Abstract Capacitor Commutated Converter (CCC) has can mitigate the difficulty of the reactive power consump
some advantages in operating at serious conditions with tion and the commutation failure; or we can consider reduc
comparing t o the conventional line commutated converter.
However, there remains some characteristics of the CCC
tion of shunt compensation and probability of continuous
and the HVdc system of this are not discussed in detail yet. operation t o an AC voltage drops and so on. CCC installa
To realize the CCC installation t o an HVdc system, further tion to an HVdc transmission system will benefit in terms
more investigation of the interaction between CCCHVdc of power system stability with low cost. This paper focuses
and AC power system. This paper performed the eigen
value analysis of CCCHVdc system including generator, ac on the stability improvement by CCC, through eigenvalue
line, converter and dc line, to recognize the interaction be analysis and transient analysis simulation.
tween them. The results show that the CCCHVdc system
enhances the system stability when comparing to the con The basic principle of CCC, voltage stability and start
ventional line commutated converter installed HVdc system. conwrter operation connected t o ac system without ac
source has h e w discussed. This paper discuss about the
Keywords Keyword  HVdc, CCC, Commutation Capac stability of CCCHVdc and AV transmission system. As
itor, System Stability a met hod of t,hc interaction analysis between CCCHVtlc
arid AC systeni, eigenvalue analysis and EMTP simulatioiis
I. INTROOUCTION are performed.
B. constant margin angle chamcteristic Conventional HVdc transmission system has a voltage
instability phenomena at inverter station with ATR mode.
The overlap angle in the commutation of LCC increases
AyR changes firing angle of inverter station so that ac volt
to the AC voltage drop or DC current increases. On the
age collapse continues. If short circuit ratio (SCR) of ac
contrary, the increment of DC current raises the voltage
power system at inverter station side is small and recti
charged in the CC and it makes commutation voltage high,
fier station operates with APR, such an action is remark
then the overlap angle in the commutation of CCC becomes
able and keeping of ac voltage is very difficult. CCC with
smaller than that of LCC.
high CC compensation factor installed in inverter station
Then, LCC decreases margin angle to an AC voltage
will keep ac volt.age stability, because constant margin an
drop or a DC cureent increment for the same firing angle. gle characteristic of CCC can be contrary to the conven
On the contraly, CCC increases margin angle t.o them and tional converter by adopt,ingCC compensation with high to
it becomes remarkable by rasing the CF. It means that some extent. CCC is basically linecomniut,ated converter,
CCC can operate in high power fact,or range with large so there is operational limitation, but greatly extend such
firing angle. As shown above, the AyR control of CCC
limitat,ion in comparison with the conveiitional converter.
shows opposite charecteristics to that. of LCC.
Fmlts occurred in ac transmission system at inverter
station side makes inverter station gateshift sequence for
C. converter control system
prevention of comrnutation failure. This sequence rnoves
As a control system for ac/dc converter, CCC can iise p0wt.r factor o f invei ter station to zero, so delay exists from
conventional control system ; constant dc current con fault removal to rmwery of power system. On the other
trol (ACR) at rectifier station, constant dc voltage control hand, CCC can contimte to operation with high power fac
(AVR) and constant margin angle control (A3R) at in tor (needless to change power factor to zero), the recovery
verter station. To control dc transmission power) constant time will be shorter than JXC. But in terms of transicnt
dc power control (APR) and other control may be applied and unbalanced situation, CCC also needs to have the pre
at requests in terms of stabilization, cost, and so on. Each vention of commutation failure.
control component is almost same, only parameter adjust
ment is required. But calculation rnodel for 4yR must be 111. STUDIED MODEL
prepared, because CCC characterist,ic rnodcl is more dif
A . AC/DC tinnsniission system
ficult than LCC model (from CCC characteristic model,
LCC model can be led). Usually CCC niatheinatical model The HVdc system studied in this paper is shown in F i g 2
is complex, so we may change t.o simplified model. If closed AC system of the rectifier side and the inverter side is in
loop type A r R (margin angle is directly detected), there is terconnected by tht. HVdc system. AC power source a t the
no difference both converter. rectifier side is generator and the inverter side is an infinite
bus. They are linked to the converter terminal thorough
D. effects of installation CCC in, electric power system 50km 2cct AC iransmission line. The rectifier is LCC and
the inverter is CCC. The control system of the converter is
CCC inverter station can operate with high power fac
shown in Fig.3. The rectifier is conventionally operated in
tor, because of the extension of available maximum delay
ACR or APR, and the inverter is operated in AVR or AyR.
