28 views

Uploaded by vlorbik

- VHDL Operators
- Modular Arithmetic
- jbmo2012
- Maths Tricks
- c
- Prime Number Generation
- 10-3
- Excel Gyan
- Math 780 Notes
- 5 S Computer
- Contest
- Design Synopsys_Elliptic Curve Group
- Prime Number
- GAPintro-jan2011
- Ashish
- notes_4.4-5.2
- A New Efficient FPGA Design of Residue-To-Binary Converter
- Chapter 6 Integers
- homework_1_solution.pdf
- The Set of Real Numbers

You are on page 1of 2

THE AUTHOR

“Equivalence” (mod n) is of course not the same thing as “equality”: 13 6= 7 for example,

but 13 ≡3 7. Equivalence does share some properties with equality, and herein lies much

of its usefulness.

We will refer to the following remarkable facts as The Fundamental Theorem of

Modular Arithmetic:

Addition and multiplication both “work” using modular equivalences.

This is obviously somewhat informal; what does “work” mean here? One way to state this

more formally is that if

a ≡n x and b ≡n y

it follows that

a + b ≡n x + y and ab ≡n xy .

Don’t worry if you’re confused by this formal statement; it should become clearer after

we’ve worked through some examples.

0.1. Example: mod 10. Let’s consider the example of mod 10. First of all, it’s easy to

see that every natural number is equivalent mod 10 to exactly one number from the set

Z10 = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} .

These are all the possible remainders when we divide a natural number by ten. (The symbol

Z10 is standard for this set; the “Z” comes from zahlen, which is German for “numbers”.

The official name of this set is the integers modulo ten; it’s usually called simply “zee

mod ten” or “zee ten”. ) Note that Z10 consists of the ten natural numbers less than 10.

In fact it’s even easy to determine which number in Z10 a given number is equivalent to:

31, 415, 265, 358, 979 ≡10 9 ,

for example, and you don’t need a calculator to see this. Just think about what happens

when you divide by ten. The remainder is always the last digit.

Another way to state the fundamental theorem for mod 10 numbers is that for any two

natural numbers, (i.) the last digit of the sum is equivalent mod ten to the sum of the last

digits, and (ii.) the last digit of the product is equivalent mod ten to the product of the

last digits.

But this is well-known! In fact, the familiar algorithms for calculating sums and products

illustrate this principle quite nicely. Consider the example of the two numbers a = 314

and b = 159. The fundamental theorem (part (i.) asserts that the last digit of the sum

depends only on the last digits of a and b. 314 4

+ 159 + 9

473 13

The last digit is “3” in each case; in fact we know

1

these last digits must match by the very

nature of the procedure for calculating the sum!

By the same token, we have 314 × 159 = 49926, whereas 4 × 9 = 36. Again, the last

digits match; again, the familiar multiplication algortithm shows why this must be so.

In terms of equivalences, we are asserting that because

314 ≡10 4 and 159 ≡10 9 ,

we must have

314 + 159 ≡10 4 + 9 and314 × 159 ≡10 4 × 9 ,

which is a special case of the “fundamental theorem”.

We can think of mod ten arithmetic as “the arithmetic of last digits”. The numbers in

2 THE AUTHOR

These tables represent a complete “arithmetic mod two”. This could also be thought of

as the arithmetic of “even or odd”. Inded, we could just as well have written our tables

with Efor “even” and Ofor “odd” as follows.

⊕2 E O ⊗2 E O

E E O E E E

O O E O E O

The “number” notation will be much more convienient for moduli other than two, how-

ever, so we’ll continue to use the number notation for mod two calculations as well.

0.3. Example: mod 3. .

It will come as no surprise that

Z3 = {0, 1, 2}

(“zee three”) represents the set of integers modulo three: all the possible remainders when

a natural number is divided by three. Furthermore, we can introduce mod three arithmetic

using symbols ⊕3 and ⊗3 .

