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CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTOR
Nuno M. Silva
1
, António P. Martins
2
, Adriano S. Carvalho
2
1
MSc student, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto,
Rua Dr Roberto Frias, 4200465, Porto, Portugal,  email: pee01003@fe.up.pt
2
Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Instituto de Sistemas e Robótica,
Rua Dr Roberto Frias, 4200465, Porto, Portugal,  fax: +351 22 5081443, email: ajm@fe.up.pt
Keywords: Converter control, Induction motor,
Direct Torque Control, Simulation
Abstract
By the huge advantages associated, induction
motors drives are still justifying research and
development. This paper presents the work
developed in Direct Torque Control (DTC) based
drives. With a growing importance in several
applications, this method was object of a deep
study, either in simulation environment and
hardware implementation. The reached results
confirm some weaknesses and several strengths,
pointing out his worth in strength control,
particularly in robotics.
1 Introduction
In the past, AC drives were only used in small
demanding applications, regardless the advantages
of AC motors opposite to DC motors, since the
high switching frequency inverters cost was rather
competitive.
With the developments in the power electronics
area, the vector control methods, which use fast
microprocessors and DSP’s, made possible the use
of induction motors in typically DC motors
dominated areas, since the current components
producing torque and flux are decoupled, achieving
the system separately excited DC motor similar
features.
The Direct Torque Control (DTC) method,
developed by German and Japanese researchers
[8], [3], allows direct and independent
electromagnetic torque and flux control, selecting
an optimal switching vector, making possible fast
torque response, low inverter switching frequency
and low harmonic losses.
Figure 1 shows the usual block diagram of a DTC
controller.
T
ref
Gate signals

~
Switching logic
+
+

Φ
ref
θ φ τ
T
p
*
*
R
s
R
s
Φ
sα
Φ
sβ
I
sα
I
sβ
V
sα
V
sβ
+
+


+
1, 2, 3
α. β
Motor
~
x y
x
2
+y
2
AC
input
Φ
s
Figure 1. Block diagram of a DTC control system.
With DTC it is possible to obtain direct flux and
electromagnetic torque control, indirect voltage
and current control, sinusoidal current and flux,
low torque ripple, superior torque dynamics and
hysteresis band dependent inverter switching
frequency [5], [2].
Among its main advantages are the absence of:
coordinate transformation (which are usually
necessary in most vector control drives),
modulation specific block, and the absolute
position determination.
However, there are some problems during start up
and at low speed values, like the difficulty in start
up current control and high influence of the motor
Proceedings of the 10th Mediterranean Conference
on Control and Automation  MED2002
Lisbon, Portugal, July 912, 2002.
parameters, as well as variable switching frequency
and the need of flux and speed estimators.
With the inclusion of a speed estimator in the
system, it is possible to obtain gains in hardware
complexity reduction and bigger mechanical
endurance, making possible the operation in a
hostile environment and decreasing the
maintenance needs. Simultaneously the noise and
motorload inertia immunity are increased.
However it is necessary to use speed estimation
techniques, like: open loop estimators, model
reference adaptive systems (MRAS), [6];
Luenberger observers, [7]; Kalman filters, [4];
fuzzy logic estimators, [9] or neural networks, [1].
In this paper, it is introduced the work developed in
simulation and experimentation associated to the
implementation of a DTC based, DSP controlled
drive, of an asynchronous machine, in torque and
speed modes.
2 The control process implemented
In a voltage source two level three phase inverter,
represented in figure 2, and neglecting the
switching interval effect (deadtime, snubbers),
feeding a three phase, balanced, wye connected
load, the voltage measured between the output of
each branch and the 0 point can have two values,
V
dc
or 0 V, given by Equation (1):
dc k k
V S V × =
0
(1)
being S
k
the control signal of k branch, and V
dc
the
voltage in the DC bus.
S
1
S
2
S
3
1
3
n 2
V
dc
0
V
10
V
20
V
30
V
1n
V
3n
V
2n
Figure 2. Schematic of a voltage source two level
three phase inverter.
The operation may be described by the following
manner:
S
k
=1 Æ top switch closed, bottom switch opened.
S
k
=0 Æ top switch opened, bottom switch closed.
Assuming that the n point is a virtual neutral, the
lineneutral voltage may be evaluated; V
kn
,
Equation (2):
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
⋅ − − =
⋅ − − =
⋅ − − =
dc n
dc n
dc n
V S S S V
V S S S V
V S S S V
) 2 (
3
1
) 2 (
3
1
) 2 (
3
1
2 1 3 3
3 1 2 2
3 2 1 1
(2)
The application of the Clarke transformation
allows the attainment of a generic vector
expression, Equation (3):
) (
3
2
3
2
2 1 n n n
V a V a V jV V V + + = + =
β α
(3)
where
3
2π
=
j
e a .
Using the measured inverter output currents and
voltages, the motor flux is estimated, and then the
electromagnetic torque is estimated.
In this set of operations it becomes specially
important the stator flux estimation. In this
application, it has been implemented an open loop
estimator, with the flux calculated by stator voltage
integration, and considering the stator losses,
Equation (4).
( )
∫
− = Φ dt I R U
s
s
s s
(4)
Being p the number of pole pairs, the
electromagnetic torque is determined by the
following expression, Equation (5):
( )
*
Im
s s
em
I p T ⋅ Φ ⋅ = (5)
2.1 Electromagnetic torque control mode
The electromagnetic value resulting from the
previous stage is then compared with the
electromagnetic torque reference, using the three
level hysteresis comparator, represented in figure
3. In this manner, the result may be increase,
decrease or maintain the torque, depending on the
comparator output.
T
ref
T
τ
+

