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Original Title: A Note: Infinite Compositions of Contours in the Complex Plane

Uploaded by John Gill

A Note: Infinite Compositions of Contours in the Complex Plane

Parametric contours can be composed in a certain natural fashion. Infinite compositions of such contours may also exist.

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John Gill May 2014

Abstract: A short note describing an infinite composition structure for parametric or Zeno contours in

Zeno (or equivalent parametric) contours are defined algorithmically as a distribution of points

{ }

,

0

n

k n

k

z

=

given by the iterative procedure:

( )

, 1, , 1,

,

k

k n k n k n k n n

z z z

= + , n, which arises

from the following composition structure starting with

0 0,n

z z z = :

( )

, , , 1, , , 1, 1,

( ) lim ( ) , ( ) ( ) , ( ) ( , ) , ( ) ( )

k

n n k n k n k n k n k n n n n

n

G z G z G z g G z g z z z G z g z

= = = + = .

Usually

,

1

k n

n

= , providing a partition of the unit time interval. ( ) z is the continuous arc

from z to ( ) G z that results as n (Eulers Method is a special case of a Zeno contour).

When ( , ) z t is well-behaved an equivalent closed form of the contours , ( ) z t , has the

property ( , )

dz

z t

dt

= , with vector field ( , ) ( , ) f z t z t z = + . Then (0) z z = and (1) ( ) z G z = in

the corresponding iteration scheme.

A parametric form of ( )

m

z : ( ) z z t = , exists when the equation ( , )

m

dz

z t

dt

= admits a

closed solution. For example

2

2

1 1 0 1

: ( ) ( , ) (1 4 )

t it

z t z e z t z it

+

= = + .

Define Contour Composition:

1 2 1, , , 1 2

: ( ( , ), )

k n k n k n

z z z t t

+

= = + or

1 2

dz

dt

= and

infinite contour (inner) composition as

( , ) lim ( , )

n

n

dz

z t z t

dt

= = ,

1

( , ) ( ( , ), )

n n n

z t z t t

= ,

1 1

( , ) ( , ) z t z t = , assuming the

stipulated convergence properties hold. A theorem by Lorentzen [1990] describes one

situation where this is true:

( , )

n

S I S = , S simply connected in , { } : 0 1 I t t = ( ) lim ( , )

n

n

t z t

= .

Thus ( ) ( ) z t t dt =

or ( )

k

k,n k 1,n k,n n

z z

arbitrary. In this sense we are looking at a set of contours { }

0

1

( )

n

n

z

=

converging to a single

contour

0

( ) z .

~ 2 ~

Another result: Gill [2012]: Consider functions

n

{ (z, t)} analytic for

0

z R and { } : 0 1 I t t =

. If

n

n

(z, t) z C for 0 1 < ,

0

z R R = + , and { } : 0 1 I t t = where C

1

,

then

n

(z, t) (z, t) for z R < . Convergence is uniform on compact subsets.

Example 1: Infinite continued fractions are examples of inner compositions. Set

10 1

( ) (2 )

( , )

10 1

n n

n

a ib

z t

t z

+ + +

=

+ +

, 1, 1 a b = = , which leads to ( , )

n

z t , the nth convergent of a

continued fraction that converges for z in a disk about the origin, ( ) lim ( , )

n

n

dz

t z t

dt

= = . A

pathline, z(t), in the time-dependent vector field ( , ) ( ) f z t z t = + is shown.

~ 3 ~

Another form of infinite composition is (outer) composition:

( , ) lim ( , )

n

n

dz

z t z t

dt

= = , ( )

1

( , ) ( , ),

n n n

z t z t t

= ,

1 1

( , ) ( , ) z t z t =

The convention ( , ) ( ) z t t = may be adopted since the iteration scheme described above will

converge to an attractive fixed point (function) if the contraction stipulations of Lorentzens

theorem are met and if and only if ( ( ), ) ( ) ( )

n n n

t t t t = ,Gill [1991]. Then, in closed

form, ( ) ( ) z t t dt =

or ( )

k

k,n k 1,n k,n n

z z

= + . Again { }

0

1

( )

n

n

z

=

converges to

0

( ) z .

There is also the following ,Gill [2012]: Let

n

{ (z, t)} be a sequence of complex functions defined

on S=(|z|<M) . Suppose there exists a sequence

n

{ } such that

n

k=1

<

and

n n

(z, t) z C if z M < < and { } : 0 1 I t t = . Set

k

1

C

and

0

R M 0 = > . Then,

for every

( )

0 0

z S z R = < ,

n

(z, t) (z,t) , uniformly on compact subsets of

0

S .

Example 2:

( ) 2

1

( ) , 10

n

n

az

z a

z a

= =

+

( ) ,

n n n

z z C <

vector field ( ) ( ) f z z z = + is shown.

~ 4 ~

A slight variation leads to a time-dependent vector field and corresponding pathline:

( ) 2

( , ) , 10

n

az

z t a

t

z a

n

= =

+

, ( , ) (z,t)

n

dz

z t

dt

= and

We now look at the following scenario: Given an infinite sequence of contours, described in

closed form, determine the infinite composition of these contours and graph the resulting

contour.

Example 3: Given { }

1

( )

n

n

z t

=

,

2

( ) 1 1

n n

z t C t = + , where

2

5 2 ( )

n

C n i Cos n = + . It is easily

seen that ( , )

1

n n

n

dz C t

z t

dt z

= =

+

, so that the problem is determining the solution to

( ) lim ( , )

n

n

dz

t z t

dt

= = , the value of an infinite continued fraction.

~ 5 ~

A peculiar composition contour consisting of fixed points:

Consider functions ( , : ) : ( )

k k

f z t f = with

1 2

( , ) (0)

k k

z t f f f = , convergent under the

contractive conditions by Lorentzen [1990]: lim ( , ) ( , )

k

k

z t z t

( ) t such that ( ( ), ) ( ) t t t = . These attracting fixed points can be found by iteration on the

variable z , Gill [1991]:

1 1

( , ) ( , ) ( )

n n n

z t z t t

contour can be described in theory as ( )

dz

t

dt

= or

0

( ) (0) ( ) ( ) z t z t dt z t = + = +

. In

practice Zeno contours allow graphing. The resulting time-dependent vector field is uniform in

that at each initial point the same contour arises.

Example 4:

1

5

( , : ) : ( )

10

k

k k

z t i

f z t f

+ +

= =

+

giving rise to the analytic continued fraction

1 1

1 2

5 5

10 10

z t i z t i + + + +

+ +

convergent if 1 z < and having fixed points ( ) t .

L. Lorentzen, Compositions of Contractions, J. Comp. & Appl. Math 32(1990) 169-178]

J. Gill, Infinite Compositions of Complex Functions, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Fractions, Vol XIX (2012)

J. Gill, The Use of the Sequence . . . in Computing Fixed Points of . . . , Appl. Numer. Math. 8 (1991) 469-475

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