⊕3 0 1 2 ⊗3 0 1 2

0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0

1 1 2 0 1 0 1 2

2 2 0 1 2 0 2 1

- VHDL OperatorsUploaded byChaitanya Kapila
- Modular ArithmeticUploaded byHazel Clemente Carreon
- jbmo2012Uploaded byLêNhậtHoàng
- Maths TricksUploaded byAmar Morale
- cUploaded byprasuresh
- Prime Number GenerationUploaded byamanurrahman
- 10-3Uploaded byksr131
- Excel GyanUploaded byfaridudheenn
- Math 780 NotesUploaded byVlad Copil
- 5 S ComputerUploaded byRajasundareee
- ContestUploaded byBob Sanders
- Design Synopsys_Elliptic Curve GroupUploaded byprasu440
- Prime NumberUploaded bypizza
- GAPintro-jan2011Uploaded bymassifale
- AshishUploaded byhktiwari88
- notes_4.4-5.2Uploaded byanisumi
- A New Efficient FPGA Design of Residue-To-Binary ConverterUploaded byAnonymous e4UpOQEP
- Chapter 6 IntegersUploaded bynorzalizah
- homework_1_solution.pdfUploaded byjulianli0220
- The Set of Real NumbersUploaded byAnJo Pasiolco Canicosa
- 17458 String MatchingUploaded byduration123
- 125756847-rmo-sol-2003-Previous-year-Question-Papers-of-Regional-Mathematical-Olympiad-with-solutions.pdfUploaded byAriel Lancaster
- 1603.03720v4Uploaded byGianluca Boccacci
- prmo2017Uploaded byElla Bhattacharya
- RMO Solved Paper 2010Uploaded bygeddam06108825
- Special Elements In SemigroupsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Chap5 PellUploaded byxpgong
- 11Uploaded byart101988
- 1.1_var.pptxUploaded byレルス ツンデ
- ObservationsUploaded byMary Wirick

- Recently i'Ve Posted (What i'Ve Been Calling) Rambles on FoundationalUploaded byvlorbik
- q366sets&funsUploaded byvlorbik
- Brief ArticleUploaded byvlorbik
- 366q2Uploaded byvlorbik
- Zine LibrariesUploaded byvlorbik
- The Gospel According to Matthew According ToUploaded byvlorbik
- Luke 1–5: A Sestina Zechariah Was AUploaded byvlorbik
- TPN #3 cover (no \NoBlackBoxes)Uploaded byvlorbik
- Donald Knuth Has Recieved TheUploaded byvlorbik
- TPN #15 CoverUploaded byvlorbik
- Boolean Algebra for All (College Students)!Uploaded byvlorbik
- Lecture NotesUploaded byvlorbik
- GlossaryUploaded byvlorbik
- notations for modular arithmetic (sketch)Uploaded byvlorbik
- helloworldUploaded byvlorbik

- 4 SequenceUploaded byshaannivas
- Sorin Cerin - The Coaxialism - complete reference editionUploaded bySorin Cerin
- staar standards snapshot math new teks feb 2014 grade 8Uploaded byapi-261440416
- Midterm ExamUploaded byRemalyn Quinay Casem
- GallifreyanUploaded byDaniel Niculcea
- MCQ-CLASS-VI.pdfUploaded byHabib Ullah
- 246534946-MATHEMATICS-THEORY-BOOK-for-IIT-JEE.pdfUploaded bypsingh2701
- Math = Love_ Fabulous Function MachinesUploaded byAlice Dwyer
- 数学公式Uploaded byLinchuan Zheng
- AlgebraUploaded byKamrul Hasan Rana
- Year 6 Yearly PlanUploaded bybahiyah716746
- Mathematical_Problems_by_David_Hilbert.pdfUploaded byEmily Miller
- 01 Algebra_One.docUploaded byPatricija Mackevičiūtė
- 8th Grade Math Textbook CMSUploaded byAejaz Mohamed
- 96134490 Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2012 JohorUploaded byHamizan Ahmad
- Kindergarten Model Curriculum for Mathematics PDF 1Uploaded byZizo Zizo
- Activity 12 Finding Fibonacci Patterns in NatureUploaded bynines1983
- algebra-i-comprehensive-course-overviewUploaded byapi-321269232
- 2010 Vjc h2 Prelim p1Uploaded bycjcsucks
- Linear InequalitiesUploaded byDanilo de Mesa
- MST_MATH_Thesis - Performance and Difficulties Encountered in Basic Mathematical OperationsUploaded byEunice Manugas Faustino
- 10 Maths Test Paper Ch1 1Uploaded bykundan
- 8_ALGEBRA.pdfUploaded byKairat
- Is 22.7 a Rational NumberUploaded bynishagoyal
- AAL8111Uploaded byMoe B. Us
- Open EndedUploaded byJefenson
- Chapter 1 Basic Algebra Review MAT1215 SoongUploaded byRisci Taran
- Elementary Theory of Numbers, Harriet GriffinUploaded byBoticcelli
- 9780735620391 Chapter 1 Designing Your TablesUploaded byKoko Rota
- Marvelous Mental Arithmetic TricksUploaded byvedam1931