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Malayan Law Journal Reports/1976/Volume 1/LEE CHO ME!" # P$%L&C PRO'EC$(OR )
*1976+ 1 MLJ 2,7 ) 22 197/
1 page
*1976] 1 MLJ 287
22 O!"#$%& 197
Criminal Law and Procedure -- Sentence -- Judicial notice -- Prevalence of offences involving
firearms -- Consecutive terms of imprisonment
Evidence -- Judicial notice -- Common knowledge -- Notorious fact
(01s was an appeal aga1nst t0e senten-es o2 3a4 7 years5 1mpr1sonment an6 21#e stro7es 3.4 18
years5 1mpr1sonment an6 s19 stro7es an6 3-4 7 years5 1mpr1sonment 1mpose6 1n t0e 'ess1ons
Court: ;uala Lumpur: 2or t0e o22en-es o2 arme6 ro..ery: possess1on o2 arms an6 possess1on o2
ammun1t1on< (0e senten-es were or6ere6 to run -onse-ut1#ely< (0e learne6 pres16ent 1n pass1ng
senten-e too7 =u61-1al not1-e o2 t0e pre#alen-e o2 t0e -omm1ss1on o2 o22en-es 1n#ol#1ng 21rearms 1n
;uala Lumpur<
1) t0e -ourt 1s ent1tle6 to ta7e =u61-1al not1-e o2 t0e 2a-t o2 t0e pre#alen-e o2 t0e
-omm1ss1on o2 o22en-es 1n#ol#1ng 21rearms 1n ;uala Lumpur>
1) 1n t0e -1r-umstan-es o2 t01s -ase: t0e learne6 pres16ent was =ust121e6 1n or6er1ng t0e
senten-es o2 1mpr1sonment to run -onse-ut1#ely<
C*+%+ &%,%&&%( "#
Dennis v White *1916+ 2 ;% 1 at p 6
am !erak v Selgram *19??+ @C 1/A
"ong Pak "ong v Pu#lic Prosecutor *19/9+ MLJ 176

Jag-Jit Singh 2or t0e appellant<
!S Sam#anthamurthi 3Beputy Pu.l1- Prose-utor4 2or t0e respon6ent<
Page A
(0e appellant was -0arge6 1n t0e 'ess1ons Court on t0e 2ollow1ng -0argesC)
D314 (0at you: on 7: 197A at a.out 2<1/ p<m< at Jalan 'an Peng: ;uala
Lumpur: 1n t0e 'tate o2 'elangor: w1t0 t0ree ot0ers st1ll at large: 1n 2urt0eran-e o2 a
-ommon 1ntent1on as 6e21ne6 un6er se-t1on A? o2 t0e Penal Co6e: ro..e6 one '<
Josep0: a Cler7 w1t0 t0e Bewan %an6araya: ;uala Lumpur: o2 -as0 E71<,28<A1 an6 at
t0e t1me o2 -omm1tt1ng t0e sa16 ro..ery use6 6ea6ly weapons: to w1t 5Four Re#ol#ers5
an6 t0at you 0a#e t0ere.y -omm1tte6 an o22en-e pun1s0a.le un6er se-t1on A92 o2 t0e
Penal Co6e: to .e rea6 1n -on=un-t1on w1t0 se-t1on A97 o2 t0e Penal Co6e<
324 (0at you on @pr1l 11: 197/ at a.out 11<1/ p<m< at Flat !o< %<6/2: ;0oon L1n Court: o22
Pasar Roa6: 1n t0e -1ty o2 ;uala Lumpur: not .e1ng a person su.=e-t to t0e pro#1s1ons o2
se-t1on 6 o2 t0e @rms @-t !o< 21/68: 616 0a#e unlaw2ul possess1on o2 a 21rearm: to w1t:
one 5'(@R 7<6/ m<m< @utomat1- P1stol 1n -ontra#ent1on o2 t0e pro#1s1ons o2 se-t1on A314
o2 t0e sa16 @-t an6 t0at you 0a#e t0ere.y -omm1tte6 an o22en-e pun1s0a.le un6er
se-t1on , o2 t0e F1rearms 3&n-rease6 Penalt1es4 3@men6ment4 @-t !o< 2/6 o2 197?<
3A4 (0at you on @pr1l 11: 197/ at a.out 11<1/ p<m< at Flat !o< %<6/2: ;0oon L1n Court: o22
