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Proceedings of the 7 th Asian Conference on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

ACRA2014

May 18-21, 2014, Jeju, KOREA

ACRA2014-281

Experimental Investigation On The Characteristics of The Partitioned Tank Applied To The Solar Air Conditioning

Jin Su-min , Wang Ai-huiSun Shu-hua Department of Energy, Nanjing University of TechnologyNo.30 Puzhu Nanlu Road Nanjing 211816P.R.China

ABSTRACT: A experimental investigation of partitioned heat storage tank used in solar air conditioning is discussed, and the characteristics are analyzed, the results show that the partitioned tank using in solar air conditioning system can significantly improve the property of the system, which causes the hot water maintain in the optimal temperature for a long time, as a result, the refrigeration system can maintain the COP in the high range for a long time. Although there have been some deviation in the test, the solution of these problems of the partitioned tank provide a feasible reference for the practical application. In general, it is feasible that the partitioned tank using in the solar air conditioning system, and it can reduce the heat consumption of the generator in refrigerating machine, improve energy efficiency.

1. INTRODUCTION

With the development of society, how to use the new energy sources have became a extremely urgent

problem, and solar energy as one kinds of natural pollution-free clean energy, more and more people has get attention to it. In our country, the building energy consumption take a significant proportion of total energy consumption, if the solar energy using in air conditioning system, it will achieve a good energy saving effect, which can also avoid the ozone depletion compared to common air conditioning. But the solar energy exist some problems like low energy flux density, inhomogeneity, intermittent, and so on. so the heat storage device can make the solar energy air conditioning system maintained more stable, more efficient. At present, the thermal storage of the solar energy air conditioning system is studied by more and more people, the study of the Solar Heat Pump Systems with Seasonal Storage [1] points out, if there is no short-term heat storage, assurance factor of solar energy will fell sharply; The double cistern system used in the solar

energy

water heater [2] can improve the solar energy

efficiency; the study of the phase change materials used

for heat storage

[3-5]

said that, the joined of phase change

materials in tank can improve the thermal efficiency of heat storage system, but it is complicated; Also some scholars study the water tank of temperature stratification under the solar energy air conditioning system [6] , the later study improved it [7] , but the tank of temperature stratification demand a high running condition, it is unstable, and the time of achieving high temperature is long. This paper puts forward a kind of partition tank to heat storage for solar air conditioning, which can rapidly reach the high temperature to run, and keep a long time, that can improve the performance of the system.

2. SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

The solar air conditioning using partitioned tank for heat storage can fast achieve the best temperature of heat source to work, and the temperature can keep for a long time. We know, for single effect LiBr - H 2 O absorption refrigeration system, there is a high sensitivity of temperature of heat source, and the best temperature is 88 ~ 94 , if under this value, the COP will reduce violently, so, to maintain the best temperature for a long time can improve the COP of system, which can also make full use of heat source.

Water supply pipe

Inlet of the hot water Inlet of the circulating water Outlet of the hot water i
Inlet of the hot
water
Inlet of the
circulating
water
Outlet of the
hot water
i
Drain pipe
Drain pipe

Outlet of the circulating water

Fig.

1

The schematic diagram of the partitioned tank

2.1 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTITIONED TANK

The design of the partitioned tank, show as the F ig. 1, is to divide the tank into operation area and storage area. Its working principle is showed in figure 1, the left

side is the operation area, and the right is storage area. Operation area is small, and is linked together with the heat source; the solar heat collection is used to satisfy the requirement of this area in the daytime, that cause the temperature reaches a higher value to take charge of the load first, when the temperature is higher than a set value, the heat reaches the storage area through the heat exchanger; the storage area is linked together with the operation area by heat exchanger, in the daytime, it is responsible for accumulation of the redundant heat from the operation area. Because the operation area is small, the temperature reduces fast at night, at this time, the temperature of the storage area will be higher than the operation area, it will improve the temperature of the operation area through heat transfer, which makes the operation area work on.

  • 2.2 The Characteristics of solar air conditioning

with partitioned tank

Compared with the typical solar air conditioning, this new kind of system has the following characteristics:

(1)In the initial condition, all of the heat used to heat up the operation area first, making the water temperature of the operation area lift quickly to achieve the operating requirements of the system, so as to form the fast effect of startup. (2)When the temperature of the operation area arrived the best value, the solar heat collection is used to meet the heat consumption of the load first, and then keep the temperature of the operation area, at the same time, transfer the excess heat to the storage area through the heat exchanger, achieve the purpose of heat accumulation; the temperature of the operation area maintaining a high value as the heat source of the refrigerating system cooling system, make the refrigeration unit running in a high COP for a long time, which improve the average COP of the system. (3)The increase of the COP reduced the heat consumption of the system, and so, in a sunny summer day, the system can need not auxiliary energy, as a result, reduce the consumption of the auxiliary heat.

