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Republic of the Philippines

SUPREME COURT
Manila
EN BANC
DECISION
October 2! "#$"
%&R& No& '($"$)
T*E PEOP'E O+ T*E P*I'IPPINES! plaintiff(appellee!
,s&
SA'-ADOR CRISOSTOMO an. INOCENCIO RA%SAC! accuse.(appellants&
+ERNANDE/! 0&1In an infor2ation .ate. 0ul3 #! "#4 file. 5ith the Circuit Cri2inal Court! Se,enth
0u.icial District! Pasi6! Ri7al! Sal,a.or Crisosto2o an. Inocencio Ra6sac 5ere char6e. 5ith 2ur.er
alle6e. to ha,e been co22itte. as follo5s1
+ernan.e7 8Estanislao9! 0&1
In an infor2ation .ate. 0ul3 #! "#4 file. 5ith the Circuit Cri2inal Court! Se,enth 0u.icial District!
Pasi6! Ri7al! Sal,a.or Crisosto2o an. Inocencio Ra6sac 5ere char6e. 5ith 2ur.er alle6e. to ha,e
been co22itte. as follo5s1
That on or about the 24th .a3 of Ma3! "#42 ! in the Ne5 Bilibi. Prison! Muntinlupa! Ri7al! Philippines!
an. 5ithin the :uris.iction of this *onorable Court! the abo,e(na2e. accuse. 5hile then confine. at
the sai. institution! conspirin6! confe.eratin6 an. helpin6 one another! 5ith treacher3! e,i.ent
pre2e.itation an. .eliberate intent to ;ill! each ar2e. 5ith i2pro,ise. bla.e. 5eapon(.i. then an.
there 5ilfull3! unla5full3 an. feloniousl3 assault an. 5oun. there5ith one Antonio <a:e! No& 2"#)#(P!
a sentence. prisoner in the sa2e institution! thereb3 inflictin6 upon hi2 2ultiple stab 5oun.s in the
.ifferent parts of his bo.3 5hile then unar2e. an. unable to .efen. hi2self fro2 the attac; launche.
b3 the accuse.! as a result of 5hich the sai. Antonio <a:e .ie. instantl3&
The co22ission of the fore6oin6 offense is atten.e. b3 the a66ra,atin6 circu2stances of reci.i,is2
an. =uasi(reci.i,is2 base. on the pre,ious con,ictions of the abo,e(na2e. accuse. as follo5s1
Sal,a.or Crisosto2o ha,in6 been con,icte. of Theft b3 the 0PC Tanauan! Batan6as on No,e2ber >!
"#>? Robber3 b3 the C+I Batan6as! "$th 0u.icial District! 'ipa Cit3 on March 2>! "#>@? Ille6al
Possession of +irear2 an. a22unition b3 the sa2e court on 0une "A! "#>>? Mur.er b3 the C+I Da,ao!
Branch II on 0une "2! "#>$ an. E,asion of Ser,ice of Sentence b3 the C+I Ri7al! Branch BIII on
March @! "#4)?
Inocencio Ra6sac ha,in6 been con,icte. for *o2ici.e b3 the C+I(Ilocos Sur! Branch III on Ma3 2)!
"#A$ an. E,asion of Ser,ice of Sentence b3 the C+I Ri7al! Branch B on 0ul3 2)! "#4"&
CONTRARC TO 'A<& "
The t5o accuse.! .ul3 assiste. b3 their counsel .e officio! plea.e. not 6uilt3 5hen arrai6ne.&
After trial! 0u.6e Onofre A& -illalu7! ren.ere. :u.62ent on Dece2ber 2$! "#4! the .ispositi,e portion
of 5hich rea.s1
<*ERE+ORE! fin.in6 the accuse. Sal,a.or Crisosto2o an. Inocencio Ra6sac! %UI'TC! be3on.
