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NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

INTRODUCTION
Policy is a system, which provies the lo!ical "ramewor# a$ ratio$ality o" ecisio$ ma#i$!
"or the achieveme$t o" i$te$e o%&ectives' It is stateme$ts that !(ies a$ provie iscretio$
withi$ limite %o($aries' Policy sets priorities a$ !(ie reso(rces'
The mi$ister o" health a$ "amily wel"are )ovt o" I$ia, evolve a NHP i$ *+,- #eepi$! i$
view the $atio$al commitme$t to attai$ the !oal o" health "or all the year .///' 0i$ce the$ has
%ee$ si!$i"ica$t cha$!es i$ the etermi$a$t "actors relati$! to the health sector, $ecessitati$!
revisio$ o" the policy, a$ a $ew NHP12 .//. evolve'
O34ECTI5E0
*' To achieve a$ accepta%le sta$ar o" !oo health amo$!st the !e$eral pop(latio$ o" the
co($try
.' To i$crease access to the ece$trali6e p(%lic health system %y esta%lishi$! $ew
i$"rastr(ct(re i$ e"icie$t areas , a$ %y (p!rai$! the i$"rastr(ct(re i$ the e7isti$!
i$stit(tio$
-' To e$s(ri$! a more e8(ita%le access to health services across the social a$ !eo!raphical
e7pa$se o" the co($try
9' To i$crease the a!!re!ate p(%lic health i$vestme$t thro(!h a s(%sta$tially i$crease
co$tri%(tio$ %y the ce$tral )ovt
:' To stre$!the$ the capacity o" the p(%lic health ami$istratio$ o" the state level to re$er
e""ective services elivery
;' To e$ha$ce the co$tri%(tio$ o" the private sector i$ provii$! health services "or the
pop(latio$ !ro(p which ca$ a""or to pay "or services
<' To ratio$ali6e (se o" r(!s withi$ the allopathic systems a$
,' To i$crease access to trie a$ teste systems o" traitio$al meici$e
)OAL0 TO 3E ACHIE5ED 3Y ./// = .//:
.//-> E$actme$t o" le!islatio$ "or re!(lati$! mi$im(m sta$ar i$ cli$ical
esta%lishme$t ? meical i$stit(tio$
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.//:> Eraicate poliomyelitis a$ yaws@ Elimi$ate leprosy@ Esta%lish a$
i$te!rate system o" s(rveilla$ce, $atio$al health acco($ts a$ health
statistics@ I$crease state sector health spe$i$! "rom :':A to <A o"
the %(!et@ *A o" the total health %(!et "or meical research@
ece$trali6atio$ o" impleme$tatio$ o" p(%lic health pro!rams
.//<> Achieve 6ero level !rowth o" HI5? AID0
./*/>
Elimi$ate Bala a6ar
Re(ce mortality %y :/A o$ acco($t o" T'3, malaria a$ other
Re(ce prevale$ce o" %li$$ess to /':A
Re(ce I1R to -/ ?*/// a$ 11R to * ?*///
I$crease (tili6atio$ o" p(%lic health "acilities "rom c(rre$t level o" less tha$ ./ to
more tha$ <:A
I$crease health e7pe$it(re %y )ovt "rom the e7isti$! /'+A to .A o" )DP
.A o" the total health %(!et "or meical research
I$crease share o" ce$tral !ra$ts to co$stit(te atleast .:A o" total health spe$i$!
C(rther i$crease o" state sector health spe$i$! to ,A
./*:> elimi$ate lymphatic "ilariasis
POLICY PRE0CRIOTION
*' Ci$a$cial reso(rces>
To i$crease health sector e7pe$it(re to ;A o" )DP , with .A o" )DP %ei$!
co$tri%(te as p(%lic health i$vestme$t, %y the year ./*/
0tate )ovt, e7pecte to i$creases health co$tri%(tio$ a%o(t <A o" the %(!et %y .//:
a$ ,A o" the %(!et %y ./*/
Ce$tral )ovt co$tri%(tio$ to p(%lic health wo(l rise to .:A "rom the e7isti$! *:A
%y ./*/
.' E8(ity>
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NHP = .//., sets o(t a$ i$crease allocatio$ ::A o" the total p(%lic health i$vestme$t "or
primary health sector@ the seco$ary a$ tertiary health sector %ei$! tar!ete "or -:A a$ */A
respectively'
-' Delivery o" $atio$al p(%lic health pro!ramme>
It is o$e thro(!h hori6o$tal ma$$er' It mea$s !ivi$! respo$si%ility to state )ovt "or
scie$ti"ic esi!$i$! o" p(%lic health pro&ects thro(!h villa!e a$ Dist health ami$istratio$,
epe$i$! o$ the local $ees' Policy e$s(res the provisio$i$! o" "i$a$cial reso(rces, i$ aitio$
to tech$ical s(pport, mo$itori$! a$ eval(atio$ NHP at the $atio$al level %y the ce$tre'
9' The state o" p(%lic health i$"rastr(ct(re>
It mea$s stre$!the$i$! p(%lic health i$"rastr(ct(re' It is %y creatio$ o" a ece$trali6e health
system, will e$s(re a more e""ective s(pervisio$ o" the p(%lic health perso$$el thro(!h
comm($ity mo$itori$!, tha$ has %ee$ achieve thro(!h the re!(lar ami$istratio$ li$e o"
co$trols' Provisio$ o" esse$tial reso(rces a$ r(!s to stre$!the$ primary health str(ct(re "or the
attai$i$! o" improve p(%lic health o(tcomes o$ a$ e8(ita%le %asis'
:' E7te$i$! p(%lic health services>
It i$cl(es private a$ I$ia$ systems o" meici$e a$ homeopathy' The $(m%er o" meical
parameical a$ practitio$ers o" other system o" meici$e permitte, a"ter ae8(ate trai$i$!'
