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FunctionofHAVE&HAS
Have+s=Has
1. Tenseofhave/has

HehasgonetoDelhi. Ihaveapen.

Hehasbeenlivinghereforthelastsixyears.

2. Haveandhasshowthreedifferenttense:
i. Alittlepasttense.
ii. Alittlepresenttense.
iii. Pasttense+Presenttense.

3. Althoughhave/hasshowalittlepasttenseandalittlepresenttense,theyareneitherpure
presenttensenorpurepasttense.TheyareNOTEXACTequivalentofeitherthepurepasttenseor
purepresenttense.

4. Anactionisinpurepasttensewhentimelapse(T/L)canbementioned,asinthefollowingcase

Isawhimyesterday.

Ashave&hasdoNOTshowpurepasttenseTIMELAPSEcanneverbementionedwiththem.The
followingsentences,therefore,areincorrect,asTIMELAPSE(T/L)hasbeenmentioned.
i. Ihaveseenhimyesterday.

ii. Ihaveseenhimfiveminutesago.

iii. HehascometoIndialastweek.

Todayandnowshowthepresent,hencefollowingsentencesarecorrect.

i. Ihaveseenhimtoday.

ii. Hehascomeherejustnow.

PAST PRESENT
HAVE/HAS
PAST+PRESENT
T/L
x
x
x

5. FunctionInthePAST
A. ActionalreadyoverinthepastbutTIMELAPSEnotmentioned.

i. HehasgonetoDelhi.
ii. Wehavefinishedourwork.
iii. Hehasstudiedinthisschool.

6. FunctioninthePresentTense.
a. ShowsownershiporPossessioninthepresent.
i. Ihaveapen
ii. Hehasabike
iii. Theyhaveanewhouse.

b. ShowsCompulsionorCoercioninthePresent.
i. Ihavetogohomeearlytoday.
ii. Hehastoreachhisofficebefore10Oclock.
Note:toisalwaysusedimmediatelyafterhaveorhasincaseofcompulsion.

7. FunctioninPast+Present
ShowsthatanactionbeginsinthePASTandContinuesinthePRESENT.
i. Hehasbeenlivinghereinthishouseforthelastsixyears.[also,forsixyears
now]
ii. Theyhavebeenstudyinginthisschoolforfiveyearsnow.
Note:(i)Wheneverweusehaveorhastoshowpast+presentwemustmention
thewordthelastornowinordertoestablishthelinkbetweenthepastandthe
present.Withoutsuchwordstherewillbenorelationshipbetweenthepastandthe
presentandthesentencewillshowONLYPASTandNOTpast+present.Thenthe
sentencewillbeincorrect,asinthefollowingcase.
Hehasbeenworkinghereforsixyears.
IntheexamplecitedaboveforsixyearsshowsT/LandasT/Lcannotbe
mentionedwithhaveorhasthesentencebecomesincorrect.
Thecorrectformcanbeshownbyusingpurepasttense(becauseT/Lcanbementioned
withpurepasttense)asinthefollowing.

T/LNOT
Mentioned
x
3

Helivedinthishouseforsixyears.

WhenwementionthelastsixyearswedoNOTshowT/L,butthecontinuationof
timefromthepastintothepresent.
Note(ii)PAST+PRESENTcanalsobeshownbyusing,have/has+pastparticiple
(andNOTonlybyusinghave/has+been+verb+ingaswehaveseensofar)asinthe
followingcase.
i. Hehaslivedinthishouseforthelastsixyears.
ii. Hehasstudiedinthisschoolforfiveyearsnow.
Inexamplesabovethelastornowmustbementionedinordertoestablishthelink
betweenthepastandthepresent.
Note(iii)HaveandhasareusedforshowingPAST+PRESENTusingtheword
since(pointoftime).
i. Ihavebeenwaitingforyousincethelastonehour.


Purepast
T/L
x
Periodoftime,useforinsteadofsince
4

FunctionsofShallHaveandWillHave

1. PossessionorOwnershipinthefuturebyapointorperiodoftime.

a. Ishallhaveanewcarbytheendoftheyear.
b. Hewillhaveahouseofhisownbynextyear.

2. CompulsionorCoercioninthefuturebyapointorperiodoftime.

a. Weshallhavetorepaytheloanwithinsixmonths.
b. Weshallhavetofinishthisworklatestbytomorrow.
Note:toisalwaysusedimmediatelyaftershallhaveorwillhaveinthecaseof
compulsion.
3. ActionAlreadyOverinthefuturebyaPointorPeriodoftime.

a. Hewillhaveleftforhisofficebythetimewereachhishouse.
b. Weshallhavefinishedourworkbynextweek.
c. Hewillhaveworkedinthisofficefortwoyearsbynextmonth.

