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# Physics 262/266

## George Mason University

Prof. Paul So
Course Info
Website:
http://complex.gmu.edu/www-phys/phys262
http://complex.gmu.edu/www-phys/phys266
Mastering Physics (automated web-based
assignment system):
http://www.masteringphysics.com
Course ID: MPSOSPRING13
Course Info
First 5 weeks: Thermodynamics (PHYS 262 & 266)
Mid 5 weeks:
Optics (PHYS 262)
Last 5 weeks:
Modern Physics (PHYS 262)
Relativity
Quantum Mehcanics
Chapter 17: Temperature & Heat
meaning of thermal
equilibrium
thermometers and
temperature scales
absolute zero and the Kelvin
scale
thermal expansion
meaning of heat
calorimetry calculations
mechanisms of heat transfer
Topics for Disscusion
Description of Physical Systems
microscopic
properties of
atoms/molecules that
make up the system
not directly
associated with sense
perceptions
macroscopic
bulk properties of the
system
directly associated
with sense
perceptions
Description of Physical Systems
microscopic
variables:
Theory: Classical/Quantum
Mechanics
Newtons Eqs,
Maxwells Eqs,
Schrodingers Eq (later)
macroscopic
variables:
Theory: Thermodynamics
0
th
Law of Therm.
1
st
Law of Therm.
2
nd
Law of Therm.
, , , , , ,... KE PE x v a p

, , , , ,... T P V U S
Statistical Mechanics
(e.g. Kinetic Theory)
Temperature (T)
Common usage: a measure of hot & cold
Physics definition: average KE of molecules(more
on this next chapter)
Physical changes associated with AT:
Most materials expand when heated
Pressure of gas (in a closed container) with T
Electrical resistance changes with T
Materials radiate at different at different T
State of matter change with T
Ice water steam
Measuring Temperature/Thermometer
A small amount of liquid will see
an increase in volume as
temperatures rise. Mercury was
chosen early on because its
dense, a small volume can record
a large temperature range.
The pressure of a fixed volume of
gas will rise if temperature rises.
Measuring Temperature/Thermometer
Another commonly used
measuring device relies on the
differential expansion of
bimetal strips.
Dbimetal strip
Dinfrared sensor
Temperature Scales
Celsius (
o
C) & Fahrenheit (
o
F)
are traditionally defined with
reference states:
Freezing point & Boiling point
of water at 1 atm.
5
32
9
9
32
5
o
C F
o
F C
T T
T T

(
=

= +

(new)
Absolute Zero and the Kelvin Scale (K)
A Gas Thermometer with sufficiently diluted gas (~Ideal Gas)
Absolute Zero and the Kelvin Scale (K)
Important Experimental Observations:
1. P vs. T relationship is linear for all dilute gases.
2. All curves extrapolate to a single zero point with zero pressure.
These imply
There exists a unique absolute zero reference point and an
absolute temperature scale.
273.15
K C
T T = +
At this absolute zero point,
273.15
o
C
T C =
Kelvin T Scale (K)
Thermal Equilibrium
Observation:
When two objects at different T are brought
together, they will eventually reach the
same temperature and the system reaches an
equilibrium state when no further physical
changes occur in the system.
e.g. warm soda cans in a cooler
filled with ice
Thermal Equilibrium
Heat (more on this later): the transfer of energy
between objects with different T.
Thermal Contact: two objects are in thermal contact
if heat can transfer between them (not necessary in
physical contact).
Thermal equilibrium: the situation in which two
objects in thermal contact cease to exchange energy by
the process of heat.
The 0
th
Law of Thermodynamics
Note: this transitive property is not true for all physical process, e.g. two pieces of iron
with a magnet but the 0
th
Law have been shown to be true experimentally.
No heat flow between A-C and B-C.
No heat flow between A-B.
Thermal Expansion (linear)
Objects such as these
thermal expand
when T increases.
The size of the
change will depend
on the material.
0
0 0
(1 )
L L T
L L L L T
o
o
A = A
= +A = + A
0
T T T A =
o is the coefficient of linear expansion
Thermal Expansion (volume)
Molecules can be visualized as bedsprings and spheres. At a given
temperature, these molecules vibrate according to the spring potential
energy. Because of the asymmetry of this potential energy, the molecules
average separation tends to increase with T.
0
V V T | A = A
One can approx.
this volume
expansion by:
| is the coefficient of
volume expansion
Coefficients of Expansion
Notes:
1. These relations are approx (linear) in
a given range of T range only.
2. o & | ~constant in T range of
interest.
3. Most substances have o & | > 0 but
some are not, e.g. water.
3 | o =
Typically,
Linear and Volume Expansion Rates
V WHL =
Each of the linear dimensions expands according to the Linear Thermal Expansion
equation given previously.
, ,
o o o o o o
W W W T H H H T L L L T o o o = + A = + A = + A
(assuming material to be isotropic same in all directions)
0
( )( )( )
3
o o
o o o
o
o o
o o o o
o
o
o
o o o o
W W T
W W
H H L L T
L L L W T W
V
V V V
T
H H T H L T H
T
o o
o
o
o
o
o
+ A =
~ + + +
+
=
A
+
+
A A A
A
A
(only terms up to AT)
Thermal Expansion of Water
Cooler
water
falls
warmer
water
rises
4
o
T C >
0 4
o o
C T C < <
cooler water
stays on top
warmer water
stays on bottom
0
o
T C <
Ice forms on top
Ice is less dense than 4
o
C
water
Ice grows from top to
bottom
4
o
C liquid water remain
at bottom