reasonable .oubt! of the cri2e of Mur.er! as .efine. un.er Article 2@$ of the Re,ise. Penal Co.e! as
char6e. in the infor2ation! the Court hereb3 sentences the2 to suffer the penalt3 of DEAT*? to
in.e2nif3 the heirs of the offen.e. part3 the a2ount of P")!)))&))? to pa3 2oral .a2a6es in the
a2ount of P>!)))&)) an. another P>!)))&))! as eDe2plar3 .a2a6es! :ointl3 an. se,erall3? an. to pa3
their proportionate share of the costs& 2
*ence! the present auto2atic re,ie5 of the trial courtEs .ecision b3 this Court&
The trial court con,icte. the t5o accuse. Sal,a.or Crisosto2o an. Inocencio Ra6sac of 2ur.er as
char6e. in the infor2ation on the follo5in6 fin.in6s of fact1
+our .a3s prior to Ma3 24! "#42! the accuse. Crisosto2o 6a,e siDt3(t5o 8P A2&))9 to the ,icti2 Ma:e
to bu3 ci6arettes an. su6ar& <hen Crisosto2o as;e. for the thin6s he re=ueste. <a:e to bu3! the latter
replie. that the 2one3 5as lost& Crisosto2o then as;e. <a:e to repeat 5hat he <a:e sai. an. the latter
sai.! FMaulit ;aG an. .are. Crisosto2o to fi6ht it out 5ith hi2& Infuriate. b3 the actuations an.
re2ar;s of <a:e an. co2poun.e. b3 the facts that <a:e ;ille. prison 6uar.s Ansel2o -illablanca an.
+ortunato -illareal! of the Da,ao Penal Colon3 on No,e2ber "! "#>$! 5ho 5ere the for2er
super,isors of Crisosto2o! the accuse. Sal,a.or Crisosto2o an. Inocencio Ra6sac planne. to ;ill
<a:e& At about 41)) oEcloc; in the 2ornin6 of Ma3 24! "#42! the t5o accuse. 5ent out of their
.or2itor3 to carr3 out their plan& Crisosto2o follo5e. the 6roup of prisoners 5ho 5ere assi6ne. to
collect 6arba6e insi.e the prison co2poun. 5hile Ra6sac procee.e. to the 6eneral ;itchen& Then
Crisosto2o 5ent to the 6eneral ;itchen 5here he 2et Ra6sac& There the3 5aite. for the opportune
ti2e& <hen the accuse. sa5 the .ecease. 5al;in6 to5ar.s the Reception an. Dia6nostic Center! the3
follo5e. hi2& Upon hearin6 the ,icti2! Crisosto2o i22e.iatel3 stabbe. <a:e& The first trust .i. not
pro,e fatal! so Ra6sac stabbe. <a:e an. the t5o accuse. too; turns in stabbin6 the ,icti2& <hen
Ser,i.eo Ca2arillo sa5 Crisosto2o an. Ra6sac stabbin6 the .ecease.! he fire. shots in the air& The
t5o accuse. ran to5ar.s the .irection of the 6eneral ;itchen an. the3 lie. face .o5n& The PC an. the
securit3 6uar.s arri,e.& Ca2arillo then 5ent to the place 5here the accuse. ran to an. there he
reco,ere. the 5eapons use. b3 the accuse. in the stabbin6&
<a:e 5as brou6ht to the prison hospital but he .ie. on arri,al& The cause of his .eath 5as .eter2ine.
to the he2orrha6e secon.ar3 to stab 5oun.s& The post(2orte2 eDa2ination .isclose. that <a:e 5as
stabbe. se,en ti2es& @
That sa2e 2ornin6 of Ma3 24! "#42! Sal,a.or Crisosto2o an. Inocencio Ra6sac 5ere treate. for their
5oun.s at the prisonEs hospital b3 its resi.ent ph3sician! 'u7 Al2a Ro2ero Santos& The accuse.
Crisosto2o 5as foun. to ha,e sustaine. the follo5in6 in:uries1 abrasion(bri.6e of the nose?
ecch32osis H ri6ht e3e? abrasion 5ith contusion chin ri6ht? abrasion! ri6ht an. Ileft ;nee? lacerate.
5oun.! " "J2 inch abo,e the ri6ht ear? an. contusion ri6ht in.eD fin6er& The accuse. Ra6sac 5as foun.
to ha,e the follo5in6 in:uries1 abrasion 5ith contusion left 5rist? abrasion 5ith contusion .orsal
surface of left ar2! proDi2al thir.? contusion left chee;(bone? contusion .orsal surface of left han.?