4.

ActionbeganinthePAST,continuesthroughthePRESENTintotheFUTUREuptoapointorperiod
oftime.
i. HewillhavebeenworkinginthisofficeforthreeyearsbyJune2012.


PAST PRESENT FUTURE
Point/Periodoftimeinthefuture
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FunctionsofHAD

HadisNOTthepasttenseofhaveorhasbecausehaveandhas,themselvesshowpast
tenseandthereforewecannothavethepasttenseofthepasttenseitself.
Hadhasapasttenseofitsownwhichisnotrelatedtothetenseofhaveorhas.

1. TenseofHAD

HadshowsMorePast
MorePast,HoweverispossibleonlywhenthereisanotheractioninLessPastinother
wordstheremustbetwoactionswheneverhadisusedoneaction(A/1)inmorepast
andotheraction(A/2)inlesspast,asinfollowingcases.
i. Hehadlefthisofficebeforewereachedthere.
ii. Shehadfinishedtheworkbeforewecontactedher.

iii. WereachedRanchiafterhehadleftforDelhi.

Note:i)L/PisusuallyshownbyPASTTENSE,however,itmustbeborneinmindthatL/Pis
shownbypasttenseonlywhenbothA/1&A/2arealreadyoverinpast.
ii)SometimesL/Pisshownbyusinghaveorhasasshownbellow.
Sciencehasprogressedinawaywehadneverimagined.

L/Pisshownbyhave/has+pastparticiplewhenA/2beingsinthePAST&Continues
inthepresent.
iii) SometimesL/Pisalsoshownbycould+verb

Hehadlefthisofficebeforewecouldreachthere.

L/PisshownbyusingCould+verbwhenA/2isattemptedbutnotcompleted(ontime).
HAD
MOREPAST
A/1

HAVE
HAS
PAST
(LESSPAST)
A/2

PRESENT
+
M/PA/1 L/PA/2
M/PA/1
M/PA/1
L/PA/2
L/PA/2
L/PA/2
M/PA/1
M/PA/1 L/PA/2
6

2. Usedinthesenseofiforwithif

Usedinthesenseofif:HadIknownthatyouwerehereIwouldhavebroughtyourbook
alongwithme.

Usedwithif:IfIhadknownthatyouwerehereIwouldhavebroughtyourbookalong
withme.
Note:WheneverhadisusedinthesenseofiforwithifthenL/Pisshownbywould
haveorcouldhaveorshouldhaveormighthave,dependinguponthesensetobe
conveyed+pastparticiple.
Couldhave ability
Shouldhave obligation
Mighthave possibility
Note:WheneverhadisusedwithiforinthesenseofifneitherA/1orA/2actuallytakes
place.TheSituationhere,therefore,ispurelyhypothetical.

3. FunctionofHADinpasttense.

i. Possession i.Possession
ii. Compulsion ii.Compulsion
(+TO)
Asshownabovehadisthepasttenseofhaveandhasinthecaseofpossessionand
compulsionbecauseinthesetwocaseshave/hasareinpresenttenseanditisalways
possibletohavethepasttenseofaverbwhichhasapresenttense.
e.g. i)Hehadamotorcyclewhenhewasastudent.
ii)Hehadtoobeyhisfathersorder(s).
Note:toisalwaysusedimmediatelyafterhadinthecaseofcompulsion.

HAD
MOREPAST

PAST

HAVE/
HAS

PRESENT
Past
Tense
Present
Tense
Possessioninthepast
Compulsioninthepast
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Summary:
Sr.
No.
MorePast
(M/P)
LessPast(L/P) Past
Tense
Condition
1. Had PastTense X
WhenA/1&A/2arealreadyoverin
thepast.
2. Had
Have/has+
pastparticiple
X
WhenA/2beginsinthepastand
continuesinthepresent.
3. Had Could+verb X
WhenbothA/2&A/1attemptedbut
notcompleted(ontime).
4. Had
would/should/might/
couldhave+pastParticiple
X
Whenhadisusedinthesenseofif
orwithif
5. X X
had
had+(to)
Possessioninthepast
Compulsioninthepast

Functionofhavehadhashadandhadhad
1. Structurehave/has/had+pastparticiple(exceptincasesofi.possessionandii.compulsion)

2. Present Past PastParticiple


have/has had had (incaseofi.possession&ii.compulsion)

3. Accordingtorule1above,wecansay:
i. Ihavetakenmybreakfast.
ii. Hehasfinishedhisbreakfast

4. Combiningrule1&2above,wecansay:
i. Ihavehadmybreakfast.
ii. Hehashadhisbreakfast.

5. Onthesameprinciplewecansay:
i. Wehavehadtoobeytheordersofoursuperior.
ii. Hehashadtoleaveearlyforhisofficetoday.

6. Similarlyaccordingtorule1,wecansay:
i. Hehadtakenhisbreakfastbeforehewenttocollege.

7. Combiningrule1&2,wecansay:
Hehadhadhisbreakfastbeforehewenttothecollege

Similarly,wecansay:
Hehadhadtoobeyhisfatherastherewasnoalternative.