3. EXPERIMENT SYSTEM

The proposed water tank was tested, including heat source system, heat storage system and cooling system, the whole device as shown in figure 2.

  • 3.1 HEAT SOURCE SYSTEM

The electric heating was used as heat source, while the hot water through the heater, its temperature was ris en, and flowed into the operation area, heated the water; as the cooling load was existed in this area, the temperat ure will be reduced, the backflow in the bottom of the tan k makes the low temperature water flow to the heater hea ting again, so the cycle. In order to installing thermal resi stance Pt100, the special process was used in the import and export of the water tank, which used for measuring t he temperature of the operation area, at the same time, th e flow regulator and flow meter were installed, for achie ving the measurement and control of the energy.

  • 3.2 HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM

side is the operation area, and the right is storage area. Operation area is small, and

Fig.

2

Experimental device of the partitioned tank.

In the test, the operation area 40 L, storage area 100 L, the heat exchanger was decorated in the tank for the heat transfer. In order to compare with the integral tank, two tubes were designed in the outside of the tank, so as to meet the effect of the integral tank; the two tubes were distributed in the top and bottom of the tank. The heat exchanger can transmit the redundant hea t to the storage area in the daytime; the temperature of th e operation area will reduce in the night, the heat will tra nsfer from storage area to operation area, which result th e temperature of the operation area rise, the system can c ontinue to work.

3.3 COOLING SYSTEM

In practice, the generator was driven by hot water in summer, the water was exothermic, and the temperature decreased. The heat was considered in test, and the condensing device was used to consume this part of heat, so as to realize the system simulation; heating power was 800W, the cooling load was simulated as the form of heat dissipation, which power was controlled in 400W or so. With 75 for initial temperaturethe test was began; Heating and cooling for 5.5 hours, and then the test was done only for cooling.

4. OPERATION CHARATERISTICS EXPERIME NT AND ANALYSIS

When the heating power was 800 W, and cooling load was 400 W, the variation of temperature of hot water tank was showed in figure 3. For the partitioned water tank, when the temperature of operation area was higher than 90 , the electromagnetic valve should open, heat exchange tube started to work, but it was showed in figure 3 that, if the temperature of operation area reach 85 , the heat transfer was appeared, this was mainly because that the electromagnetic valve was in the end of heat pipe, which can't control the flow of the thermal steam; When the water temperature of the operation area reached 90 , and the electromagnetic valve has been open, the temperature of upper water of storage area was continue to up, at the same time, the temperature of bottom water also started to up, this was because the heat transfer medium realized the circulation flow through opening the electromagnetic valve, heat transfer was consummate, and in the next period, the increase of the temperature of operation area was slower, and the increase of the temperature of storage area was intensified.

The upper temperature of the storage area 95 The bottom temperature of the storage area The
The upper temperature of the storage area
95
The bottom temperature of the storage area
The average temperature
of the operation area
90
85
80
75
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
The temperature of the hot water(℃)

Fig. 3

Time(h)

The temperature distribution of the hot water in heating phases

95 The upper temperature of the storage area The average temperature of the operation area The
95
The upper temperature of the storage area
The average temperature of the operation area
The bottom temperature of the storage area
90
85
80
75
70
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
The temperature of the hot water(℃)

Time (h)

Fig. 4 The temperature distribution of the hot water in cooling phases 92 90 88 86
Fig.
4
The temperature distribution of the hot
water in cooling phases
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78
76
74
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
The average temperature of the hot water(℃)

Fig. 5

Time(h)

The temperature and heat gain power of the hot water

In the heat dissipation test, the data of the end of the heating section has been used as the initial value, and the results were shown in figure 4. When the figure was taken as a whole, the cooling load was 380 W, the temperature of hot water in operation area was reduced from 95 to 71 in 5.5 hours, and the temperature of upper water in storage area was reduced from 88 to 80 , while the temperature of bottom water only dropped 3 , to 77 . Theoretically, for the heat exchange tube in storage area was decorated uniformly, the temperature stratification shouldn't appear seriously,

it was appeared in the test mainly because the difference

of the temperature in the beginning in the test; but we

also can see, the layered different of temperature of the

hot water was also reduced gradually in the period of

heat dissipation.