Pasar Roa6: 1n t0e -1ty o2 ;uala Lumpur: not .e1ng a person su.=e-te6 to t0e pro#1s1ons
o2 se-t1on 6 o2 t0e @rms @-t !o< 21/1968: 616 0a#e 1n your possess1on A8 roun6s o2
7<6/ m<m< ammun1t1on 1n -ontra#ent1on o2 t0e pro#1s1on o2 se-t1on A314 o2 t0e sa16 @-t
an6 t0at you 0a#e t0ere.y -omm1tte6 an o22en-e pun1s0a.le un6er se-t1on 93a4 o2 t0e
@rms @-t !o< 21/1968<D
(0e learne6 pres16ent -on#1-te6 t0e appellant on all t0e -0arges an6 senten-e6 01m to ) 3a4
se#en years5 1mpr1sonment an6 21#e stro7es> 3.4 18 years5 1mpr1sonment an6 s19 stro7es an6 3-4
se#en years5 1mpr1sonment respe-t1#ely<
$%&' $ (LJ )*& at )**
(0e appeal 1s aga1nst senten-e< (0e ma1n groun6s upon w01-0 t0e appellant 1s see71ng t0at t0e
senten-es passe6 .y t0e learne6 pres16ent .e re#erse6 are t0at t0e learne6 pres16ent erre6 1n
law ) 314 w0en s0e allowe6 0ersel2 to .e 1n2luen-e6 .y t0e allege6 1n-rease o2 late o2 arme6
ro..er1es 1n t0e -1ty w0en no su-0 e#16en-e was e#er le6 .y w1tness or w1tnesses 2or t0e
prose-ut1on on re-or6> 324 w0en s0e too7 =u61-1al not1-e o2 t0e 2a-t t0at ) DHar6ly a 6ay 0as
passe6 w1t0out su-0 1n-16ents .e1ng reporte6 1n t0e newspapers w0en t0ere was no e#16en-e on
re-or6 to support su-0 a 21n61ng>D an6 3A4 1n 2a1l1ng to or6er t0at t0e senten-es 1mpose6 1n t0e
se-on6 -0arge o2 @rrest Case !o< 17/197/ to run -on-urrently<
&n my =u6gment t0ere 1s a.solutely no mer1t 1n t01s appeal< &t 1s e#16ent 2rom t0e learne6
pres16ent5s groun6s o2 =u6gment t0at s0e too7 1nto a--ount two ma1n 2a-tors 1n -ons16er1ng t0e
appropr1ate senten-es to .e 1mpose6< &n t0e 21rst pla-e: t0e learne6 pres16ent too7 t0e #1ew t0at 1t
was 1n t0e pu.l1- 1nterest t0at 6eterrent senten-es .e 1mpose6< &n t0e -ourt .elow t0e prose-ut1ng
o221-er su.m1tte6 t0at t0ere were 677 ro..er1es w1t01n a per1o6 o2 2our mont0s 1n ;uala Lumpur
alone an6 0al2 o2 t0em were arme6 ro..er1es< (0e learne6 pres16ent e#16ently too7 t01s 2a-t 1nto
a--ount< &t 1s true t0at t0e learne6 pres16ent was somew0at 1n2luen-e6 .y t01s 2a-t< (o my m1n6 1t
1s a matter o2 -ommon 7nowle6ge an6 a notor1ous 2a-t t0at t0ere 0a#e .een o2 late an 1n-rease 1n
arme6 ro..er1es< (0e learne6 pres16ent: & t01n7: a-te6 -orre-tly w0en s0e too7 t01s 2a-t 1nto
a--ount an6 t0ere 1s t0ere2ore a.solutely no #al16 groun6 to say t0at s0e 0a6 erre6 1n law<
0at matters -onst1tute -ommon an6 general 7nowle6ge may .e gat0ere6 2rom Sarkar on
E#16en-e: 12t0 e61t1on: w0ere t0e learne6 aut0or: spea71ng o2 -ommon 7nowle6ge: at page /7/:
D(0e matter o2 w01-0 a -ourt w1ll ta7e =u61-1al not1-e must .e a su.=e-t o2 -ommon an6 general
7nowle6ge< &n ot0er wor6s: =u61-1al 7nowle6ge o2 2a-ts 1s measure6 .y general 7nowle6ge o2 t0e same
Page ?