0tresse o$ two = year r(ral posti$! %e"ore the awari$! o" the !ra(ate e!ree'
;' Role o" local sel" = )ovt i$stit(tio$s>
)reat emphasis (po$ the impleme$tatio$ o" p(%lic health pro!rame thro(!h local sel" )ovt
i$stit(tio$sThe policy (r!es all state )ov to co$sier ece$trali6i$! the impleme$tatio$ o" the
pro!rams %y tra$s"er power to s(ch i$stit(tio$s %y .//:'
<' Norms "or health care pro"essio$als>
1i$imal stat(tory $orms with co$sta$t reviewi$! "or the eployme$t o" octors a$ $(rses
i$ meical i$stit(tio$s $ee to %e i$tro(ce (r!e$tly ($er the provisio$ o" the I1C Act a$
INC Act, respectively'
,' E(catio$ o" health care pro"essio$als>
The setti$! (p o" a $ew meical !ra$ts commissio$ "or "($i$! $ew )ovt meical a$ e$tal
colle!es i$ i""ere$t part o" the co($try a$ also "($ "or the (p !raatio$ o" the i$"rastr(ct(re o"
the e7isti$! colle!es, to improve sta$ar o" meical e(catio$' Nee %ase a$ s#ill orie$te
sylla%(s, C1E, U) c(rric(lam $ee to co$cer$ "or !eriatric isorer, "ore$sic meici$e,
raiolo!y, meical research'
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+' Nee "or specialists i$ p(%lic health a$ "amily wel"are>
To raise proportio$ o" P) seats i$ these iscipli$e i$ meical trai$i$! to reach a sta!e where
i$ *?9
th
o" the seats are earmar#e "or these iscipli$e' 0peciali6atio$ i$ p(%lic health may %e
e$co(ra!e "or %oth meical octor a$ $o$ meical !ra(ates "rom the allie "iels li#e p(%lic
health e$!i$eeri$!, micro%iolo!y a$ other $at(ral scie$ces'
*/' N(rsi$! perso$$el>
Nee "or a$ improveme$t i$ the ratio o" $(rses vis2 a2vis octors? %es i$ )ovt a$ private
sector' Nee "or esta%lishi$! trai$i$! ca(ses "or s(per specialty $(rses re8(ire "or trai$i$! care
i$stit(tio$s'
**' Use o" !e$eric r(!s a$ vacci$e@
It emphasi6es o$ a limite $(m%er o" esse$tial r(!s o" a !e$eric $at(re, $ee to %e (se %oth
p(%lic a$ private omai$' The list o" esse$tial r(!s wo(l $o o(%t have to %e reviewe
perioically' The pro(ctio$ a$ sale o" irratio$al com%i$atio$s o" r(!s wo(l %e prohi%ite
thro(!h the r(! sta$ars'
*.' Ur%a$ health>
0etti$! (p o" a$ or!a$i6e (r%a$ primary health care str(ct(re which a two = tiere system'
PHC is the "irst tier, a$ seco$ tier the (r%a$ health or!a$i6atio$ at the level o" the )ovt !e$eral
hospital, where re"ere$ce is mae "rom the primary ce$ter'
*-' 1e$tal health>
A $etwor# o" ece$trali6e me$tal health services "or ameliorati$! cate!ories o" isorers
starti$! "rom PHC where !e$eral (ty octor wo(l %e a%le to prescri%e meici$e' Up !rai$!