In order to comparison, the test of integral water ta

nk was done in the same working conditions, and the exp

erimental results were shown in figure 5. From the result

s, it can be seen that the operation area of partition water

tank would reach a higher temperature more easily than

92 88 84 80 76 The temperature of the operation area The temperature of the storage
92
88
84
80
76
The temperature of the
operation area
The temperature of the
storage area
72
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
The temperature of the hot water(℃)

Time (h)

Fig. 6 The distribution of the theoretical temperature 95 90 85 80 The temperature of the
Fig.
6
The
distribution
of
the
theoretical
temperature
95
90
85
80
The temperature of the
75
operation area
The temperature of the
storage area
70
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
The temperature of the hot water(℃)

Time (h)

Fig. 7

The distribution of the average temperature of the test

the integral water tank. With the same condition of heatin g power and dissipation power, when the temperature of hot water of operation area in partition tank reached 90 , the integral water tank can only reach 80 , as the h eat sources of one effect LiBr absorption chiller, the influ ence of the temperature difference on the COP of the syst em was considerable, and after 4.7 hours, the temperatur e of the integral water tank arrived 90 , the effect of re frigeration is not as good as the partition of the water tan k. But there was also a obvious problem: because of the heat transfer was not full, the heating time is too long, an d it made the temperature of operation area higher than c ritical value of 95 . For the partitioned water tank, in the same conditions of test, the temperature of theoretical analysis

were shown in the figure 6, it can be seen that, the trend of the theoretical value and the test value was consistent, but there were some deviation. Theoretically, the temperature stratification shouldn't appear in storage area; the heat transfer did not exist when the electromagnetic valve was closed; in the period of heat dissipation, the temperature difference of the two areas was 2.8 and the highest temperature of the storage area was 88 . From the result of the test, the temperature stratification existed in the storage area, and the temperature of upper water was 90.6 , the temperature of bottom water was only 80.7 ; in the period of heat dissipation, the decrease of temperature of the operation area was faster than storage area, if it was researched as the average temperature, the results were shown in figure 7. For the reason of the circumstance, it was due to the inappropriate position of the electromagnetic valve, the overlarge liquid-filled ratio, the poor technology of welding and so on.

5. CONCLUSION

(1) Using partitioned tank in the solar energy air conditioning, the system can more quickly achieve the best working temperature. Under the condition of the test, this temperature can be reached early 4.7 hours than the whole water tank system, and the temperature can be maintained to the end of heating, this can significantly improve the performance of the LiBr absorption chiller. (2) The test results showed that the heat exchange tube, which designed for heat transfer, cannot reach the best effect. Because of the insufficiency of the heat, there is a tendency of the temperature to higher than 95in operation tank, while the temperature of the storage tank is just 85.6 , the difference is large. (3) For the whole, the test results conformed to the

theoretical analysis, but there were still some problems:

the installation of the electromagnetic valve was improper, the filling liquid rate of the heat exchange tube was too large, and the defects of the processing technology, the solution of these problems will provide feasible reference for the actual application of the partitioned water tank.

REFERENCES

[1] YU Guo-qing, CHEN Peng, FENG Chuan-zhen. 2007, Study of Solar Heat Pump Systems with Seasonal Storage by Simulations [J]. Construction Conserves Energy, 7:pp.43-46. [2] Xu Yi-shi. 2010Optimized Design of Heat Storage and Auxiliary Heating Equipments of Solar Hot Water System[J].China water & Waste waterVol.26(14):pp.

59-61.

[3] Mehling H.2003, PCM-module to improve hot water heat stores with stratification [J].Renewable Energy, Vol. 28, pp.699-711. [4]Luisa F.Cabeza,Manuel Ibanez.2005 , Experimentation with a water tank including a PCM module [J].Solar energy materials & solar cells,. [5]N.Nallusamy,S.Sampath, R.Velraj. 2007,Experimental investigation on a combined sensible and latent heat storage system integrated with constant/varying heat sources [J]. Renewable Energy, Vol.32, pp.1206–1227. [6] YU Guoqing, TANG Jinhua, ZOU Zhijun.2007 Research on the Effect of Temperature Stratification in Water Tank in Solar Domestic Hot Water System[J]. Buil ding Science, Vol.23(4), pp.7073 [7] Z. F. Li and K. Sumathy2001, Experiment studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with par titioned hot water storage tank [J]Solar Energy 200171(5) : 285297