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Defining andClarifying

OutcomeBasedEducation(OBE)
Defining andClarifying
OutcomeBasedEducation(OBE)
LectureSharingSession
WhatisOutcomeBased Education?
Itisaneducational philosophyorganized
aroundseveralfundamentalbeliefsand
principles.
ItstartswiththebeliefthatALL students
canlearn andsucceed.Educational
institutionscancontroltheconditionsof
success byprovidingquality,authentic
learningexperiences.
Thestudentssuccessistheresponsibilityof
theFACULTY.
WhatisOutcomeBasedEducation?
Itisorganizedfromafocusonstudent
exitoutcomes anddesigneddownward
totheunitlevels.
Itdirectsinstructionalstrategiesonclearly
definedlearningoutcomescomingfromset
standards.
Itdemandsahighexpectationforall
studentsandincludesopportunities for
enrichmentandremediationthrough
formative assessment.
WilliamBillSpady
Sociologist,HarvardLecturer
SelfProclaimedFatherofOBE
OBEDefined
Outcomebasededucation
meansclearlyfocusingand
organizingeverythinginan
educationalsystemaround
whatisessentialforall
studentstobeabletodo
successfully attheendof
theirlearningexperiences.
Outcomebasededucation
meansclearlyfocusingand
organizingeverythinginan
educationalsystemaround
whatisessentialforall
studentstobeabletodo
successfully attheendof
theirlearningexperiences.
WilliamBill
Spady
EssentialCharacteristicsofOBE
Instructionisdefinedintermsofoutcomes tobe
achieved.
Instructionisindividualized orpersonalized.
Thelearningexperienceisguidedbyfeedback.
Thelearningprogramissystematic.
Emphasisisonexit,notentrancerequirements.
Instructionismodularized orunitbased.
Thelearnerisaccountable forperformanceto
completethelearningprogram.
Desirable CharacteristicsofOBE
Thelearningprogramisfieldcentered.
Thereisabroadbasefordecisionmakingon
theprogram.
Thelearningmaterialsandexperiencesfocus
onknowledge,concepts,andskillswhichcan
belearnedinaparticularsetting.
Research isincludedaspartoftheprogram.
Theprogramiscareercontinuous.
Summary Definition
OBEisdefining,organizing,focusing,and
directing ALL aspects ofaninstructionaland
credentialingsysteminrelationtothingswe
wantALLlearnerstodemonstrate
successfullywhentheyexit thesystem.
(Gerber)
WhatareOutcomes?
Areclear,learningresultsthatwewantstudents
todemonstrateattheend ofsignificantlearning
experiences;
Arewhatlearnerscanactuallydowithwhatthey
knowandwhattheyhavelearned theyarethe
tangibleapplicationofwhathasbeenlearned;
Areactionsandperformancesthatembodyand
reflectlearnercompetenceinusingcontent,
information,ideas,andtoolssuccessfully;
Aredefinedbyobservableactionverbs
Glossary ofOutcomes
ContentOutcomes
Demonstrationoflearninginwhichacommandofspecificcontentis
moreimportantthantheprocessesthatmightbeusedto
demonstratethecommand
CulminatingOutcomes
Demonstrationsoflearningthatoccuratoraftertheendofformal
learningexperiences;sometimessynonymouswithexitoutcomes
DiscreteOutcomes
Usuallysmall,highlyspecificlearningdemonstrationsthatstand
aloneandhavelittledirectbearingonthelearningofother
outcomes
EnablingOutcomes
Learningoutcomesthatareessentialbuildingblocksforlearning
othermorecomplexoutcomes
Glossary ofOutcomes
Exit Outcomes
Learningdemonstrationsthatdefinesthesystemsultimate
expectationsforstudents,occurringatoraftertheendofthe
studentsschoolcareer
LiteracyOutcomes
Demonstrationoflearningthatpertainsdirectlyto
competenceinreading,writing,speaking,listening,and
computation
PerformanceOutcomes
Demonstrationoflearninginwhichcommandofclearly
identifiedcompetenciesandperformanceabilitiesisthe
centralfactortoaccomplishment
ThinkPairShareTime
Pickaparticularcourse youarecurrently
teaching.