2 3
3
3
M/P
P/P LPA/2
M/P P/P LPA/2
LPA/2
3
8

Have/has/hadhadorhave/has/hadhadtocanbeusedONLYincasesofpossessionand
compulsion(becausehadistheparticipleofhave/hasonlyinthesetwocases).

Thefunctionofhave/hashadtocanalsobeperformedmoresimplybyhadtoasshown:
Hehashadtoobeyhisfather.
OR
Hehadtoobeyhisfather.

Have+s=has/Had=did+have
Sr/No. Uses Function Tenses
1.0 Doyouhaveapen? Do+have=>Possession/Noemphasis(question) present
1.1 YesIdohaveapen. Do+have=>Possession/emphasis(statement) present
1.2 Yes,Ihaveapen. Possession/Normal(statement) present
2.0 Doeshehaveapen? Does+have=>Possession/Noemphasis(question) present
2.1 Yes,hedoeshaveapen. Does+have=>Possession/Emphasis(Statement) Present
2.2 Yeshehasapen. Possession/Normal(statement) Present
3.0 Didhehaveapen? Did+have=>Possession/Noemphasis(question) Past
3.1 Yeshedidhaveapen. Did+have=>Possession/emphasis(statement) Past
3.2 Yeshehadapen. Possession/Normal(statement) Past
4.0 Doyouhavetowork? Do+haveto=>Compulsion/Noemphasis(question) Present
4.1 YesIdohavetowork. Compulsion/emphasis(statement) Present
4.2 Yes,Ihavetowork. Compulsion/Normal(statement) Present
5.0 Doeshehavetowork? Does+haveto=>Compulsion/Noemphasis(question) Present
5.1 Yeshedoeshavetowork. Compulsion/emphasis(statement) Present
5.2 Yeshehastowork. Compulsion/Normal(statement) Present
6.0 Didhehavetowork? Did+haveto=>Compulsion/Noemphasis(question) Past
6.1 Yeshedidhavetowork. Compulsion/emphasis(statement) Past
6.2 Yeshehadtowork Compulsion/Normal(statement) Past
Note:HasisNEVERusedwithdo,doesordid
Sr/No. Uses Function Tenses
1.0 Haveyougotapen? Have+got
Has+got
present
1.1 Hashegotapen? present
1.2 YesIhavegotapen Possession present
1.3 YesIhaveapen Possession present
1.4 Yeshehasgotapen Possession present
1.5 Yeshehasapen Possession present
2.0 Haveyougottowork? Have+gotto
Has+gotto
present
2.1 Hashegottowork? present
2.2 YesIhavegottowork. Compulsion present
2.3 Yeshehasgottowork. Compulsion present

P/P
3
2
Pasttense
Possession
Compulsion
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Useofhadgotandhadgotto
1. HadgotandHadgottoareusedonthesamepatternashavegotandhavegotto.Here
onlythetensechangestoMorePast,asinthefollowing:

i. Hehadgotapenforhimselfbeforewecouldprovidehimone(possessioninM/P)

ii. Hehadgottoleaveforhisofficeearlyastheprimeministerwastovisitthere.
Compulsioninmorepast
2. Althoughtheuseofhavegotandhavegottoisfairlycommon,theuseofhadgotand
hadgottoisnotpopular.Theiruseshould,therefore,beavoided.

3. Itshouldalwaysbeborneinmindthatthefunctionofhavegot,havegotto,hadgotand
hadgottoareperformedby:
i. have(Possession)
ii. haveto(Compulsion)
iii. had(Possession)
iv. hadto(compulsion)
do,doesanddidareNEVERusedwithhad.

MPA/1
LPA/2
MPA/1 LPA/2
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FunctionofBeen
1. Presenttense Past PastParticiple FutureTense
i. am/is was been shallbe/willbe
ii. are were been shallbe/willbe

2. Alwaysusedwithhave/has/had
3. NEVERusedwitham/is/areorwas/werebecausebeenisthepastparticipleof
am/is/are/was/wereandapastparticiplecannotbeusedwithitsOWNpresenttenseor
pasttense.