firing angle related to the CC's conipensation factor, hence
The used parameter in this study is indicated in table.1 and
the converter transformer and shunt cxmipensation capacity
11.
can be reduced. Reduction of shunt compensa.tion capacity
indicates not only cost benefits, but also the prcventation
B. constant margin (ingle control model
of over ac voltage at load drops and the movement of anti
peak point of ac system impedance from low frequency .re The firing angle prcdiction for ATR control of LCC ciln
gion to high. And CC acts reduction over dc c:urient when be easily calcumtcd from AC voltage and DC current. But
fault is occurred in dc transmission system, heiice leakage thc ommu mutation proccess of CCC is diffrent from that of
impedance of converter transformer is able !;osmaller than LCC and the relation among firing angle, overlap angle,
the conventional's. margin angle. .4C volta.gc and DC current is complex and
0780359356/00/$10.00 (c) 2000 IEEE 2927
TABLE I
SYSTEM PARAA4ETE:RS
output 2,800M W
Generator H 4.0sec
D 1.opu
ac line rectifier side 50km2cct Vdcref
inverter side 50km2cct.
dc line lOOkm
H JdC 2,800hIw
f500kT.'
440 x 8M V A Fig. 3. converter control
Converter transformer 500kV/llOkT
18%(%Z)
Converter REC LCC ogy. The difference between them is the imaginary part of
type INV LCC or CCC the eigenvalue in inverter side. The oscialation frequency
Converter REC 1 ACR or APR of this mode of CCC is higher than that of LCC. This can
control INV I AVR or.4rR be deduced as follows that the CCC can operate higher
power factor than the LCC in inverter operation and it
TABLE I1
reduces the arnount of shunt compensation in quite small
CONDITION
valuc. It reaches to about 15% of converter ratings. This
means that reactive power supplied from AC filter is suf
ficient for CCC. The reactive power compensation of LCC
system base ; 1,00OMVA, 500kV, 60Hz reaches upto 60% of the converter ratings. The reduction
of rcactive power compensation is favorable not only t o the
dc power = 2.8pu (system base) cost performance bul also t o the low order harmonic sta
dc voltage = 1 . O m (dc base) bilit,y improvement by shifting the resonance frequency of
the 4C syst,em.
However! the CCC make the damping of DC line mode
the firing angle cannot be obtained algbraicdly. There worse in comparison to the LCC, though it is stable a.nd
fore the firing angle for 4ya7n.maRoperation of CCC must monotonous da.inping. This tendency is common in regard
be calcurated numerically by iterative corivergence calcu less with the inverter control mode. The detecting uint
ration. These equations for calcurating firing angle of .4yR mode Idm (dc current detector) and PLL are almost con
is implemented in the eigenvalue analysis by linearizing i t stant value that is determined by time coiist.aiit of detector.
at the operationg point. There are not,able difference between CCC and LCC in
APR mode, Idc  clc line mode and Idc  ACR mode. 'The
IV . EIGENVALUE
,4N A LYSIS difference of APR mode eigenvalue between inverter control
The eigenvalue analysis results of the CCCHVdc sys of AfiR and AyR. for is very small as shown in table.111and
tem are given in this section. Tile analysis is divided in IV. ?.'hough that. diffrence for LCC is large, and it indicates
two steps to distiguish the interaction among CCC output,, that t,he changirig control from AVR t o AyR makes APR
converter control system, DC line and AC system. mode of eigenvalue 10 unstable direction. AyR of CCC can
(1) Considering the converters, converter controller, DC be expected to stabilize the interaction between converter
line and AC system supposing that the g e n c r a h is con cont,rol systems. On the other hand, in AVR operation,
stant voltage source. eigenvalue of dc current  dc line or ACR mode of CCC
(2) Considering all the model in the system (generator is wtrse than that, of LCC though it has stable negative
model consists of 2mass model and park modcl with .4VR value.
