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Geo 12 Notes V1.

0 (KWP) Page 1 of 6

The effects of large bodies of ice on the landscape and the distinctive landforms created
by erosion, transportation and deposition

Extent of Ice Age Glaciation
During the most recent ice age, glaciers (represented on map in white) covered much of
the Earth's northern hemisphere. Ice ages consist of glacial periods and warmer
interglacial periods. Many scientists believe that Earth remains an interglacial state

How do glaciers begin?
Snow accumulates during the winter
Some snow does not melt during the summer
This is usually on the mountain tops (north facing
Next winter's snowfall accumulates on top of last
years snow
Some is compressed into ice
This process continues until the weight of the ice
becomes too heavy
This ice slowly moves downhill
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More snow and ice replaces what has moved and the glacier begins

Corries, cwms, cirques
"Near mountain tops where glaciers
Steep back wall and sides, open front
with a lip
Formed by new snow collecting in
Compacted and turned into ice due
to new snow on top
Moves downhill under its own weight
Eroding, abrasion and plucking as it
moves Formation of a corrie:
Steepening the corrie
sides and deepening the
corrie floor
Lip form due to a
decrease in erosion
Today corries often filled
with water forming a

Process of erosion
As a glacier moves
downhill it erodes (wear away) the lands.

Ice melts, then freezes around a rock and pulls or plucks the rock from the ground as
the ice moves

Plucked rocks in the base at the bottom of
the glacier grind and scrape away the land
underneath them when the glacier moves

Freeze thaw (aka. Frost Shattering)
Water seeps into cracks in the rock and
then freezes, when water freezes it
expands by 9%, putting the rock under
extreme pressure. This is repeated many
times, causing the rock to shatter. This is a
type of Physical Weathering

Geo 12 Notes V1.0 (KWP) Page 3 of 6

Grooves caused by the rocks in the bottom of the glacier scraping against the rock
below (abrasion) These are telltale signs of the Glaciers route

Knife Edged ridge, usually the result
of two corries on different sides of
the mountain
Formed as the back wall of sides of a
corrie are weathered and eroded
Distance between two corries is
narrowed until la "knife edge ridge is
Glacial troughs or U shaped valleys
Flat floored, steep sided, U shaped
Formed as glaciers follow pre glacial
river valleys, easiest way down the
The Valley is straightened and the
sides of the valley and its floor are
Other glacier also come down from
the mountain into the main valley
below resulting in the erosive power of
the glacier increasing

Hanging valley
The creation of hanging valleys and
their waterfalls by tributary valley
glaciers. (a) During glaciation, tributary
glaciers enter a major glacier at
different floor levels. (b) after
glaciation ends, the ice melts and the
region is left with hanging valleys. A
stream then forms a waterfall as it
hurtles over the side of the hanging

Rock particles carried by the glacier
Ground Moraine
Lateral Moraine
Medial Moraine
Terminal Moraine
Geo 12 Notes V1.0 (KWP) Page 4 of 6

Glacial Deposition
As a glacier melts and recedes a number of features are left behind
Most of these are made from the moraine which the glacier was carrying

Receding Glacier

The farther a glacier moves from its
source of accumulation into
warmer, lower-elevation regions,
the more likely it is to ablate, or
melt. As the ice ablates, it begins to
deposit the material it has eroded in
the mountains, as well as any rock
debris that has fallen into its
crevasses. Just as streams of liquid
water create landforms when they
deposit their load of material,
streams of frozen water glacier
drop their burden and shape the
landscape as they recede.

These are Alien boulders, scattered over the valley floor after glaciation.
They are most likely pieces of ground

These are smooth, elongated mounds
of till
Steep on one side, gentle on the other
They are often found in groups

These form from detached blocks of ice, left behind when the glacier retreats
When the ice melts it leaves behind a depression(hole), which sometimes fills with water
(kettle hole lake)
Very long, narrow ridges of sand and gravel. These mark the course of a sub-glacial
melt-water steam (a stream under the glacier)

Geo 12 Notes V1.0 (KWP) Page 5 of 6

Outwash Plain
These are flat areas of meltwater below the snout of the glacier
They are made from till
Eskers, erratic, drumlins are found on this plain

Human Activity in Glaciated Areas (glaciated highland)
Energy resources
Water Supply
Glacial deposits are mined
Glacial lakes, sport and hydroelectric

This marks the end of the glacial, periglacial sections of the notes Not because Im lazy, but
I dont have much time to finish all the notes so
For Coastal Landscape sections of the notes, please refer to these ppt:
Geo 12 Notes V1.0 (KWP) Page 6 of 6
An important diagram:

Well done! Geo 12s. Good luck in your final test!