o" the physical i$"rastr(ct(re o" s(ch i$stit(tio$s at ce$tral )ovt e7pe$se is also emphasi6e'
*9' I$"ormatio$, e(catio$ a$ comm($icatio$>
1a7imi6es IEC to these pop(latio$ !ro(p ca$ %e achieve $ot o$ly %y mass meia, %(t also
%y i$terperso$al comm($icatio$, "ol# meia i$volvi$! PRIs? N)Os? Tr(sts'
*:' Health research>
I$crease i$ )ovt2 "($e health research to level o" *A the total health spe$i$! %y .//:' Up to
.A %y ./*/ "or omestic meical research "oc(si$! o$ $ew therape(tic r(!s a$ vacci$e "or
tropical iseases, s(ch as T'3, malaria, HI5? AID0'
*;' Role o" the private sector>
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The policy welcomes participatio$ o" the private sector i$ all areas o" health activities'
Esta%lishe le!islatio$ "or re!(lati$! mi$im(m i$"rastr(ct(re a$ 8(ality sta$ar i$ cli$ical
esta%lishme$t o" meical i$stit(tio$ %y .//-
Other prescriptio$s are>
Natio$al isease s(rveilla$ce $etwor#
Health statistics
Dome$Es health
1eical ethics
E$"orceme$t o" 8(ality sta$ars "or "oo a$ r(!s
Re!(latio$ o" sta$ars i$ parameical iscipli$es
E$viro$me$tal a$ occ(patio$al health
Provii$! meical "acilities to (sers "rom overseas
ACHIE5E1ENT0>.//-> E$actme$t o" le!islatio$ "or re!(latory mi$im(m sta$ar i$ cli$ical
esta%lishme$t? meical i$stit(tio$
.//:>
Eraicatio$ poliomyelitis is misse, 6ero reporti$! o" Yaws si$ce .//9
Leprosy has %ee$ eclare elimi$ate accori$! to the criteria "i7e %y DHO' However,
more e""orts are re8(ire'
ID0P has %ee$ la($che %(t esta%lishme$t o" $atio$al health acco($ts a$ health
statistics is still la!!i$! %ehi$' ID0P is also !oi$! at a slow pace'
0pe$i$! o" state sector health has $ot m(ch i$crease as pla$$e "rom :':A to <A o"
the %(!et
3(!et "or meical research is $ot m(ch i$crease as *A o" the total health %(!et "or
meical research has %ee$ tar!ete
Dece$trali6atio$ o" impleme$tatio$ o" p(%lic health pro!rams @ $atio$al r(ral health
missio$ has %ee$ la($che i$ this irectio$
.//<> Achieve 6ero level !rowth o" HI5? AID0 has $ot %ee$ achieve a$ may
re8(ire some more years
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0DOT ANALY0I0>
0tre$!th>
Policy ie$ti"y ma$y !ross e"icie$cies o" the e7isti$! health care sce$ario, proposes a
s(%sta$tial cha$!es' 4(sti"icatio$ provie "or the $ew policy are co$vi$ci$! a$ attempt
to accelerate achieveme$t "or the set p(%lic health !oals
Commitme$t to e$ha$ce the %(!et o$ health e7pe$it(re "rom :'.A to ;A o" )DP with
the )ovt co$tri%(tio$ i$creasi$! "rom /'+A to .A %y ./*/
Availa%ility o" ava$ce tech$olo!y a$ prove$ health strate!ies'
Dea#$ess>
Lac# o" mo$itori$! a$ eval(atio$
Lac# o" )ovt e7pe$it(re o$ p(%lic health
)ap i$ sit(atio$ a$alysis a$ policy prescriptio$
Opport($ity>
3ase o$ past e7perie$ces o" NHP *+,- a$ lo$! history o" impleme$tatio$ o" vario(s
pro!rams, I$ia !et this opport($ity to move ahea i$ health thro(!h health policy .//.
0(pportive e$viro$me$t a$ a%se$ce o" o%vio(s threat o" war, ($rest etc',
Policy i$itiatives will provie a $ew impet(s to the evelopme$t o" the health sector
Health to(rism will rai$ the trai$e ma$power to private se tor a$ will e$co(ra!e priv
ti6atio$' I$ a%se$ce o" re!(latio$ o$ private sector the e$co(ra!eme$t co(l %e
a$!ero(s "or the p(%lic health
Occ(rre$ce o" ($e7pecte $at(ral calamities a$ catastrophe
Ne!ativ e i$volveme$t o" reli!io(s "($ame$talists "or e!@ polio sterility myth
impe$i$! p(lse polio pro!ram
Ci$a$cial a(to$omy o" Dist societies may lea to corr(ptio$ a$ $ee to %e p(t ($er
strict o(ter re!(latio$ a$ acco($ta%ility'
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3I3LIO)RAPHY>
)(la$i B'B F.//:G HHComm($ity health $(rsi$! pri$ciples a$ practicesI #(mar
p(%lishi$! ho(se lt, New Delhi :<* 2 :<9
4ames shary$ et'al,F.//*G HH Comm($ity health $(rsi$! = cari$! "or the p(%lic
healthI To$es J 3artlett,3osta$, .// 2 ./.
Bamalam F.//:G HHEsse$tials i$ comm($ity health $(rsi$! practiceI 4aypee New
Delhi , *<- 2 *<9
Bishore '4 F.//<G HHNatio$al health pro!ram o" I$ia@2Natio$al policies a
le!islatio$ relate to health ,<
th
,ce$t(ry, New Delhi, 9<9 2 9,.
1oha&a 3B et'al, F.///G HHTe7t%oo# o" preve$tive a$ social meici$es, -
r
,
4aypee %rothers ,New Delhi, 9;/ 2 9,.
Par#' B F.//<G HHTe7t%oo# o" preve$tive meici$esI *+
th
, 1?0 3ha$arsias,
4a%alp(r, --<



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