2a-ts< @ 2a-t 1s sa16 to .e generally re-ogn1se6 or 7nown w0en 1ts e91sten-e or operat1on 1s a--epte6 .y
t0e pu.l1- w1t0out Gual121-at1on or -ontent1on< (0e test 1s w0et0er su221-1ent notor1ety atta-0es to t0e 2a-t
1n#ol#e6 as to ma7e 1t proper to assume 1ts e91sten-e w1t0out proo2<D
&n t0e l1g0t o2 t0e passage -1te6 1t 1s -lear t0at t0e -ourt may properly as7 1tsel2 t01s Guest1onC 1s 1t
not a 2a-t well re-ogn1se6 t0at 1n ;uala Lumpur t0ere 0as .een o2 late: an 1n-rease 1n t0e
-omm1ss1on o2 o22en-es 1n#ol#1ng 21rearmsH e are not -on-erne6 w1t0 a.solute a--eptan-e o2
t0e e91sten-e o2 -erta1n 7nowle6ge< (0e rule o2 e#16en-e spea7s o2 general re-ogn1t1on an6 not
total re-ogn1t1on 1n t0e sense t0at t0ere 1s a general a--eptan-e w1t0out Gual121-at1on or -ontent1on
as oppose6 to total a--eptan-e<
Sarkar on t0e same page 0as somet01ng to say -on-ern1ng t0e notor1ous 2a-ts)
DJu61-1al not1-e 1s ta7en o2 #ar1ous 2a-ts w01-0 are 2am1l1ar to any =u61-1al tr1.unal .y t0e1r un1#ersal
notor1ety or regular re-urren-e 1n t0e or61nary -ourse o2 nature or .us1ness< @s =u6ges must .r1ng to t0e
-ons16erat1on o2 Guest1ons t0ey 0a#e to 6e-16e t0e1r 7nowle6ge o2 t0e -ommon a22a1rs o2 l12e: 1t 1s not
ne-essary on t0e tr1al o2 an a-t1on to g1#e 2ormal e#16en-e o2 matters w1t0 w01-0 men o2 or61nary
1ntell1gen-e are a-Gua1nte6<<<<D
Matters w01-0 t0e -ourt may ta7e =u61-1al not1-e are 2ar 2rom e90aust1#e< Courts 0a#e e#en ta7en
=u61-1al not1-e t0at streets 1n Lon6on are -row6e6 an6 6angerous ) 3Dennis v White *1916+ 2 ;% 1
at p 64> an6 o2 worl6)w16e e-onom1- 6epress1on ) 3am !arak v Selgram *19??+ @C 1/A4<
&n t01s -onne-t1on let me also re2er to t0e -ase -1te6 .y En-17 (<'< 'am.ant0amurt01 3"ong Pak
"ong v Pu#lic Prosecutor *19/9+ MLJ 1764 w0ere "oo6 J< 3as 0e t0en was4 sa16 at page 177)
D&n 6eal1ng w1t0 a matter o2 senten-e as 61st1n-t 2rom -ons16er1ng w0et0er a person oug0t to .e -on#1-te6
or not o2 t0e o22en-e: & t01n7 t0at t0e -ourts are ent1tle6 to ta7e =u61-1al not1-e o2 w0at 1s notor1ous: o2 w0at
e#ery.o6y 7nows< &n6ee6: & -ame a-ross re-ently 1n an ent1rely 6122erent -onne-t1on a -ase 1n w01-0 t0e
Pr1#y Coun-1l too7 =u61-1al not1-e o2 t0e e91sten-e o2 a part1-ular -lass o2 -ontra-ts 1n &n61a<D
Furt0er on H1s Lor6s01p sa16)
D'1m1larly we mem.ers o2 t0e =u61-1ary s1tt1ng 1n t0ese -ourts -annot a#o16 a-Gu1r1ng a #ery -ons16era.le
7nowle6ge: 2rom t0e -ases t0at -ome .e2ore us: o2 t0e a-t1#1t1es an6 t0e pre#alen-e o2 se-ret so-1et1es
an6: 1n part1-ular: 1n t01s town o2 &po0<D
'1m1larly & woul6 say t0at 1t 1s -ommon 7nowle6ge t0at: o2 late: -omm1ss1on o2 o22en-es 1n#ol#1ng
21re)arms 0as .een pre#alent 1n ;uala Lumpur an6 & t01n7 t0e -ourt 1s ent1tle6 to ta7e =u61-1al
not1-e o2 t0at 2a-t<
@s regar6s t0e last groun6 En-17 Jag)J1t '1ng0 -ounsel 2or t0e appellant urge6 me to allow t0e
appeal 1n regar6 to t0e senten-es passe6 1n @rrest Case !o< 17/197/: t0at t0e -ourt s0oul6 or6er
t0e senten-es o2 1mpr1sonment on t0ose two -0arges to .e ma6e -on-urrent an6 not -onse-ut1#e<
&n my #1ew: t0e -ourt may: 1n appropr1ate -ases: or6er t0e senten-es o2 1mpr1sonment to run
-onse-ut1#ely< (0e pr1me -ons16erat1on: to my m1n6: 1s t0e -1r-umstan-es atten6ant on ea-0
part1-ular -ase< & t01n7 t01s -ase 1s one w0ere 1mpr1sonment senten-es s0oul6 .e ma6e to run
-onse-ut1#ely< On -ons16erat1on & 0ol6 t0at t0e senten-es passe6 were appropr1ate 0a#1ng regar6
to t0e nature o2 t0e o22en-es w1t0 w01-0 t0e appellant was -on#1-te6 an6 1n6ee6 .y 1mpos1ng a
long term o2 1mpr1sonment pu.l1- 1nterest w1ll .e ser#e6< For t0ese reasons & woul6 61sm1ss t0e
+ppeal dismissed,
'ol1-1torsC Jag-Jit Singh - Co