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## A Note: Infinite Compositions of Contours in the Complex Plane

John Gill May 2014
Abstract: A short note describing an infinite composition structure for parametric or Zeno contours in
Zeno (or equivalent parametric) contours are defined algorithmically as a distribution of points
{ }
,
0
n
k n
k
z
=
given by the iterative procedure:
( )
, 1, , 1,
,
k
k n k n k n k n n
z z z

= + , n, which arises
from the following composition structure starting with
0 0,n
z z z = :

( )
, , , 1, , , 1, 1,
( ) lim ( ) , ( ) ( ) , ( ) ( , ) , ( ) ( )
k
n n k n k n k n k n k n n n n
n
G z G z G z g G z g z z z G z g z

= = = + = .
Usually
,
1
k n
n
= , providing a partition of the unit time interval. ( ) z is the continuous arc
from z to ( ) G z that results as n (Eulers Method is a special case of a Zeno contour).
When ( , ) z t is well-behaved an equivalent closed form of the contours , ( ) z t , has the
property ( , )
dz
z t
dt
= , with vector field ( , ) ( , ) f z t z t z = + . Then (0) z z = and (1) ( ) z G z = in
the corresponding iteration scheme.
A parametric form of ( )
m
z : ( ) z z t = , exists when the equation ( , )
m
dz
z t
dt
= admits a
closed solution. For example
2
2
1 1 0 1
: ( ) ( , ) (1 4 )
t it
z t z e z t z it
+
= = + .
Define Contour Composition:
1 2 1, , , 1 2
: ( ( , ), )
k n k n k n
z z z t t
+
= = + or
1 2
dz
dt
= and
infinite contour (inner) composition as
( , ) lim ( , )
n
n
dz
z t z t
dt

= = ,
1
( , ) ( ( , ), )
n n n
z t z t t

= ,
1 1
( , ) ( , ) z t z t = , assuming the
stipulated convergence properties hold. A theorem by Lorentzen  describes one
situation where this is true:
( , )
n
S I S = , S simply connected in , { } : 0 1 I t t = ( ) lim ( , )
n
n
t z t

= .
Thus ( ) ( ) z t t dt =

or ( )
k
k,n k 1,n k,n n
z z

## = + . The starting point for the contour is

arbitrary. In this sense we are looking at a set of contours { }
0
1
( )
n
n
z

=
converging to a single
contour
0
( ) z .

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Another result: Gill : Consider functions
n
{ (z, t)} analytic for
0
z R and { } : 0 1 I t t =
. If
n
n
(z, t) z C for 0 1 < ,
0
z R R = + , and { } : 0 1 I t t = where C
1

,
then
n
(z, t) (z, t) for z R < . Convergence is uniform on compact subsets.

Example 1: Infinite continued fractions are examples of inner compositions. Set
10 1
( ) (2 )
( , )
10 1
n n
n
a ib
z t
t z

+ + +
=
+ +
, 1, 1 a b = = , which leads to ( , )
n
z t , the nth convergent of a
continued fraction that converges for z in a disk about the origin, ( ) lim ( , )
n
n
dz
t z t
dt

= = . A
pathline, z(t), in the time-dependent vector field ( , ) ( ) f z t z t = + is shown.

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Another form of infinite composition is (outer) composition:
( , ) lim ( , )
n
n
dz
z t z t
dt

= = , ( )
1
( , ) ( , ),
n n n
z t z t t

= ,
1 1
( , ) ( , ) z t z t =
The convention ( , ) ( ) z t t = may be adopted since the iteration scheme described above will
converge to an attractive fixed point (function) if the contraction stipulations of Lorentzens
theorem are met and if and only if ( ( ), ) ( ) ( )
n n n
t t t t = ,Gill . Then, in closed
form, ( ) ( ) z t t dt =

or ( )
k
k,n k 1,n k,n n
z z

= + . Again { }
0
1
( )
n
n
z

=
converges to
0
( ) z .

There is also the following ,Gill : Let
n
{ (z, t)} be a sequence of complex functions defined
on S=(|z|<M) . Suppose there exists a sequence
n
{ } such that
n
k=1

<

and
n n
(z, t) z C if z M < < and { } : 0 1 I t t = . Set
k
1
C

and
0
R M 0 = > . Then,
for every
( )
0 0
z S z R = < ,
n
(z, t) (z,t) , uniformly on compact subsets of
0
S .
Example 2:
( ) 2
1
( ) , 10
n
n
az
z a
z a
= =
+
( ) ,
n n n
z z C <

## . z(t), a streamline in the

vector field ( ) ( ) f z z z = + is shown.

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A slight variation leads to a time-dependent vector field and corresponding pathline:

( ) 2
( , ) , 10
n
az
z t a
t
z a
n
= =
+
, ( , ) (z,t)
n
dz
z t
dt
= and

We now look at the following scenario: Given an infinite sequence of contours, described in
closed form, determine the infinite composition of these contours and graph the resulting
contour.
Example 3: Given { }
1
( )
n
n
z t

=
,
2
( ) 1 1
n n
z t C t = + , where
2
5 2 ( )
n
C n i Cos n = + . It is easily
seen that ( , )
1
n n
n
dz C t
z t
dt z
= =
+
, so that the problem is determining the solution to
( ) lim ( , )
n
n
dz
t z t
dt

= = , the value of an infinite continued fraction.

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A peculiar composition contour consisting of fixed points:
Consider functions ( , : ) : ( )
k k
f z t f = with
1 2
( , ) (0)
k k
z t f f f = , convergent under the
contractive conditions by Lorentzen : lim ( , ) ( , )
k
k
z t z t

## = . Now for each t there exists

( ) t such that ( ( ), ) ( ) t t t = . These attracting fixed points can be found by iteration on the
variable z , Gill :
1 1
( , ) ( , ) ( )
n n n
z t z t t

## = . Therefore the resulting

contour can be described in theory as ( )
dz
t
dt
= or
0
( ) (0) ( ) ( ) z t z t dt z t = + = +

. In
practice Zeno contours allow graphing. The resulting time-dependent vector field is uniform in
that at each initial point the same contour arises.

Example 4:
1
5
( , : ) : ( )
10
k
k k
z t i
f z t f

+ +
= =
+
giving rise to the analytic continued fraction
1 1
1 2
5 5
10 10
z t i z t i + + + +
+ +
convergent if 1 z < and having fixed points ( ) t .

L. Lorentzen, Compositions of Contractions, J. Comp. & Appl. Math 32(1990) 169-178]
J. Gill, Infinite Compositions of Complex Functions, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Fractions, Vol XIX (2012)
J. Gill, The Use of the Sequence . . . in Computing Fixed Points of . . . , Appl. Numer. Math. 8 (1991) 469-475