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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Hussein F. E. Soliman Malik E. Elbuluk

Electrical Power and Machine Dept. Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

Ain Shams University, University of Akron

Cairo, Egypt Akron, OH 44325

hfaridsoliman@yahoo.com melbuluk@uakron.edu

Abstract—This paper presents a method for improving the This paper presents a method for improving the speed

speed control of 3-phase induction motors (IM) using hybrid control of 3-phase induction motors (IM) using hybrid

direct torque controller (DTC)/Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) direct torque controller (DTC)/Fuzzy logic controller (FLC)

techniques. A complete simulation of the conventional DTC techniques. A complete simulation of the conventional DTC

and closed-loop for speed control of a 3-phase IM was tested and closed-loop for speed control of a 3-phase IM was

using SimuLink. The speed control of the IM is done by tested using SimuLink. The speed control of the IM is done

using the conventional proportional integral (PI) controller by using the conventional proportional integral (PI)

and FLC. The proposed FLC has a nature of PI controller to controller and FLC. The proposed FLC has a nature of PI

determine the torque reference for the motor. The effect of controller to determine the torque reference for the motor.

variation of the speed reference trajectories on the dynamic The effect of variation of the speed reference trajectories on

response has been clearly tested for both conventional and the dynamic response has been clearly tested for both

FLC speed controllers. The simulation results showed a conventional and FLC speed controllers. The main the

better dynamic performance of the induction motor when objective of this paper is to compare a fuzzy logic controller

using the proposed DTC/FLC in comparison with a fixed PI with the PI controller.

controller. Also, the DTC/FLC has improved the speed The simulation results showed a better dynamic

control of the IM over a wide range of operating conditions. performance of the induction motor when using the

proposed DTC/FLC in comparison with a fixed DTC/PI

controller. It has been shown that the DTC/FLC has

I. INTRODUCTION improved the speed control of the IM over a wide range of

operating conditions

The evolution from dc drives to various forms of ac drives has

been motivated by the continuing need for simplicity and II. DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL

reliability. Although it is possible to achieve the ac motor’s high

level of speed control by the application of the trans-vector Fig. 1 shows the basic functional blocks used to implement

theory, the resulting controller becomes too complex to the DTC scheme. The core to the complete control has three

implement for a wide range of applications. An alternative to key blocks that interact to provide the primary control

the trans-vector control is the direct torque control (DTC), required [7]; namely torque/flux comparators, optimal

which represented a step in mix improvement [1, 2]. The switching logic and adaptive motor model. The torque

appearance of high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) and comparator and the flux comparator are both contained in

application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), DTC technology the hysteresis control block. They compare the torque and

has become popular in ac motor drives [3-4]. DTC has its roots flux references with their actual values, which are

in field–oriented control and direct self-control [4-5]. Field– calculated using the adaptive motor model. The actual

oriented control uses spatial vector theory to optimally control torque is controlled within differential hysteresis window,

magnetic field orientation. Direct self–control theory is less well which has limited the switching frequencies of the power

known. It was patented as a concept developed in Germany by output devices within a range of 1.5 – 3.5 kHz. The optimal

Manfred Depenbrock and has been described in several switching logic (OSL) selects the appropriate stator voltage

published papers [5, 6]. DTC has been developed, implemented vector that will satisfy both the torque status output and the

and tested for three phase induction motor in many papers [7- flux status. In reality, there are only six stator voltage

9]. Most of researchers are concerned with the inner loop for a vectors and two zero-voltage vectors that the voltage-source

torque control without taking in consideration the overall loop inverter can produce [8]. The outputs of the OSL are the

for the speed regulation. Only a brief discussion was considered switching position of the voltage-source inverter.

for the outer speed loop in [7]. Also, fuzzy logic has been used

with DTC to improve the dynamic performance of the induction

motors [11, 12].

III. THE HYBRID PI /FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER speed, when Kp was increased. There was an advantage

in using the current limiter, which limited the torque

A 3 kW, 380 V, 50 Hz, 1420 rpm, 4 pole, 3-phase induction reference to be ± 40 N.m.

motor was used. Other data and parameters were: 3. The simulation was done for same values of case 2

Torque = 21 N.m, Motor moment of inertia Jm = 0.008 Kg m2, except that the motor was operating at full-load. The

Load moment of inertia Jl = 0.084 Kg m2, stator resistance Rs = motor speed response was improved when Kp was

2.15 Ω, rotor resistance Rr = 2.33 Ω, mutual inductance Lm increased, especially regarding the steady state error.

=202.5 mH, stator leakage inductance Lss = 7.5 mH, rotor 4. Finally, the system was tested for other values of Kp,

leakage inductance Lrr =7.5 mH. equals 5, 20, and 30 while Ki = 0.1. The results achieved

for this case were similar to case 3.