4. ShowsAlreadyVisited
i. Ihavebeenherebefore.
ii. HehasbeentoEngland.

5. ShowsPassiveVoicewhenusedwithanotherpastparticiple
i. Hehasbeenbeatenbyhisfather.

ii. Hehadbeenbeatenbyhisfatherbeforehewenttoschool.

6. InPassiveVoicethesubjectisPassive(withoutanyactionormotion)asintheexamplein
Rule5.WhereasinActiveVoicethesubjectisActive(ShowingActionorMotion)asinthe
examplegivenbellow.
i. Hisfatherhasbeatenhim(A/V)
ii. Hisfatherhadbeatenhimbeforewewenttoschool(A/V)

ItisobviousfromtheexamplegivenabovethatA/VisbetterthantheP/Vbecausetheformeris
brief,simpleanddirect.However,therearecertainsituationwhichcanbeexpressedONLYin
P/V,suchsituationareusuallythosewhereitisnotpossibletosaywhohasdonethework,asin
thefollowingcases:
iii. Theroadhasbeenrepaired.
iv. Powerhasbeenrestored.

7. Whenusedwithhave/hasandv+ingitshowsthatanactionbeganinPASTandisstill
continuinginthePRESENT.
i. Hehasbeenlivinginthishouseforthelastsixyears.

8. Whenusedwithhadandv+ing,itshowsthatanactionwascontinuinginMorePast.

Hehadbeenlivinginthishousebeforeheshiftedtohisownflat.

PP/1 PP/2
PP/1 PP/2
M/P L/P
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SpecialRulesonVerbs
1. AverbisawordwhichshowsMentalorPhysicalaction.
i. Heisagoodboy(M/A)
ii. Hewalksfast(P/A)
iii. Hejustdreams(M/A)

2. Itisimpossibletohaveasentencewithoutaverb.
i. Birdsfly
ii. (you)come

3. Thenumberofverbsinasentencedependsuponthenumberofactionsinit
S=A/1+ A/2+A/3+

4. Theverbinasentenceareusedwitheitheraccordingtotheruleof
i. SameTimeFrame(VS/TF),Or
ii. DifferentTimeFrame(VD/TF),Or
iii. CorrespondingTimeFrame(VCR/TF)

5. TheverbsinasentenceareintheSameTimeFramewhentheactionstakeplaceinthe
sametimeframe.
i. Igetupearlyinthemorning,goforawalk,comebackthentakeabath.

ii. YesterdayIgotupearlyinthemorning,wentforawalk,camebackandthentookabath.

6. TheverbinasentencewillbeinDifferentTimeFramewhenactionstakeplaceindifferent
timeframes.
i. Heislatetodaybuthecameontimeyesterday.

ii. Iampresenttoday,butIshallbeabsenttomorrow.

7. TheverbisinasentencewillbeinCorrespondingTimeFrame,whentheactiontakesplace
incorrespondingtimeframe.
i. Hesays thathewillworkhard.

ii. Hesaid thathewouldworkhard.

iii. Hethinks thathecandoanything.

iv. Hethoughtthathecoulddoeverything.
V/1 V/2 V/3
A1V/1 A2V/2 A3V/3 A4V/4 VS/TF VS/TF
A1V/1 VS/TF
A2V/2 A3V/3 A4V/4
VS/TF
A1V/1 A2V/2 VD/TF
A1V/1
VD/TF A2V/2
A/1V/1 VCR/TF A/2V/2
A/1V/1 VCR/TF
A/1V/1 VCR/TF
A/2V/2
A/2V/2
A/1V/1 VCR/TF A/2V/2
12

v. Theysaythattheymaynotcometotheparty.

vi. Theysaidthattheymightnotcometotheparty.
TheruleofCR/TFisvalidonlyinthecasesof
i. will(orshall)/would
ii. can/could
iii. may/might

FunctionofMayandMight
1. Tensesofmay&might.
may PastTense might

MayIcomein,Sir? HesaidthathemightgotoDelhithefollowingday

HesaysthathemaygotoDelhitomorrow.