and governor)
B. CCCHVdc transmission system and generator
Ta.ble.V and VI shows the typical mode of eigenvalue
A . Interaction between converters a n d DC lirre analysis using tlctail(:d generator model of step (2). In this
The eigenvalue analysis result in accordance with the case, almost all tlie eigenvalue related to generator vari
step (1) is given in Table.111 and IV. 'I'abie.111 shows the ab!es are not affectcd by the type of inverter. But dc cur
typical mode of the obtained eigenvalue to the system with rent  clc line. rnotle and dc current  ACR mode eigenvalues
APR(rectifier) and AVR (invctrter). Table.1V is diffrent arc! largely a.ffec:teclhg t,hem. This tendency of eigenvalue
from table.111 in the inverter control mode of ArK. is nearly equal to previous simplifed model results.
The eigenvalues of AC syssein  shunt con!pensation Hecc after, wt: discuss about APR  .4yR. mode eigezi
mode of converter terminal gives stable negative !;:rge value valuc:. Fig.4 sliows the change of the real part of APR
in regardless with the inverter contro! and converter topol mod<: eigciivaluc to the short circuit capacity of the AC
mode Inverter 
mode Inverter
CCC(220%) LCC CCC(220%) LCC
ac line  62.60 (301.54Hz) 62.5 1 (301.53Hz) dc line 8.26 (314.75Hz) 11.97 (315.24Hz)
Sh C (Rec) 47.85 (184.75Hz) 47.87 (184.75Hz) APR 4.95 4.86
ac line  105.52 (484.49Hz) 62.56 (310.63Hz) Geri current + 45.06 (51.09Hz) 48.46 (50.97Hz)
Sh C (Inv) 121.71 (373.46Hz) 50.90 (195.22Hz) Idc + dc line
dc line 10.20 (315.01Hz). 13.75 (315.54Hz) Gen current + 18.79 (20.64Hz) 25.28 (19.83Hz)
Pdm(APR) 20.75 21.02 Idc i ACR
APR 5.01 4.92
+
Idc dc line 17.87 (54.31Hz) 22.12 (54.06Hz)
+
Idc ACR 15.04 (17.09Hz) 21.10 (16.33Hz)
TYPI(,.AL
TABLE VI
EIGENVALUES OF STEP(S) (APRAYR)
Vdm  AVR 13.79 (1.80Hz) 14.48 (3.87Hz)
Idm(R,ec) 974.45 974.45
PLL(ReC) 49.89 I mode I1 Inverter I
PLL(Inv) 51.61 53.85 CCC(220%) LCC
dc line 8.08 (314.85Hz) 10.78 (314.83Hz)
TABLE IV APR 4.87 3.90
TYPICAL
EIGENVALUES OF STEP( 1) (APRAYR) Gen current + 45.63 (51.21Hz) 43.48
Idc + dc line 
Gen currrnt + 20.94 (20.78Hz) 10.70 (20.33Hz)
Idc + ACH
I mode
ac line 
CCC(220%)
62.62 (301.54Hz)
Inverter
LCC
62.60 (301.54H~)
Sh C (Rec) 47.85 (184.75Hz) 47.86: (184.75Hz)
value.
ac line  156.23 (544.8411~) 72.08 (319.23Hz)
Sh C (Inv) 204.15 (444.33Hz) 68.24 (205.79Hz)
dc line 10.00 (315.10Hz) 12.80 (315.10Hz)
PdmlAPR) 21.68
I
I 23.00
APR [ 4.93 3.95
Idc + dc line I 18.67 (54.45Hz) 15.64 0 CCC(so%)
I +
Idc ACR iI 17.04 i l 7 . 2 5 H mI 7.68 (16.82Hz)' 1 ACCC(llO%)
Idm(Rec) I
974.44 1 974.48 Pccc(zzoss)
+ CCC(330%)
PLL(Rec) I 49.89 j 49.91
I
1 J
.