abrasion both ;nees? lacerate. 5oun. occipital re6ion ri6ht hea.& >
After ha,in6 been treate. in the prisonEs hospital! the t5o accuse. Crisosto2o an. Ra6sac 5ere
in,esti6ate. b3 prison 6uar. Tolentino A,elina! the one assi6ne. as in,esti6ator for the .eath of <a:e& A
The in,esti6ation 5as con.ucte. in Ta6alo6& The accuse. Crisosto2o 5as interro6ate. bet5een ""1))
a&2& an. "21@) p&2& on Ma3 24! "#42& *e eDecute. a s5orn state2ent 8EDhibit F+G9 4 5herein he
relate. that he ha. been in prison since "#> for the cri2es of theft! robber3 in ban.! 2ur.er an. ille6al
possession of firear2s? that about 41)) A&M& on that .a3 he plotte. 5ith the accuse. Ra6sac to ;ill
<a:e? that his reasons for 5antin6 to ;ill <a:e 5ere the follo5in6& a9 because <a:e ;ille. prison 6uar.s
Ansel2o -illablanca an. +ortunato -illareal an. 5oun.e. prison 6uar. Pre.is,ino Calu6a3 5ho 5ere
his super,isors an. frien.s at the Da,ao Penal Colon3 in "#>$? an. b9 because <a:e s5in.le. hi2 in
"#A2 of the a2ount of PA2&))& <hen as;e. 5ho 5ere his co2panions in stabbin6 the ,icti2! he
pointe. at Inocencio Ra6sac& $
'i;e5ise! the accuse.& Ra6sac eDecute. a s5orn state2ent 8EDhibit F%G9& # *e a.2itte. therein that he
stabbe. <a:e se,eral ti2es& *is 2oti,e 5as that he ;ille. <a:e because he 5as as;e. b3 Crisosto2o
an. that he cannot refuse hi2 because he is a frien.& Moreo,er! the ,icti2 5as a 2e2ber of the
Co22an.o %an6! an ene23 of the %enuine Ilocano %an6 to 5hich he belon6e.& ") *e 5as
interro6ate. fro2 "1)) p&2& to 21@) p&2& on the sa2e .a3&
Asi.e fro2 the t5o accuse.! prison 6uar. Ser,i.eo Ca2arillo! 5ho 5as an e3e5itness to the
co22ission of the cri2e! 5as also in,esti6ate. 8EDhibit F*G9& "" *e 5as as;e. b3 the in,esti6ator to
I.entif3 fro2 a2on6 four 5eapons the t5o that he ha. reco,ere. fro2 the t5o accuse.& *e pointe. at
the 5eapons 2ar;e. as EDhibits FCG an. FDG as the ones use. b3 the accuse. Ra6sac an. Crisosto2o
respecti,el3& These 5ere the ,er3 sa2e 5eapons I.entifie. b3 the t5o accuse. 5hen the3 5ere
in,esti6ate. b3 A,elina&
Durin6 the trial! the t5o accuse. 6a,e a ,ersion of the inci.ent 5hich 5as .ifferent fro2 the one the3
relate. in their respecti,e s5orn state2ents! EDhibits F+G an. F%G& Accor.in6 to their ne5 ,ersion! the
accuse. Crisosto2o 5as the onl3 one 5ho stabbe. <a:e& The accuse. Ra6sac .enie. participation in
the stabbin6 for he 5as 5ith the bri6a.e of prisoners collectin6 6arba6e in the prison pre2ises&
+urther2ore! the accuse. Crisosto2o alle6e.l3 acte. in self(.efense& Accor.in6 to hi2 four .a3s prior
to the inci.ent! he re=ueste. <a:e to bu3 hi2 su6ar an. ci6arettes at the prison Post EDchan6e& +or that
purpose! he 6a,e <a:e PA2&))& On Ma3 24! "#42! he sa5 <a:e an. as;e. hi2 about his re=uest& <a:e
sai. that he lost the 2one3& <hen as;e. ho5 the 2one3 5as lost <a:e beca2e irritate. an. threatene.