HemighthavegonetoDelhi
Hesaidthathemightworkhard.
Possibility
Hesaysthatmaypasstheexam. Hesaidthathemightpasstheexam.
Permission
MayIcomeinSir? MightIcomeinsir?(extremerequest)
Blessing
Maygodblessyou! X
Mayyoualwaysbehappy X
Purpose
Westudysothatwemaypass. X


A/1V/1
A/2V/2
VCR/TF
A/1V/1 A2V/2 VCR/TF
Present/Future
Past/Future
CR/TF
(futurefromthepast)
CR/TF
(futurefromthepresent)
(past)
(future)
(present)
13

FunctionofCanandCould

1. TenseofCan&Could

CAN COULD

Icanwalkfast.(Present) IcouldwalkfastwhenIwasyoung.(past)
Icantotheretomorrow.

Hesaidthathecouldgotherethefollowingday.
Ability(todosomething)
Hecanworkhard. Hecouldworkhardwhenhewashealthy.

FunctionofShould

1. shouldisNOTthepasttenseofshall.Shouldcannotbethepasttenseofshallbecause
ithasameaningthatiscompletelydifferentfromthatofshall(Itiswellknownthatthe
meaningofworddoesntchangewhenitstensechanges).shouldshowsoughttowhereas
shallshowsfuturetense.
i. Weshallhelpthepoor(inthefuture)
ii. Heshouldhelpthepoor(weareobligedtohelpthepoor/weoughttohelpthepoor)

2. Thetenseofshouldisthesameasthetenseofmayandcani.e.(present/future)
i. Weshouldhelpthepoornow(present)
ii. Weshouldhelpthepoortomorrow.(futureformthepast)

3. Thepasttenseofshouldisshownbyshouldhave+pastparticiple
i. Weshouldhavehelpedthepoor.


Present/Future Past/Future
(futurefromthepresent) (futurefromthepast)
14

FunctionofShall,WillandWould

Shall/Will PastTense Would

Showsfuturefromthepresent:
i. Wepromisethatweshallhelpyou.

ii. Hesaysthathewillworkhard.
Showsfuturefromthepast:
i. Wepromisedthatwewouldhelpyou.

ii.Hesaidthathewouldworkhard.

I/Weshall
Youwill
He/she/it/this/that/onewill
I/wewould
Youwould
He/she/it/this/that/onewould
I/wewill
Youshall
He/she/it/that/this/oneshall

i. Wepromisethatwewillhelpyouno
matterwhathappens(D/F/P)

Wepromisedthatwewouldhelpyouno
matterwhathappens(D/past/Future)
X
Showshabitualactioninthepast:
Hewouldsitinthisofficeandtalkthewhole
day.
X
Althoughsomepeopleusewouldasthe
equivalentofshallandwillitisalways
bettertoavoidsuchause.wouldisthepast
tenseofshallandwillandtherefore
shouldnotbeusedastheequivalentofshall
&will.

Howtouseshall/will/may/canandshould/would/might/could:

1. Shall/will/may/can/
should/would/might/could

i. Ishallgotheretomorrow.
ii. Icanswimwell
iii. Weshouldhelpthepoor.
iv. IwouldworkhardifIwereyou.
v. IcouldswimwellwhenIwasyoung.
vi. Hemaycomeheretomorrow.
vii. Hesaidthathemightcomethefollowingday.

Present/Future
Past/Future
Present
Present
future
future
Past future
Past future
Normal
future
tense
Normal
future
fromPAST
Determination
infuturefrom
present
+OnlyVerb AlwaysinPresent
15

2. Shallbe/willbe/maybe/canbe/
shouldbe/wouldbe/mightbe/couldbe

i. Ishallbestudyinginmyroomwhenyoucometheretomorrow.
ii. Hemaybesleepinginhisroom.
iii. Hewillbehappytoreceivethisgive.

iv. Ishallbepleasedtomeetyou.

v. Youshouldbestudyinginyourroominsteadofplaying.

Note:AparticleisaverbwhichperformsthetaskofanAdjective.

Howtouseam/is/areandwas/were:

am/is/areandwas/wereareusedonthesameprincipleasshallbe/willbe/maybe/canbe

am/is/are
was/were

i. Iamstudying/happy/pleased.
ii. Iwassleepinginmyroomwhenthebellrang.
iii. YouwereworkinginyourofficewhenIwentthere.
Itisessentialtomentionthecontextinthecasesofpastcontinuoustenseandfuturecontinuoustense
inordertocompletethesentencelogically.
i. Iwasstudyinginmyroomwhenthebellrang.
ii. Ishallbeworkinginmyofficewhenyoucometheretomorrow.
NOcontext,however,isrequiredforthePresentContinuousTensebecauseitisalreadyunderstood.
i. Iamstudying
ii. Heissleeping.
+V+ingorAdjectiveorPastParticiple
adjective
PastParticiple
+v+ingorAdjectiveorPastParticiple
V+ing ADJ P/P
context
context