# Introduction

A cusum chart is a plot of the cumulative differences between successive values and a
target value. The key features of a cusum chart are that they:
● are extremely good at identifying changes in process mean;
● can be applied to both variables and attributes charts including, for example, ranges
and standard deviations.
● are not very powerful at identifying other out-of-control signals;
● are more difficult to set up and use than other types of control chart.
Unlike other charts they:
● make use of all historic data: that is, each value on the cusum is a function of all pre-
vious data points;
● are interpreted by analysing the slope of the chart.
In this book we provide an introduction to cusum charts with the aim of demonstrating
their power. Many people may wish to use them to identify changes in process aver-
age, and use other charts or statistical techniques for further investigation.
Basic cusum charts
A simple golfing example (Table 24.1, Charts 24.1–24.4)
A simple example will clarify how the chart is used. On an 18-hole golf course each hole
has a “par” score depending on the difficulty of successfully getting the ball from the tee
into the hole. Table 24.1 gives the par and score for each of the 18 holes and the score
achieved by a better golfer than myself, along with the (score – par) and cusum.
Chart 24.1 is a run chart of the number of strokes taken for each hole. Not surprisingly,
this does not tell us much. The process seems to be in control, and uneventful except
perhaps for the score at hole 12, which has the highest value, 6. We could refine the
chart by recognising that the target (par) for each hole is different, and chart both the par
and the actual score as in Chart 24.2. Unfortunately, this chart still does not make it obvi-
ous as to how well we are doing. We could use a different chart, as in Chart 24.3, to plot
(score – par). This also does not give a quick indication as to what is happening.
An introduction to cusum (cumulative sum)
charts
24
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Implementing and Using SPC 308
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Hole
S
c
o
r
e
Chart 24.1 Run chart of golf scores
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Hole
S
c
o
r
e
score par
Chart 24.2 Run chart of par and actual golf scores
Table 24.1 Golfing scores
Hole Par Score Score – par Cusum؍
(number of ⌺(score – par)
strokes)
1 4 4 0 0
2 3 4 1 1
3 4 3 Ϫ1 0
4 4 3 Ϫ1 Ϫ1
5 4 4 0 Ϫ1
6 3 3 0 Ϫ1
7 4 3 Ϫ1 Ϫ2
8 3 4 1 Ϫ1
9 5 4 Ϫ1 Ϫ2
10 4 4 0 Ϫ2
11 4 3 Ϫ1 Ϫ3
12 5 6 1 Ϫ2
13 3 3 0 Ϫ2
14 4 3 Ϫ1 Ϫ3
15 4 4 0 Ϫ3
16 3 3 Ϫ1 Ϫ4
17 4 5 1 Ϫ3
18 5 4 Ϫ1 Ϫ4
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Generally we are interested in how well we are performing. Using the (par) as the
target, we know that sometimes we are on par, sometimes above par and sometimes
below par, but is there a trend? Are we usually above or below par? Did our perform-
ance change part way round the course? One way of answering this question is to com-
pare the number of scores above, below and on par. There are 8 holes below par, 6 on
par and 4 above par. Unfortunately, whilst this suggests that we may generally be below
par, it does not take into account how many strokes away from par we are, nor do we
have a method of determining if the process changed and if so when. To answer this
question we can look at the cumulative differences between par and our score. The cal-
culations are given in Table 24.1 and the resulting chart is Chart 24.4. The chart trends
steeply down and this tells us that our average score is below par, and because there
are no changes in trend, we conclude that our performance has not changed, apart
from random variation (for details on how to interpret a cusum chart see below).
Setting up a cusum chart (Chart 24.5)
The next example is taken from an organisation that was concerned about the amount
of downtime on a critical piece of equipment. The metric of interest is the number of
An introduction to cusum (cumulative sum) charts 309
Ϫ1
Ϫ2
0
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Hole
S
c
o
r
e

