)

An
cades.

abundant summer resident east and west of CasBreeds in the neighbourhood of this city.

239.

Brewer's Sparrow.
(Spizella breweri.)

Eastern

Similkameen
240.

Cascades R. V.

and
Griffin.

Rocky

Mountain

Districts,

Slate-coloured Junco.
(

Junco hy emalis.) Chilliwhack A. C. Brooks.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
241.

37

Oregon Junco.
"Snow-bird."

(Junco hyemalis oregonus.)
of the Cascades.

An
242.

abundant resident west

Rocky Mountain Junco.
(Junco hyemalis shufeldti.)
to

According

Mr.

Frank

M.

Chapman (American

History), the Juncos collected by Mr. Streator east of the Cascades are separable from the coast forms, and should be placed as above.
243.

Museum Natural

Rusty Song Sparrow.
(Melospiza fasciata guttata.)
chiefly

abundant resident, confined Vancouver Island.
244.

An

to the coast-

Sooty Song Sparrow.
(Melospiza fasciata rufina
)

An
245.

abundant

resident,

chiefly

along the coast of the

Mainland.

Lincoln's Sparrow.
(Melospiza lincolni.)
east

Found
246.

and west

of Cascades.

Forbush's Finch.
(Melospiza lincolni striata.)

Collected at Comox, September, 1888, by E. H. Forbush. Probably a doubtful species.
247.

Townsend's Sparrow.
(Passerella iliaca unalaschcensis.)

I

have only found

a

common summer

this bird west of the Cascades. It resident on Vancouver Island, where

is
it

breeds.

248.

Spurred Townee.
(Pipilo maculatus megalonyx.)

East of Cascades.

Breetls at Ashcrof t.

38
249.

CHECK LIST OP

Oregon Townee.
(Pipilo maculatus oregonus.)

An
on the
250.

abundant resident west of the Cascades.
coast.

Winters

Black-headed Grosbeak.
summer
(Habia melanocephala.) resident east and west of Cascades:

A
251.

Lazuli Bunting.
(Passerina amoena.)
resident, chiefly east of Cascades Districts. Rare on Vancouver

abundant summer and Rocky Mountain
Island.

An

FAMILY
252.

TANAGRIDJE.

TANAGERS.

Louisiana Tanager.
(Piranga ludoviciana.)

abundant summer resident throughout the Province. Breeds on the Island and Mainland.
*

An

FAMILY
253.

HIRUNDINID^E.

SWALLOWS.

Purple Martin.
(Progne subis.)
resident, chiefly west of Cascades. seven years have commenced breeding in of Victoria and New Westminster.
last

A common
Within the
the cities

summer

254. Cliff

Swallow.

(Petrochelidon lunifrons.) I have only found this bird east of the Cascades, where in some localities along the Cariboo Road it is very

abundant.
255.

Barn Swallow.
(Chelidon erythrogaster.)

An
256.

abundant summer resident throughout the Province.

White-bellied Swallow.
(Tachycineta bicolor.)
at large.

The Province

Abundant.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
257.

39

Violet-green Swallow.
(Tachycineta thalassina.)

An
258.

abundant summer resident throughout the Province.

Rough-winged Swallow.
(Stelgidopteryx serripennis.) all over the Province. Breeds in the banks at
Hill.

Common
Beacon

FAMILY
259.

AMPELID^E.

WAXWINGS.

Bohemian Waxwing.
(Ampelis garrulus.)

A resident, chiefly east of Cascades and Rocky Mountain A rare winter visitant on Vancouver Island. Districts.
260.

Cedar

Bird.
resident throughout the Province.

(Ampelis cedrorum.)

A

common summer
FAMILY

LANIID^.

SHRIKES.

261.

Northern Shrike.
"Butcherbird."
(Lanius borealis.)
large.

The Province at

Nowhere common.
coast.

A few are

found throughout the winter on the
262.

White-rumped

Shrike.
A. H.

(Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides.) Vancouver Island Chilliwhack A. C. Brooks.

Maynard.

FAMILY
263.

VIREONID^.

VIREOS.

Red-eyed Vireo.
(Vireo olivaceus.)

East of the Cascades

Clark P. Streator.

Chilliwhack

A

v

C. Brooks.

264.

Warbling

Vireo.

(Vireo gilvus.) East and west of Cascades.

Common summer

resident.

40
265.

CHECK LIST OF

Western Warbling
the coast to the
resident.

Vireo.

(Vireo gilvus swain soni.)

From summer
266.

Rocky Mountains,

Common

Cassin's Vireo.
(Yireo solitarius cassinii.)

East and west of Cascades only.
267.

Summer

resident.

Plumbeous

Vireo.

(Vireo solitarius plumbeus.)

Chilliwhack

A. C. Brooks.

FAMILY
268.

MNIOTILTID^

WOOD WARBLERS.

Orange-crowned Warbler.
(Helminthophila
celata.)

East and west of Cascades.
269.

A

summer

resident.