1
0
1
Figure 3. Three level hysteresis comparator:
τ=1⇒ increase torque; τ=0⇒ maintain torque;
τ=1⇒ decrease torque.
In a similar way, the flux value will be compared
with a flux reference, but using a two level
hysteresis comparator, shown in figure 4. The
result will be used to increase or decrease the flux.
Φ
ref
φ
+

1
0
Φ
Figure 4. Two level hysteresis comparator: φ= 1 ⇒
increase flux; φ= 0 ⇒ decrease flux.
An important factor in these operations is the
hysteresis band of the two comparators. A narrow
window will give a better current flux waveforms
but will also increase the inverter switching
frequency.
For the switching vector selection it is necessary to
know the angular sector in which the actual flux is
located. The actual position can be determined by
Equation (6), from the orthogonal flux
components:


.

\

Φ
Φ
= θ
α
β
s
s
arctg (6)
The θ angle returned by Equation (6) determines
the sector where the flux is, (figure 5).
The combination of the comparators outputs and
the sector is then applied to an optimal switching
table (Table 1) which will give the voltage vector
to be applied to the inverter.
30
o
90
o
150
o
210
o
270
o
330
o
θ1
θ2 θ3
θ4
θ5 θ6
Figure 5. (α, β) plane division in six angular
sectors.
τ φ θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 θ5 θ6
+1 1 V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
6
V
1
0 1 V
7
V
0
V
7
V
0
V
7
V
0
1 1 V
6
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
+1 0 V
3
V
4
V
5
V
6
V
1
V
2
0 0 V
0
V
7
V
0
V
7
V
0
V
7
1 0 V
5
V
6
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
Table 1: Optimal switching selection table.
In figure 6 it is represented the relative positions of
the stator and rotor fluxes and the stator current
vectors. From figure 6, and as can be seen in figure
7, the next applied voltage vector, will cause a
displacement in the stator flux vector in order to
reach the results determined by the comparators.
x
y
Φ
r
Φ
s
I
s
γ
ω
Figure 6. Stator and rotor fluxes and stator current
vectors.
According to the stator flux vector position, it is
applied the voltage vector that satisfies the table
entries requirements.
Considering the situation presented in figure 6, if it
is wanted a torque increase and flux maintenance it
should be applied voltage vector V
3
, as it will be
the one that will cause the bigger displacement of
the stator flux vector in the direct direction.
V
1
V
2 V
3
V
5
V
6
V
4
α
β
θ1
θ2
30º
90º
150º
210º
270º
330º
θ3
θ4
θ5 θ6
Φ
s
Figure 7. Possible voltage vectors to be applied to a
stator flux vector.
Instead, vector V
6
would cause a bigger
displacement in the inverse direction. Every time
the torque is out of the hysteresis bounds a null
vector is applied (V
0
or V
7
).
2.2 Speed control mode
It is also possible to implement a speed controller
in closed loop using the DTC method. For that, it
becomes essential to know the rotor mechanical
speed. To meet this requirement it has been
developed a rotor speed estimation algorithm.
Between several options, as referred earlier in this
paper, there are open loop estimators, neural
network and fuzzy logic based models and
observers. However, due to methods complexity
and to the implementation available means, an
open loop estimator have been chosen.
In the presented application, the rotor flux is
calculated from Equation (7):
( )
ry rx
s
s
s
m
r
r
j I L
L
L
Φ + Φ = σ − Φ = Φ (7)
where, L
m
is the magnetizing inductance, L
r
the
rotor inductance, L
s
the stator inductance and σ the
leakage factor, calculated according to Equation
(8):
) )( (
m r m s
m
L L L L
L
+ +
= σ (8)
Afterwards, with the measured stator currents, it is
obtained the electrical motor frequency. At last, the
electrical speed is calculated by the following
expression, Equation (9):