Ϫ

p
a
r
Chart 24.3 Run chart of differences (score Ϫ par)
Ϫ5
Ϫ4
Ϫ3
Ϫ2
Ϫ1
0
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Hole
C
u
s
u
m
Chart 24.4 Cusum chart of (score Ϫ par)
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1 0
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2 0
2 1
2 2
2 3
2 4
2 5
2 6
2 7
2 8
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3 0
3 1
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3 3
3 4
3 5
3 6
3 7
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4 0
4 1
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2 4
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2 7
2 8
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2 0
2 4
2 7
2 4
2 3
2 5
2 7
2 9
2 8
2 4
2 9
2 7
2 2
2 4
2 7
2 8
2 3
2 6
3 1
2 9
2 5
2 1
1 9
2 0
2 8
2 0
2 3
2 5
2 1
1 8
2 1
2 7
2 0
2 1
2 5
1 9
2 2
2 4
1 9
2 5
2 8
2 0
1 9
x
Ϫ
T
Ϫ 0 . 2
2 . 8
Ϫ 2 . 2
1 0 . 8
2 . 8
Ϫ 1 . 2
2 . 8
3 . 8
0 . 8
Ϫ 4 . 2
Ϫ 0 . 2
2 . 8
Ϫ 0 . 2
Ϫ 1 . 1
0 . 8
2 . 8
4 . 8
3 . 8
Ϫ 0 . 7
4 . 8
2 . 8
Ϫ 2 . 2
Ϫ 0 . 7
2 . 8
4 . 1
Ϫ 1 . 2
1 . 8
6 . 8
4 . 8
0 . 8
Ϫ 3 . 2
Ϫ 5 . 2
Ϫ 4 . 2
3 . 3
Ϫ 4 . 2
Ϫ 1 . 7
0 . 8
Ϫ 3 . 7
Ϫ 6 . 2
Ϫ 3 . 2
2 . 8
Ϫ 4 . 7
Ϫ 3 . 2
0 . 8
Ϫ 5 . 2
Ϫ 2 . 7
Ϫ 0 . 7
Ϫ 5 . 2
0 . 3
3 . 3
Ϫ 4 . 2
Ϫ 5 . 2
C
u
s
u
m
Ϫ 0 . 2
2 . 5
0 . 3
1 1 . 0
1 3 . 8
1 2 . 6
1 5 . 3
1 9 . 1
1 9 . 9
1 5 . 6
1 5 . 4
1 8 . 1
1 7 . 9
1 6 . 8
1 7 . 5
2 0 . 3
2 5 . 0
2 8 . 8
2 8 . 1
3 2 . 8
3 5 . 6
3 3 . 4
3 2 . 6
3 5 . 4
3 9 . 4
3 8 . 2
4 0 . 0
4 6 . 7
5 1 . 5
5 2 . 2
4 9 . 0
4 3 . 8
3 9 . 5
4 2 . 8
3 8 . 6
3 6 . 8
3 7 . 6
3 3 . 8
2 7 . 6
2 4 . 4
2 7 . 1
2 2 . 4
1 9 . 1
1 9 . 9
1 4 . 7
1 1 . 9
1 1 . 2
6 . 0
6 . 2
9 . 5
5 . 2
0 . 0
M
R
3 . 0
5 . 0
1 3 . 0
8 . 0
4 . 0
4 . 0
1 . 0
3 . 0
5 . 0
4 . 0
3 . 0
3 . 0
0 . 9
1 . 9
2 . 0
2 . 0
1 . 0
4 . 5
5 . 5
2 . 0
5 . 0
1 . 5
3 . 5
1 . 3
5 . 3
3 . 0
5 . 0
2 . 0
4 . 0
4 . 0
2 . 0
1 . 0
7 . 5
7 . 5
2 . 5
2 . 5
4 . 5
2 . 5
3 . 0
6 . 0
7 . 5
1 . 5
4 . 0
6 . 0
2 . 5
2 . 0
4 . 5
5 . 5
3 . 0
7 . 5
1 . 0
Ϫ
2
0
Ϫ
1
0 0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
C u s u m
C
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2
4
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5
C
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c
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An introduction to cusum (cumulative sum) charts 311
hours downtime per week. Below the cusum chart are the data that would normally be
included with the chart. The steps for setting up the chart are:
1. Enter the downtime onto the chart (Chart 24.5).
2. Calculate the average.
The average hours downtime per week, x

.
x

ϭ 1260 hours downtime/52 weeks ϭ 24.2 hours per week.
3. Select the target (T ).
Any value can be selected as the target. However, when selecting the target there are
two considerations:
(a) It is easier to interpret the chart if on average the slope is nearly horizontal (to
achieve this select the target equal to the average, 24.2 in this case).
(b) If appropriate, select the target to be an appropriate value near the average, for
example, in the golf example, selecting a target at par was appropriate.
In the downtime example, we select the average.
4. Calculate the difference between the recorded values and the target, x Ϫ T, and enter
them on the chart.
5. Calculate the cusum values, ⌺(x Ϫ T), for each week and enter them on the
chart. The first cusum ϭ Ϫ0.2, the second ϭ Ϫ0.2 ϩ 2.8 ϭ 2.5 and the third ϭ
2.5 Ϫ 2.2 ϭ 0.3, etc.
6. Find the maximum and minimum cusum as this will determine the limits of cusum scale.
For the downtime data the values are Ϫ0.2 and ϩ52.5.
7. Determine scaling.
Unless a suitable scaling convention is adopted the cusum chart may be difficult
to interpret. At one extreme the slopes may be very flat and at the other extreme
trivial changes may look dramatic as shown in Chart 24.6. The convention
that has been widely adopted is that one observation along the horizontal axis
should cover approximately the same distance as 2 standard deviations, 2s, on the
vertical axis.
Ϫ20
Ϫ20
Ϫ10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
C
u
s
u
m
0
20
40
60
C
u
s
u
m
Chart 24.6 The effect of changing the scale on a chart
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s is determined in the usual way as S
MR
ϭ R