Lutescent Warbler.
(Helminthophila celata lutescens.)

Chiefly west of the Cascades. resident on the coast.
270.

A very abundant

summer

Yellow Warbler.
(Dendroica
sestiva.)

East and west of Cascades.
trict.

An

Also Rocky Mountain Disresident.

abundant summer

271.
(

Dendfoica

An
name

abundant summer resident throughout the Province.
All our Yellow Warblers are
of "

NOTE.
absurd
272.

Wild Canaries," and
should be dropped.

it

is

known here by the about time that this

title

Myrtle Warbler.
(Dendroica corona ta.)

An
cades.

abundant summer

resident, chiefly

west of the Cas-

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
273.

41

Audubon's Warbler.
(Dendroica auduboni.)
Province.

A very abundant summer resident all over the
Black-throated Gray Warbler.
it

Specimens taken east of the Cascades appear to be of much brighter plumage than those of the coast.
274.

(Dendroica nigrescens.) I have only noticed Brooks reports it from Chilli whack.

Not common.

on the coast.

Mr.

275.

Townsend's Warbler.

(Dendroica townsendi.) East and west of Cascades. Not common.
276.

Hermit Warbler.
"Western Warbler."
(Dendroica occidentalis.)
chiefly west of Cascades.

A summer resident,
277. Grinnell's

Water-thrush.
August
7,

(Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis.) Taken at Duck's by Clark P. Streator,
278.

1889.

Macgillivray's Warbler.

(Geothlypis macgillivrayi.) resident throughout the greater portion of the Province. Breeds on Vancouver Island. bright, active little bird, continually on the move, darting here and there among the low shrubbery.

A

common summer

A

NOTE. In an old work, published in 1839 by J. K. Townsend, is a description of a new species of warbler, which the author named " Tolmie's Warbler" (Sylvia tolmcei\ in honour of Dr. Tolmie. then of Fort Vancouver. As the late Dr. Tolmie was an old resident of this city, where his family now reside, I was anxious to know to what species the name had been applied, and why it had been dropped, and wrote to Mr. Robert Ridgeway, Curator of Department of Birds, Smithsonian Institution, for the information, and received the following reply
:

Warbler) is a synonym of "Sylvia Geothlypis Sylvia macgillivrayi (Macgillivray's Warbler) Both names were pubmacgillivrayi of recent authors. lished in i839, but tolmcei occurring on p. 343, while
tolmcei

(Tolmie's

42

CHECK LIST OP
p. 75,

macgillivrayi occurs on
latter."

priority

is

conceded to the

279.

Western Yellow-throat.
common summer

(Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. ) resident throughout the greater portion of the Province.

A

280.

Pileolated Warbler.
(Sylvania pusilla pileolata.)

A
281.

common summer

resident, chiefly west of Cascades.

American Redstart.
(Setophaga
ruticilla.)

Found throughout
and through the common.

the southern portions of the Province,

interior as far as Barkerville.

Nowhere
PIPITS.

FAMILY
282.

MOTACILLID^.
Pipit.

WAGTAILS AND

American

(Anthus pensilvanicus.) East and west of Cascades. Abundant. out some winters on Vancouver Island.

Found through

FAMILY CINCLID^E.
283.

DIPPERS.

American Dipper.
"Water
Ouzel."
(Cinclus mexicanus.)
in the

To be found on nearly every mountain stream
Province.

FAMILY
284.

TROGLODYTID^E.

WRENS.

Catbird.
(Galeoscoptes carolinensis.) Cascades.

Common east and west of Island. Summer resident.
285.

Rare on Vancouver

Rock Wren.

(Salpinctes obsoletus.) I secured a specimen of this bird in June, 1884, at Burrard Inlet, the only one I ever saw on the coast. It is common east of Cascades.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
286.

43

Vigor's

Wren.
Breeds in

(Thryothorus bewickii spilurus.)

A
287.

summer

Beacon Hill Park.

resident, chiefly west of Cascades. fine songster.

A

Parkman's Wren.
(Troglodytes aedon parkmanii.)

A summer resident east and
288.

west of Cascades.

Western Winter Wren.
(Troglodytes hiemalis pacificus.)
resident:

A
289.

Chiefly on the coast.

Abundant.

Tule Wren.
(Cistothorus palustris paluclicola.)
is

have found this bird only east of Cascades, where it very abundant around the lakes along the Cariboo Road.
I

FAMILY CERTHITD^E.
290.

CREEPERS.

California Creeper.
(Certhia familiaris occidentalis.)

East and west of Cascades.
Island.

Common

on Vancouver

\

FAMILY
291.

PARID M.

NUTHATCHES AND

TITS.

Slender-billed Nuthatch.
(Sitta carolinensis aculeata.)

Common
292.

east of Cascades.
hills

on the wooded

I found them very abundant near Cornwall's.

Bed-breasted Nuthatch.
(Sitta canadensis.)

Common
293.

east

and west of Cascades.

Winters on Van-

couver Island.

Pygmy

Nuthatch.