Torque Inverter

Ref. Status Sa, B. DTC/FL CONTROLLER

Torque Torque Optimal Sb,

comparator switching

Hystersis

Flux Flux

Logic Sc The PI simulation results showed that the motor response,

Window

Ref. comparator Status given the values of Kp changed according to the operating

Flux condition. This is the main drawback of the classical PI

Flux position

Switch position

controller. The main the objective of this paper is to

Actual Flux Sa, Sb, Sc DC Link compare a fuzzy logic controller with the PI controller

Adaptive

Voltage

Motor Current

Actual torque Model

AC

The FLC uses a set of fuzzy rules representing a control

motor decision mechanism to adjust the effect of certain system

stimuli. Therefore, the aim of using FLC is to replace a

Fig. 1 The basic block diagram of the DTC skilled human operator with a fuzzy rules-based system.

The fuzzy input vectors are the motor speed deviation ∆ω

The simulations were carried out on the 3-phase induction motor and the acceleration ∆ώ. The fuzzy set for inputs and output

(IM) driven by DTC and an outer loop that was switched for PI membership functions are shown in Fig. (3). Seven

controller or fuzzy logic controller, to control the speed, as linguistic variables (LV) are used for each input variables.

shown in Fig. 2. These are PL (Positive Large), PM (Positive Medium), PS

Ref. Torque

Tref {k} Inverter

(Positive Small), Z (Zero), NS (Negative Small), NM

Ref. speed PI

Sa, Sb, Sc

(Negative Medium) and NL (Negative Large). The fuzzy

output is the change in reference torque (∆Tref {k}) which

∆T

FLC is to be added to the previous value of reference torque

+ Direct

Speed

(Tref{k-1}). The output fuzzy sets have the same linguistic

T ref {k-1}

controller Torque

Current variables used for input except T is added to indicate the

Hystersis Control fuzzy sets are used for torque. For example T-PL means

Window Ref. Flux

AC

Torque Positive Large. A look-up table, in which the

Actual speed

Motor relation between the input variables, ∆ω and ∆ώ, are

defined and the output variable of the fuzzy logic controller

was developed and used in the simulation. The look-up

Fig. 2 DTC system with PI and FLC controller for speed loop table is given in Table-1. The Maximum of Minimum

method has been used to find the output fuzzy rules stage,

A.. DTC/PI CONTROLLER as follows:

{k } = ∫

y × µ ( y ) × dy

The PI control was simulated for different values of proportional ∆ T

gain (Kp), equal 0.5, 1.0 and 2 while the integral gain (Ki) ∫ µ ( y ) × dy

equals 0.1. The induction motor was tested during start-up and

for a step change in the motor reference speed (Ref speed) of Table-1: Look-up Table which defines the relationship

500, 1500, and 750 rpm, respectively. Three tests were between input and output variable in a fuzzy set form.

performed:

Speed Speed Deviation Chang (∆ώ)

1. No-load without a current limiter: The results showed that Deviation

the motor speed (ωm) response, rise time and steady state (∆ω)

NL NM NS Z PS PM PL

error were improved as Kp was increased for positive step

NL T-NL T-NL T-NL T-NL T-NM T-NS T -Z

reference speed, while, the lowest value of Kp gave the best

NM T-NL T-NL T-NL T-NM T-NS T-NS T -NS

dynamic response for ωm.

NS T-NL T-NL T-NM T-NS T-NS T-NS T -NS

2. No-load with a current limiter: Similar dynamic responses for

Z T-NM T-NM T-NS T-Z T-PS T-PM T-PL

the same operating conditions of the motor were performed

PS T-PM T-PM T-PM T-PM T-PM T-PL T-PL

except that the complete DTC scheme was equipped with a

PM T-NS T-Z T-PS T-PM T-PL T-PL T-PL

current limiter. The results depicted an improvement in the

PL T-Z T-PS T-PM T-PL T-PL T-PL T-PL

speed (ωm) response, the rise time and the steady state speed

error, for positive and negative step changes in the reference

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Tref {k } = Tref {k − 1} − ∆ T {k }

helpful in cases with two (or more) inputs and one output:

This figure shows the output surface of the FLC of the

system versus two inputs, as shown in Fig. 4.