.

\

Φ
− ω = ω
2
r
e
r e r
T
R p (9)
This method has some error sources, since beyond
using motor parameters that may have errors, there
are still the flux and electrical angular speed
calculations as the more complex quantities.
In the speed mode operation, the estimated speed is
compared with the speed reference. The error is
applied to speed controller, which supplies an
electromagnetic torque reference.
3 Simulation
3.1 Simulation platform
Using the per phase equivalent circuit of a three
phase induction motor, with the parameters
presented in Table 2 (obtained with a set of essays
according to the IEEE 112 Standard) it was
implemented a control algorithm in the simulation
software package “SABER”.
U 220/380 V X
m
22,92 Ω
I 18.5/11.5 A X
s
1,7 Ω
P 4 kW X
r
1,7 Ω
Cos ϕ 0.78 R
s
1,48 Ω
Poles 4 R
r
1,05 Ω
Table 2: Motor parameters.
The implementation was made considering the
subsequent experimental validation in a hardware
platform composed of diode rectifier and a
MOSFET three phase inverter, being the control
algorithm accomplished with a TMS320F240
digital signal processor.
The control algorithm has been implemented using
a C function, which simulates the microcontroller,
and the remainder components with the simulator
blocks. In this way, the migration to the hardware
system is made easier.
3.2 Simulation results
After the algorithm implementation it were made
several essays in order to evaluate the controller
behavior, either in torque control mode, either in
speed control mode.
3.2.1 Torque control mode
In the essay presented in figure 8, in a first instant
the electromagnetic torque and the flux references
have been kept constant, being the load torque
varied later. Afterwards, an electromagnetic torque
reference step is applied, being the torque and flux
kept constant.
Figure 8. Electromagnetic torque and flux
behavior, with load torque applied.
As can be seen in figure 8, the system behavior is
good, even in extreme conditions like the overload
regime, in which the system has been submitted
between instants t=0.25 s and t=0.375 s, tracking,
even so, the supplied electromagnetic torque
reference. The observed ripple in both
electromagnetic torque and flux is due to the use of
hysteresis controllers.
In figure 9, it can be seen an excellent response to
an electromagnetic torque step, being fast (t
r
=500
us) and without overshoot.
3.2.2 Speed control mode
The speed controller essay was made supplying a
speed reference of ω=300 rad/s (approximately
twice the nominal speed), having the motor no load
coupled to the shaft.
Figure 9. Electromagnetic torque step response.
In this case, it is possible to verify an error of
approximately 15 rad/s between real and measured
speeds (figure 10). This error is due to the used
speed estimation method.
Figure 10. Estimated and measured speed.
In figure 11 it is possible to observe both the
controller generated electromagnetic torque and
flux references, as well as the field weakening
action.
4 Conclusions
Is this paper it has been presented an
implementation of the DTC control method
associated with a three phase induction motor. Two
control modes have been implemented, the
electromagnetic torque mode and the speed control
mode.
Figure 11. Field weakening mode operation.
Although the existence of a not so interesting
behavior in the speed control mode, the results as
torque controller were excellent. In fact, due to the
speed estimator inferior performance, the speed
controller mode has a less interesting behavior,
inserting a significant error, implying a new speed
estimation system implementation with higher
precision.
However, the torque controller simulation results
were very good verifying, as expected, an excellent
torque control response, either in steadystate or
transient regime. The good results continued
steadily even when the system was submitted to the
most demanding essays, like overload operation.
5 Acknowledgement
The work presented in this paper was partially
funded by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a
Tecnologia), under POSI (Programa Operacional
Sociedade de Informação) of QCA III (Quadro
Comunitário de Apoio).
6 References
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