E
1 .o
O r
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 0 100 200 300
Real [h}[l/sec] CC compensation factor (=XclXtr)
I ' I I)I I Fig. 6. CC compensation factor  min{ESCR}

0 CCC(W%)
CCC(110%)
P CCC(na%)
eCCC(339%)
fects on the eigenva!ue of APR mode, dc current dc line 
generator current mode and dc current  ACR  generator
current mode. The eigenvalue of CCC does not affected
by the connected AC system shorciruit capacity so much,
which is quit,c diffcrcnt form LCC.
EhZTP simulation also indicates that CCC is superior to
L,CC at APR.  ,4[lt operation.
REFERENCES
I I I I
,I.[keve, J.A.Haron, and G.A.Hanley, "A Technical Assessment
oc Artificial Cornmutalion of HVDC Converters with Series
Frequency [Hz] Capacitors':, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,
.:o!.PAS87, No.: 0 , Octohcr 1968, pp 1830 1840
Fig. 5 . generator  converter mode; APRAyll. 11.h.1.Tur mI i , K .U'.Mnnz ies and D. A. Wood ford, " FEASIBILITY
ISSTON WITH FORCED COMMUTATION
AD", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and
!Systems, vc;l.PAS :03, No.6, June 1981, pp12561262
tation failure. by the type of converter But CCC does nore 'I'.Jonssoii arid P.Rjorklund, "Capacitor Commutated Converter
require sucn kind of o p e r a t h l lo the given distrubance. lor HVDCY, Stockholm Power Tech Conference, June 1995, Pro
Then LCC inverter requires relatively long recovery time ceedings: Povier Eiectronics, pp 4451
ereira, D.P.Brandt, A.M.Gole and A.Daneshpocy,
from AyR to AVR as shown in Fig.8. This may cause un omn,utated Converter Circuit Configurations for
stable phenomena of .4PR  .41R insrration. CCC inverter ion". PE045PWRD0 121997
does not show such kind of diffciilty to the disturbance. A.E.Hanimad and W.Kuhn, " A COMPUTATION ALGO
RITHhl FOH .4SSI?SSlNG VOLTAGE ST.4BILITY A?' AC/DC
I ~'r~STt(:ONNF:C'I.IONS", IEEE 'I'rans. on Power Systems,
VI. CONCLIISIOIII \'ol.f~\VliSi~ Nu.1~ Februa.ry 1986, pp209216
U.Franken aiid (.:..%ndersson, "ANALYSIS OF HVDC CON
This paper gave the eigenvalue analysis result for the Vl3RTER.S (:ONNECTED T O WEAK AC SYSTEMS", IEEE
'I'rans. on Power Systems, Vo1.5, No.1, February 1990
HVdc system with a CCC installed at the inverter termi
nal. The control system of CCC is almost same as that of
the LCC. But the commutation process of CCC is complex
and different from that of LCC, because of the commu
tation capacitor effect. Therefore, AyR control sequence
of CCC is required t o use different forinula from that of
LCC. The studied eigenvalue analysis took into account of
the difference of the AYR formula bctween the converter
topology. By considering these co1:tiol model and output
characteristics difference, the eigenvalue analysis results are
summarized as follows,
(1) CCC can work with conventiond control system for
LCC with minimum modificatioli.
(2) The influence of CCC at the iiivcrter is not found to
the generator connected to the rectifbr side, which can be
confirmed by the eigenvectors.
(3) The difference of the converter topology of inverter af
0780359356/00/$10.00 (c) 2000 IEEE 2930
2.0rj
1.5
1.5 1
1.5 
O.O t
1.5
I L 
3.0
l 3.5 d
> 0.5 
ao 1, ijy
0.0
1.52. I I I
3.0
I , ,.
3.5
L I
 1
1.5 3.0 3.5
2.0 time2ijsecl
I I !
[
I
1
I
>
u
20
t 1
g 20 I
O t A . L A  d
1.5 3.0 3.5
" L 0.0 
I l  . L I  i . I J
A
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
time [sec]
Fig. 7. LCCCCC(220%) ; !cct:ll.O (Invertet skip) Fis 8 . LC'C!LCC ; IcctSLO (Inverter side)
0780359356/00/$10.00 ( c ) 2000 IEEE 293 1