to a.. hi2 to the persons he ha. ;ille.& At the sa2e ti2e! <a:e struc; hi2 5ith a FchacoG 8a 5eapon
2a.e of t5o sharp(e.6e. pieces of 5oo.! connecte. to6ether 5ith a strin69& Crisosto2o alle6e.l3 sa5
<a:e pullin6 so2ethin6 fro2 his bo.3! so Crisosto2o i22e.iatel3 brou6ht out his o5n 5eapon
8EDhibit FDG9 ;no5n in prison parlance as F2atalasG an. stabbe. <a:e 5ith it& "2
In their brief! the t5o accuse. assi6ne. the follo5in6 errors1 "
I
T*E TRIA' COURT ERRED <*EN IT *E'D T*AT T*E DE+ENDANTS(APPE''ANTS
SA'-ADOR CRISOSTOMO AND INOCENCIO RA%SAC CONSPIRED TO KI'' ANTONIO
<A0E AND T*AT T*E 'ATTER <AS KI''ED <IT* E-IDENT PREMEDITATION AND
TREAC*ERC&
II
T*E TRIA' COURT ERRED <*EN IT *E'D T*AT DE+ENDANT(APPE''ANT INOCENCIO
RA%SAC PARTICIPATED IN T*E KI''IN% O+ ANTONIO <A0E&
III
T*E TRIA' COURT ERRED <*EN IT *E'D T*AT DE+ENDANT( APPE''ANT SA'-ADOR
CRISOSTOMO DID NOT ACT IN SE'+( DE+ENSE <*EN *E KI''ED ANTONIO <A0E&
It is apparent that the trial courtEs fin.in6 of the eDistence of conspirac3 to ;ill <a:e bet5een the t5o
accuse. an. the alle6e. treacherous 2anner in 5hich the ;illin6 5as eDecute. is base. on the s5orn
state2ents eDecute. b3 Sal,a.or Crisosto2o 8EDhibit F+G9 an. b3 Inocencio Ra6sac 8EDhibit F%G9&
It is! therefore! necessar3 to pass upon the a.2issibilit3 of the confessions an. their sufficienc3 to
sustain the con,iction&
+or a confession to be a.2issible in e,i.ence! it is a 6eneral rule that it 2ust ha,e been 2a.e 5ithout
hope of benefit! 5ithout fear or .uress! an. 5ithout the use of threat! torture! ,iolence! artifice or
.eception& "@ 'i;e5ise! F5ritten state2ents 5hich 5ere 2a.e freel3 an. ,oluntaril3 5hereb3 the3
a.2itte. participation in the act co2plaine. of an. sufficientl3 corroborate. b3 other an. in.epen.ent
e,i.ence intro.uce. .urin6 the trial of the case are sufficient basis for con,iction& ">
The =uestion before the Court is 5hether the s5orn state2ents 2a.e b3 the t5o accuse. 5ere freel3
an. ,oluntaril3 6i,en&
There is 2erit in the contention of the Solicitor %eneral& "A that the in:uries suffere. b3 the t5o
accuse. 8EDhibits F"L an. F2L9 .o not necessaril3 pro,e that the3 5ere 2altreate.& The in:uries of the
t5o accuse. consiste. of bruises an. abrasions in the ar2s an. ;nees an. ecch32osis in the ri6ht e3e&
In.ee.! these ;in.s of in:uries are ,er3 li;el3 to be sustaine. b3 one 5ho su..enl3 .rops prone to the
6roun. 5hile in the act of runnin6 ,er3 fast as the t5o accuse. .i. 5hen the3 hear. the shots fire. b3
prison 6uar. Ca2arillo& 'i;e5ise! if the testi2on3 of the accuse. Crisosto2o that he 5as hit in the
hea. 5ith a FchacoG b3 <a:e is to be 6i,en cre.ence! then his hea. 5oun. 5as not .ue to
2altreat2ent&
Moreo,er! as pointe. out in the AppelleeEs Brief! "4 assu2in6 ar6uen.o that the t5o accuse. 5ere
torture.! the torture 5as inflicte. 5hen the 6uar.s an. sol.iers 5ere tr3in6 to apprehen. the2
follo5in6 their assault on <a:e! "$ an. not 5hen their a.2issions 5ere ta;en b3 Tolentino A,elina& In
fact! the t5o accuse. a.2itte. .urin6 the trial that A,elina 5as 6oo. to the2 an. that the latter .i. not
threaten or 2altreat the2& "#
Notable also is the ti2e 5hich lapse. bet5een the alle6e. 2altreat2ent 5hich 5as aroun. #1)) A&M& to
#1) A&M& of Ma3 24! "#42! as in fact the3 5ere treate. for the in:uries sustaine. b3 reason thereof at
aroun. #1> A&M& of the sa2e .a3! 2) an. the ta;in6 of their a.2issions 5hich 5ere fro2 ""1)) A&M&
to "21@) P&M& for Sal,a.or Crisosto2o an. fro2 "1)) P&M& to 21@) P&M& of the sa2e .a3s for Inocencio
Ra6sac& 2" The3 ha. sufficient ti2e to retract 5hate,er a.2issions the3 2a.e .urin6 the alle6e.