(Sitta pygmsea.)

I

have only found this bird east of Cascades.

44
294.

CHECK LIST OF

Mountain Chickadee.
(Parus gambeli.)
hills

Wooded
District.

east of Cascades,

and Rocky Mountain

295.

Oregon Chickadee.
(Parus atricapillus occidentalis.)
Cascades.

A common resident west of
296.

Long-tailed Chickadee.
(Parus atricapillus septentrionalis.)

I found this bird very common on the wooded hills east of Cascades, especially in the neighbourhood of Cornwall's.
297.

Chesnut-backed Chickadee.
common
(Parus rufescens.) resident west of Cascades.

A

Breeds close to

this city.

FAMILY SYLVIID^E.
298.

WARBLERS, KINGLETS.
Kinglet.
District.

Western Golden-crowned
(Regulus satrapa olivaceus.)

Abundant throughout the Western Cascade
299.

Ruby-crowned

Kinglet.

(Regulus calendula.)

Same

distribution as last species.

FAMILY

TURDIDJE.

THRUSHES, SOLITAIRES, AND BLUEBIRDS.

300.

Townsend's

Solitaire.

(Myadestes townsendii.)
rare bird, though I have found it both east and west of Cascades, and have taken it in January at Ladner's, on the Lower Fraser.

A

301.

Willow Thrush.
(Turdus fuscescens
salicicolus.)

Common

east of Cascades.

A

summer

resident.

BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRDS.
302.

45

Russet-backed Thrush.
(Turdus ustulatus.)

found

I have resident west of Cascades. Breeds in as far north as Dease Lake, Cassiar. Nest in low bushes, or on the neighbourhood of this city. the broken, moss-covered tops of stumps. restless, active bird ; a charming songster, whose clear, bell-like notes are the first to waken the echoes of early morning, and the last to linger long after the day has passed into
it

A

common summer

A

night.

303.

Dwarf Hermit Thrush.
(Turdus aonalaschkse.)
of

West

Cascades,

chiefly

coastwise.

Only noticed
it

during spring, and am inclined to think that breed in this locality.
304.

does not

Western Robin.
(Merula migratoria propinqua.)

Abundant throughout the Province. Partially migraA number winter on Vancouver Island. tory.
305.

Varied Thrush.
Robin."
(Hesperocichla nsevia.)
Partially migratory.
of Cascades.

"Swamp Common west
306.

Western
(Sialia

Bluebird.
resident east
coast.

Mexicana.)

A common
307.

summer

and west

of Cascades

;

more numerous on the

Mountain Bluebird.
(Sialia arctica.)

resident east of Cascades and Rocky Mountain Districts, west, occasionally, to Chilliwhack and other points on the Lower Fraser.

A

summer

APPENDIX.

47

APPENDIX.
The Western Cascade
District

may be

described as a

wooded country, noted for its gigantic coniferous trees, some of which reach a height of three hundred feet, the undergrowth consisting of vine-maple, willow and alder, beneath which a rank growth of moss, matted weeds and ferns, a
state of things exists admirably adapted to retain that moisture which, during the winter months, is so characterOf course on some parts istic of this North- West Coast.
of

at the Delta, Pitt River, Langley, Sumas,

Vancouver Island and along the Valley of the Fraser and Chilliwhack

open stretches of land occur, and these places may be mentioned as the resort of most of the species, in fact very
little of

bird

life is

met with
such

in the deep woods.

So

that,

considering

that

species

as the

Canadian Buffed

Grouse, Western

Horned Owl, Hairy Woodpecker, Downy
species

Woodpecker,

etc.,

which are represented on the

Coast by the darker forms, are found throughout the Rocky Mountain District and in the Cascade Mountains,

where the country is as thickly wooded and the foliage as dense as that portion to the westward, it may be questioned whether sunlight and humidity are the chief factors
in bringing about this difference of plumage.

The Eastern Cascade

District

is

rolling hills, having their higher

a dry open country of summits sparsely clothed

with forests of coniferous

trees,

while such deciduous ones

as the aspen, dogwood, and willow are found skirting the borders of rivers and small streams. Although there are

a few places where sagebush and alkali are the prevailing features, still this open country is well supplied with
nutritious

bunch

grass,

on which immense herds of

cattle

graze the year round.

48

APPENDIX.

"

forest,

The Rocky Mountain District is essentially a country of stream and mountain," interspersed with innumer-

able lakes, the breeding places of most of our water birds. The forests consist chiefly of coniferous trees, though
birch, maple,

and cottonwood abound in many

places.

An

examination of the tables below

will give

some idea

as to the difference in the humidity of the three districts.

Rain and

Snow

Fall.

Table giving total amount in inches of rain and snow
fall for

a period of three years.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN

DR. WATT, Observer. DISTRICT, BARKERVILLE.

APPENDIX.

49

rain

Table giving mean amount in inches of precipitation in and melted snow for a period of 15 years, District
of Cascades, taken at

West

New

Westminster.

CAPTAIN PEELE, Observer.

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