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1 The History of Chemistry

Branches of Chemistry
Organic chemistry- study of living things (carbon-containing compounds)
Inorganic chemistry- study of non-organic substances (non-living), many bonded to metals
Physical chemistry- study of properties and changes of matter and their energy
Analytical chemistry- identification of components and compounds of materials
Biochemistry- study of substances and processes in living things
Theoretical chemistry- use of mathematics to understand chemical behavior and predict
properties of new compounds

Basic Research- done to increase knowledge, ex: how and why reaction occurs and what
properties of a substance are. Can be found by accident, ex: Teflon, Positron
Applied Research- carried out to solve a problem, ex: refrigerants that don’t pollute ozone
Technological Development- improve quality of life, ex: computers, biodegradable materials

1.2 Laboratory Safety

Classes of Fires
Class A fire- trash, wood, paper
Class B fire- liquids
Class C fire- electric

1.3 The Methodology of Science

Scientific method- logical approach to solving problems by:
Observing and collecting data
Formulating hypotheses
Testing hypotheses
Formulating theories supported by data

Requirements for formulating valid hypothesis: use background information obtained by


Falsifiability- must be possible to prove a thing false before accepted as true
Logic- naturally follow from others of same type
Comprehensiveness- all evidence must be evaluated, not just evidence that matches
Honesty- all evidence must be shown at risk of failing experiment
Replicability- any experiment can be replicated with same results
Sufficiency- evidence needs to be sufficient enough to prove theory

Limitations of science
opinion, morality, supernatural, religion
Science- study of something that exists
Pseudoscience- myths or beliefs that could be scientific but are false or do not have enough
evidence to be true

1.4 Units
Seven SI Units
Length- l- meter- m
Mass- m- kilogram- kg
Time- t- second- s
Temperature- T- Kelvin- K
Amount of substance- n- mole- mol
Electric Current- I- ampere- A
Luminous intensity- Iv – candela- cd

Three Common Conversion Factors

2.54 cm/1 in
2.2 lbs/1 kg
1.06 qt/1 L

Metric system is better because it increases by 10s

giga- G- 109 – 1 000 000 000
mega- M- 106 – 1 000 000
kilo- k- 103 – 1 000- Kabir
hecto- h- 102 – 100- hates
deka- da- 101 – 10- dark
basic- 100 – 1- bitches
deci- d- 10-1 – 1/10- drinking
centi- c- 10-2 – 1/100- cum
milli- m- 10-3 – 1/1000- molecules
micro- u- 10-6 – 1/1 000 000
nano- n- 10-9 – 1/1 000 000 000

Mass- measure of quantity of matter, does not depend on gravity, stays the same everywhere
Weight- measure of gravitational pull on matter

1.5 Uncertainty and Significant Figures

Use measuring devices to the finest calibration mark plus an estimated digit

Accuracy- closeness of measurement to correct or accepted value

Precision- closeness of a set of measurements of same quantity measured in same way

Significance of Zeros
Zeros between nonzero digits significant, ex: 87 009 km five significant figures
Zeros in front of all nonzero digits NOT significant, ex: 0.0009 one significant figure
Zeros at end of number and to right of decimal point significant, ex: 85.00 four sigfigs
Zeros at end of number to left of decimal significant if measured, ex: 2000. four sigfigs

Scientific notation 856.79 = 8.5679*102

Always write based on smallest number of significant figures in equation

1.6 Dimensional Analysis

Multiply by the conversion factor, ex: 8.00 cm*1 in/2.54 cm=3.15 in

Write so unit of previous numerator is following denominator, allows you to cancel out units

1.7 Density
Density=mass/volume, characteristic physical property, as mass increases so does volume so any
amount of a substance always has same density