2altreat2ent 5hen the3 5ere for2all3 in,esti6ate. 2ore than t5o hours later b3 Tolentino A,elina!
5ho 5as a.2itte.l3 6oo. to the2&
As re6ar.s the contention of counsel for the t5o accuse. that the a.2ission of their s5orn state2ents is
unconstitutional in the li6ht of Sec& 2)! Art& I- of the Ne5 Constitution because the3 5ere not assiste.
b3 counsel! it is settle. that proscription a6ainst the a.2issibilit3 of confessions obtaine. fro2 the
accuse. .urin6 the perio. of custo.ial interro6ation in ,iolation of the proce.ural safe6uar.s! applies to
confessions after the effecti,it3 of the ne5 charter on 0anuar3 "4! "#4& 22 The s5orn state2ents of the
t5o accuse. 5ere eDecute. before the ne5 constitution too; effect&
The =uestion of 5hether or not the t5o accuse. co22itte. the ;illin6 in conspirac3 an. 5ith e,i.ent
pre2e.itation an. treacher3 5ill no5 be ta;en up&
The conspirac3 bet5een the t5o accuse. is sho5n b3 the a.2itte. fact that the3 a6ree. to ;ill <a:e
t5o hours before he 5as actuall3 ;ille.& It is sho5n b3 the concerte. acts of the t5o accuse. of lea,in6
their .or2itor3 BI(B( at 41)) A&M& on the .a3 of the ;illin6! of 2eetin6 at the prison ;itchen! of
5aitin6 for <a:e to appear! of approachin6 hi2 an. si2ultaneousl3 stabbin6 hi2&
Because of the eDistence of conspirac3 bet5een the t5o accuse. the acts of one are alrea.3 consi.ere.
the acts of the other& 2 Both are liable as principals&
Treacher3 is sho5n b3 the a.2ission of the accuse. Crisosto2o that he approache. <a:e fro2 behin.!
turne. hi2 about! then stabbe. hi2 8EDhibit F+G9& The su..enness of the attac; 5as consciousl3
a.opte. to facilitate the perpetration of the cri2e 5ithout ris; to the2sel,es& 2@
E,i.ent pre2e.itation can not be appreciate.& The t5o accuse. alle6e.l3 planne. to ;ill <a:e at 41))
oEcloc; in the 2ornin6 an. the ;illin6 too; place at #1)) A&M& 8EDhibits F+G an. F%G9& The t5o
accuse. .i. not ha,e sufficient ti2e to reflect .urin6 the t5o hours that prece.e. the ;illin6&
The final =uestion to be resol,e. is 5hether the accuse. Crisosto2o acte. in self(.efense or not& *e
conten.s that he shoul. not be liable for the .eath of <a:e because he acte. in self(.efense& Accor.in6
to the accuse. Crisosto2o! <a:e attac;e. hi2 5ith a FchacoG 5hen he as;e. hi2 about the PA2&))
5hich he 6a,e hi2 for the purchase of su6ar an. ci6arettes at the prison Post EDchan6e&
B3 in,o;in6 self(.efense! the accuse. Crisosto2o a.2itte. that he ;ille. Antonio <a:e& <ith his
a.2ission! the bur.en is upon hi2 to pro,e b3 sufficient an. con,incin6 e,i.ence that he 5as
.efen.in6 hi2self 5hen he ;ille. <a:e& 2>
To a,ail of the :ustif3in6 circu2stance of self(.efense! the follo5in6 ele2ents 2ust be present H
unla5ful a66ression! reasonable necessit3 of the 2eans e2plo3e. to pre,ent or repel it! an. lac; of
sufficient pro,ocation on the part of the person .efen.in6 hi2self&
The trial court foun. the prosecution 5itnesses 2ore cre.ible than the .efense 5itnesses& This fin.in6
is entitle. to 6reat 5ei6ht an. shoul. be 6i,en full faith an. cre.it in the absence of a sho5in6 that the
trial court faile. to ta;e into account circu2stances of 5ei6ht an. i2portance in arri,in6 at the
fin.in6s&
Unla5ful a66ression is e=ui,alent to assault or at least threatene. assault of an i22e.iate an.