Different disturbances were simulated to test the

performance of the motor using the DTC under PI and FL

controllers. Fig. 5 shows a comparison of the dynamic

response for the motor equipped without a current limiter

and at no-load for ωref equals 300, 750 and 1500 rpm. The

proposed FLC for speed regulation gave better dynamic

response, regarding the percentage overshoot and

b: Input fuzzy set (change in speed error.) oscillations, compared with the conventional PI controller

with Kp =20 and Ki=0.1. Figures 6 and 7 give a

comparison of the dynamic response for the motor when

started with a current limiter against no-load and full-load,

respectively, for ωref equals 750, 1500 and 500 rpm. A

better dynamic performance for the overall system was

achieved, regarding steady state error and rise time, when

using the proposed DTC/ FLC, especially at full Load

condition. Fig. 8 shows the dynamic response of the motor

phase current. Generally, a better dynamic performance of

the motor speed is achieved by using the proposed

DTC/FLC when compared with the fixed PI controller.

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, a comparison was made for testing the speed

control of a 3-phase induction motor using a hybrid PI/FLC

C: Output fuzzy set DTC technique. The effect of variation of the operating

point on the dynamic response has been tested for both

Fig. 3: Input and Output Fuzzy Memberships conventional PI and fuzzy logic controllers. The simulation

results showed better dynamic performance of the induction

The FLC is implemented and simulated to determine the desired motor when using the DTC/FLC as compared with fixed PI

torque reference (Tref) for the system shown in Fig. (2). The controller. The DTC/FLC has improved the speed control of

FLC output is added to the previous torque reference Tref {k-1} 3-ph IM over a wide range of operating conditions.

to calculate the present Tref{k} by using the following equation:

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Fig. 5: Dynamic response for motor speed when the 3-ph. IM was equipped with DTC

that has no current limiter at no-load using FLC and PI controller

Fig. 6: Dynamic response for motor speed when the 3-phase IM was equipped with DTC

That has a current limiter at no-load using FLC and PI controller

Fig. 7: Dynamic response for motor speed when the 3-phase IM was equipped with DTC

that has a current limiter at full load using FLC and PI controller

1684

Fig. 8: Dynamic response of the motor stator current using PI and FL controllers

REFERENCES implementation of direct torque control by stator flux

orientation of an induction motor,” 1995 Applied Power

Electronics Conf. and Exposition, APEC’95. Conf. Proceeding

[1]. I. Takahashi, “A new quick response and high efficiency control 1995, pp. 185-191, vol. 1, 1995.

strategy of induction motor,” IEEE Industry Application [8]. G. Buja, D. Casadei, G. Serra,” Direct torque control of

Transactions, Vol. IA-22, pp. 820-827, Sept/Oct.1986. induction motor drives,” Industrial Electronics, 1997, ISIE’97,

[2]. Y. A. Chapuis, D. Roye, and J. Davoine, “Principles and Proceeding of the IEEE International Symposium. Vol. 1, pp.

Implementation of direct torque control by stator flux TU2-TU8, 1997.

orientation of an induction motor,” in Proc. PESC, 1995, pp. [9]. J. K. Kang, D. W. Chung, and Seung, “Direct Torque Control of

185-191. induction machine with variable amplitude control of flux and

[3]. P. Titinen, M. Surandra, ”The next generation motor control torque hysteresis bands,” Electric Machines and Drives, Inter.

method, DTC direct torque control,” Power Electronics, Drives Conf. IEMD’99, pp. 640-642, 1999.

and Energy System for Industrial Growth, 1996, Pro. of the [10]. H.J. Zimmermann. “Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Application”,

1996 International Conf. Vol. 1, pp. 37-43, 1996. Book, Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing Company, 1985.

[4]. James N. Nash, “Direct Torque Control, Induction Motor Vector [11]. A. Arias, L. Romeral, E. Aldabas, M.G. Jayne, “Improving

Control Without an Encoder”, IEEE Industry Application direct torque control by means of fuzzy logic”, Electronics

Transactions, vol. 33, No. 2, March/April 1997. Letters, Volume: 37, Issue: 1, 4 Jan. 2001 Pages:69 – 71.

[5]. U. Baader and M. Depenbrock, “Direct self-control (DSC) of [12]. Yen-Shin Lai, Juo-Chiun Lin, “New hybrid fuzzy controller for

inverter-fed induction machine: A basis for speed control direct torque control induction motor drives”, Power

without speed measurement,” IEEE Industry Applications, vol. Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 18 , Issue: 5 ,

28, pp. 581-588, May/June, 1992. Sept. 2003 Pages:1211 – 1219.

[6]. M. Depenbrock, “Direct self-control (DSC) of inverter-fed [13]. J. Maes and J. a. Melkebeek, “Speed-Sensorless Direct Torque

induction machine,” IEEE Trans., Power Electronic., vol. 3, pp. Control of Induction Motor Using an Adaptive Flux Observer”

420-429, Oct. 1988. IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., Vol. 36, No. 3, May/June. 2000.

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