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Prof. Paul So

Course Info

Website:

http://complex.gmu.edu/www-phys/phys262

http://complex.gmu.edu/www-phys/phys266

Mastering Physics (automated web-based

assignment system):

http://www.masteringphysics.com

Course ID: MPSOSPRING13

Course Info

First 5 weeks: Thermodynamics (PHYS 262 & 266)

Mid 5 weeks:

Optics (PHYS 262)

Last 5 weeks:

Modern Physics (PHYS 262)

Relativity

Quantum Mehcanics

Chapter 17: Temperature & Heat

meaning of thermal

equilibrium

thermometers and

temperature scales

absolute zero and the Kelvin

scale

thermal expansion

meaning of heat

calorimetry calculations

mechanisms of heat transfer

Topics for Disscusion

Description of Physical Systems

microscopic

properties of

atoms/molecules that

make up the system

not directly

associated with sense

perceptions

macroscopic

bulk properties of the

system

directly associated

with sense

perceptions

Description of Physical Systems

microscopic

variables:

Theory: Classical/Quantum

Mechanics

Newtons Eqs,

Maxwells Eqs,

Schrodingers Eq (later)

macroscopic

variables:

Theory: Thermodynamics

0

th

Law of Therm.

1

st

Law of Therm.

2

nd

Law of Therm.

, , , , , ,... KE PE x v a p

, , , , ,... T P V U S

Statistical Mechanics

(e.g. Kinetic Theory)

Temperature (T)

Common usage: a measure of hot & cold

Physics definition: average KE of molecules(more

on this next chapter)

Physical changes associated with AT:

Most materials expand when heated

Pressure of gas (in a closed container) with T

Electrical resistance changes with T

Materials radiate at different at different T

State of matter change with T

Ice water steam

Measuring Temperature/Thermometer

A small amount of liquid will see

an increase in volume as

temperatures rise. Mercury was

chosen early on because its

dense, a small volume can record

a large temperature range.

The pressure of a fixed volume of

gas will rise if temperature rises.

Measuring Temperature/Thermometer

Another commonly used

measuring device relies on the

differential expansion of

bimetal strips.

Dbimetal strip

Dinfrared sensor

Temperature Scales

Celsius (

o

C) & Fahrenheit (

o

F)

are traditionally defined with

two readily reproducible

reference states:

Freezing point & Boiling point

of water at 1 atm.

5

32

9

9

32

5

o

C F

o

F C

T T

T T

(

=

= +

(new)

Absolute Zero and the Kelvin Scale (K)

A Gas Thermometer with sufficiently diluted gas (~Ideal Gas)

Absolute Zero and the Kelvin Scale (K)

Important Experimental Observations:

1. P vs. T relationship is linear for all dilute gases.

2. All curves extrapolate to a single zero point with zero pressure.

These imply

There exists a unique absolute zero reference point and an

absolute temperature scale.

273.15

K C

T T = +

At this absolute zero point,

273.15

o

C

T C =

Kelvin T Scale (K)

Thermal Equilibrium

Observation:

When two objects at different T are brought

together, they will eventually reach the

same temperature and the system reaches an

equilibrium state when no further physical

changes occur in the system.

e.g. warm soda cans in a cooler

filled with ice

Thermal Equilibrium

Additional concepts

Heat (more on this later): the transfer of energy

between objects with different T.

Thermal Contact: two objects are in thermal contact

if heat can transfer between them (not necessary in

physical contact).

Thermal equilibrium: the situation in which two

objects in thermal contact cease to exchange energy by

the process of heat.

The 0

th

Law of Thermodynamics

Note: this transitive property is not true for all physical process, e.g. two pieces of iron

with a magnet but the 0

th

Law have been shown to be true experimentally.

No heat flow between A-C and B-C.

No heat flow between A-B.

Thermal Expansion (linear)

Objects such as these

railroad tracks will

thermal expand

when T increases.

The size of the

change will depend

on the material.

0

0 0

(1 )

L L T

L L L L T

o

o

A = A

= +A = + A

0

T T T A =

o is the coefficient of linear expansion

Thermal Expansion (volume)

Molecules can be visualized as bedsprings and spheres. At a given

temperature, these molecules vibrate according to the spring potential

energy. Because of the asymmetry of this potential energy, the molecules

average separation tends to increase with T.

0

V V T | A = A

One can approx.

this volume

expansion by:

| is the coefficient of

volume expansion

Coefficients of Expansion

Notes:

1. These relations are approx (linear) in

a given range of T range only.

2. o & | ~constant in T range of

interest.

3. Most substances have o & | > 0 but

some are not, e.g. water.

3 | o =

Typically,

Linear and Volume Expansion Rates

V WHL =

Each of the linear dimensions expands according to the Linear Thermal Expansion

equation given previously.

, ,

o o o o o o

W W W T H H H T L L L T o o o = + A = + A = + A

(assuming material to be isotropic same in all directions)

0

( )( )( )

3

o o

o o o

o

o o

o o o o

o

o

o

o o o o

W W T

W W

H H L L T

L L L W T W

V

V V V

T

H H T H L T H

T

o o

o

o

o

o

o

+ A =

~ + + +

+

=

A

+

+

A A A

A

A

(only terms up to AT)

Thermal Expansion of Water

Cooler

water

falls

warmer

water

rises

4

o

T C >

0 4

o o

C T C < <

cooler water

stays on top

warmer water

stays on bottom

0

o

T C <

Ice forms on top

Ice is less dense than 4

o

C

water

Ice grows from top to

bottom

4

o

C liquid water remain

at bottom

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