Fromyourchosencourse,giveexamplesofa:
Content Outcome
Discrete Outcome
EnablingOutcome
Findapartner andshare yourexamples;askfor
agreementordisagreement
Bereadytoshare theresultsofyoursharingwith
theaudience.
OBESimplifiedasaPyramid
1
Paradigm
2
Purposes
3
Premises
4
Principles
5
Practices
OBEPyramid Detailed
WHAT and
WHETHER students
learnaremore
importantthan
WHEN,HOW,and
WHEREtheylearnit.
WHAT and
WHETHER students
learnaremore
importantthan
WHEN,HOW,and
WHEREtheylearnit.
One
Paradigm
OBEPyramid Detailed
EQUIPALLstudents with
allthecompetenciesand
requirementsneededfor
futuresuccess;
IMPLEMENT programs
andconditionsthat
maximizelearning
successforALL students.
EQUIPALLstudents with
allthecompetenciesand
requirementsneededfor
futuresuccess;
IMPLEMENT programs
andconditionsthat
maximizelearning
successforALL students.
Two
Purposes
OBEPyramid Detailed
ALL STUDENTSCAN
LEARN ANDSUCCEED.
SUCCESSBREEDS
SUCCESS.
SCHOOLSCONTROL
THECONDITIONSOF
SUCCESS.
ALL STUDENTSCAN
LEARN ANDSUCCEED.
SUCCESSBREEDS
SUCCESS.
SCHOOLSCONTROL
THECONDITIONSOF
SUCCESS.
Three
Premises
WhatCanWeControl?
Where weplaceourinstructionalfocus;
Howlong,howoften,andwhenwe
providetimeforlearning;
Whatlearningweexpectfromwhom,
andhowwerewardit;
Howwedesign,organize,andimplement
ourcurriculum.
OBEPyramid Detailed
Clarity ofFocus
DesigningDown
High Expectations
ExpandedOpportunity
andSupportfor
LearningSuccess
Clarity ofFocus
DesigningDown
High Expectations
ExpandedOpportunity
andSupportfor
LearningSuccess
Four
Principles
1. ClarityofFocus
Educatorsmustestablishaclearpictureof
thelearningtheywantstudentstobeableto
demonstrate;
Makethistheirtoppriorityinplanning,
teachingandassessment;
Share thisoutcomewithlearners;and
Maintainalignment betweenoutcomes,
teachingandassessment.
2.Designing Down
Thebasisofdesigningdownistoestablish
significantculminatingoutcomesandthen
derivefromthemtheenablingoutcomesthat
willprovidethefoundationforachievementof
thebroaderoutcomes.
3.High Expectations
ThreeComponents:
1. Raising thelevelofperformancethatis
consideredacceptable;
2. Abandoning normreferenced approaches
toassessment;
3. Givingallstudentsaccesstochallenging,
highlevel learning
4.Expanded Opportunityand
SupportforLearningSuccess
Itincludestheideathattime (hoursof
instruction,timetables,thecalendar)should
beusedtoorganizeandcoordinatelearning
opportunities,buttheyshouldnotdefineand
limitthem.
Italsoemphasizestheimportanceofteachers
usingdifferentmethodsofinstructionto
accommodatestudentsdifferentmodalities
oflearning.
OBEPyramid Detailed
DefineOutcomes
DesigntheCurriculum
DeliverInstruction
DocumentResults
Determine
Advancement
DefineOutcomes
DesigntheCurriculum
DeliverInstruction
DocumentResults
Determine
Advancement
Five
Practices
as5Ds
TheOBE5DCQICycle
Define
Outcomes
Design
Curricula
Deliver
Instruction
Document
Results
Determine
Advancement