i22inent ;in.& 2A There is unla5ful a66ression 5hen the peril to oneEs life! li2b or ri6ht is either
actual or i22inent& There 2ust be actual ph3sical force or actual use of 5eapon&
The clai2 of the accuse. Crisosto2o that <a:e 5as the one 5ho attac;e. hi2 cannot be belie,e.& It is
contrar3 to co22on eDperience an. to hu2an nature to ta;e offense at the in=uir3 of the for2er on
ho5 the 2one3 5as lost&
Althou6h it is clai2e. b3 the accuse. Crisosto2o that after he 5as struc; 5ith the FchacoG! he 6rabbe.
the sa2e! the FchacoG 5as ne,er presente. to the prison in,esti6ator& Nor 5as the sai. FchacoG e,er
2entione. in EDhibits F+G an. F%G& It 5as brou6ht up for the first ti2e .urin6 the trial before the lo5er
court&
There is no sufficient sho5in6 that <a:e 5as ar2e. at the ti2e he 5as ;ille.&
The ,icti2 not bein6 ar2e.! it 5as not reasonable for the t5o accuse.! both ar2e. 5ith F2atalasG to
attac; <a:e an. inflict upon hi2 se,en 849 stab 5oun.s& The accuse. Inocencio Ra6sac escape. .urin6
the pen.enc3 of the re,ie5 of this case& Bein6 a .eath con,ict! his fli6ht fro2 prison 5hile his case 5as
pen.in6 re,ie5! as hel. b3 this Court in a si2ilar case! 24 is e,i.ence of his consciousness of 6uilt&
The t5o accuse. participate. in the ;illin6 of the ,icti2& The cri2e the3 co22itte. is 2ur.er =ualifie.
b3 treacher3 5ith the a66ra,atin6 circu2stance of reci.i,is2& *ence the trial court correctl3 i2pose.
the .eath penalt3& *o5e,er! for lac; of the necessar3 ,otes! the penalt3 neDt lo5er in .e6ree is
i2pose.&
<*ERE+ORE! the .ecision of the trial court is hereb3 affir2e.! 5ith the 2o.ification that the penalt3
i2pose. is reclusion perpetua an. the in.e2nit3 to be pai. to the heirs of the .ecease. Antonio <a:e is
increase. to the su2 of P"2!)))&))! 5ith costs&
SO ORDERED&
+ernan.o! C0&! Barre.o! Ma;asiar! A=uino! Concepcion! 0r&! %uerrero! Aba. Santos! De Castro an.
Melencio( *errera! 00&! concur&
Teehan;ee! 0&! concur in the result&
+ootnotes
" Rollo! pp! 2(&
2 Rollo! p& #&
Rollo! pp& (@&
@ EDhibit FA F! p& "A! Recor.s&
> EDhibits FIG an. F2L! pp! @)(@"? Recor.s! pp& @(4! p& ">? TSN! No,& "2! "#4! pp& #(" "? TSN! No,&
"4! "#4&
A TSN! pp& "@(">! No,& >! "#4&
4 Recor.s! p& 2&
$ EDhibit F@L! Recor.s! p& 2&
# Recor.s! p& 2@&
") Recor.s! bac;pa6e of p& 2>&
"" Recor.s! p& 2>&
"2 TSN! pp& 4(")! No,& #!"#4&
" Brief for Defen.ants(Appellants! p& @(! Rollo! p& 4#!
"@ U&S& ,s& A6atea @) Phil& >#A!A))&
"> People ,s& Tolentino! $2 Phil& $)$&
"A Brief for the Appellee! p& "! Rollo! p& #"&
"4 Brief for the Appellee! p& "@! Rollo! p& #"&
"$ TSN! pp& ">("A! No,& #! "#4?
"# TSN! pp& &@! No,& "@!"#4& TSN! pp& A>(AA! No,& "2! "#4? TSN! pp! $(@)! No,& "! "#4&
2) EDhibit F2L! p& @"! Recor.s? TSN! p& ""! No,& "4! "#4&
2" EDhibits F+G an. F%G& Recor.s! pp& 2(2@&
22 Ma6toto Man6uera! A SCRA @&
2 People ,s& Su2a3o 4) SCRA @$$&
2@ People ,s& 'i2! 4" SCRA 2@#&
2> People ,s& Pa.iernos! A# SCRA @$@&
2A People ,s& Alcon6a! 4$ Phil& AA!
24 People ,s& Cornelio! # SCRA @>1 Rollo! pp& ")A( ")4&