/1.128, where R

is the average
moving range. The moving ranges, ignoring the sign, are calculated and entered
on the chart. For the downtime data, the sum of the 51 moving ranges is 194.4
giving:
We round this down to a more convenient scaling of 5, and so the distance of 1 week
on horizontal axis will be the same distance as 5 on the vertical axis.
8. Plot the cusum.
9. Interpret the chart.
Interpreting the cusum chart (Charts 24.7 and 24.8)
To interpret the cusum we are interested in slope and changes in the slope. The difficulty
comes not in deciding what the slope is, but rather whether a change in slope is significant.
The rules as shown in Chart 24.7 are that if the cusum:
● Is horizontal, the process average equals the target.
● Slopes downwards (negative slope), the process average is less than the target.
● Slopes upwards (positive slope), the process average is greater than the target.
● The steeper the slope, the greater the difference between the target and the process
average.
● Changes slope, the process average has changed (Chart 24.8).
● Is a curve, the process average is continually changing.
Other interpretation clues are:
● The process change occurs at the point where the slope changes.
● A jump in the chart signals a single very high/low observation. However, the cusum
chart is not very effective at identifying single abnormally high or low values.
R
s
s
ϭ ϭ
ϭ ϭ
ϭ
194.4
51
3.81
3.81
1.128
3.38
2 6.76.
Implementing and Using SPC 312
Negative slope:
average below target
Horizontal:
average ϭ target
Positive slope:
average above target
Chart 24.7 Interpretation of a cusum chart
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An introduction to cusum (cumulative sum) charts 313
Interpreting the cusum chart is far more difficult than for the other control charts. There
are two basic methods of determining whether a change in slope is random variation
or not. The first is to construct a mask out of paper or card and place the mask on the chart,
the other is to construct decision lines on the chart. Decision lines and masks are con-
structed to identify changes of a specific size of shift. We explain the construction of both
a mask and decision lines for general-purpose analysis, that is, for identifying shifts of 1s.
Constructing and using a mask (Figures 24.1 and 24.2)
To make a mask drawn on transparent film (or cut out of paper) Figure 24.1:
1. Calculate the quantity 5s (i.e. 5 ϫ standard deviation).
2. Measure the distance (e.g. in mm) on the vertical axis of the cusum chart that
represents 5s.
Process average was below target
and decreases
Process average was above target
and increases
Process average was below target
and is now above target
Process average was above target
and is now below target
Process average was equal to target
and is now above target
Process average was equal to target
and is now below target
Process average was below target
and is now equal to target
Process average was above target
and is now equal to target
Process average is
continually changing
Chart 24.8 Interpretation of a cusum chart: with changes in slope
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3. Draw a horizontal line on the transparent film (datum line).
4. From the right-hand end of this line draw a vertical line up and down for a distance
equal to 5s (CB and CD).
5. Measure the distance (e.g. in mm) on the horizontal axis of the cusum chart that
represents 10 observations.
6. Measure a distance equivalent to 10 observations to the left of C along the datum line.
7. Mark off two points at 10s vertically above and below, A and E.
8. Join the points AB and DE.
If you are constructing a paper mask, cut out the paper around ABDE.
To use the mask, place it on the chart (Figure 24.2) so that DB runs parallel to the ver-
tical axis with the limbs pointing to the left, as constructed. Slide the mask horizontally
over the chart placing C of the mask on each point plotted. If at any point the mask cuts
the cusum, then the average has shifted from the target by the equivalent of 1s or more.
Implementing and Using SPC 314
5s
5s
10 sample points
10s
Datum Line
A
B
D
E
C
C
C
(a) (b)
Figure 24.2 Cusum (a) does not cross the mask implying the process average has not
changed and (b) crosses the mask implying the process average has changed by more
than 1s
Note that the coordinates of the plotted points are not of themselves of much inter-
est. This is because each point represents the cumulative difference between the actual
data value and a target since the beginning of the chart.
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An introduction to cusum (cumulative sum) charts 315
However, it is easy to calculate the process average for a span of data between any
two points i and j, x

iϩ1,j
The formula for doing so is:
where C
j
is the cusum for week j and T is the target value.
As an example, we see from Chart 24.5 that there appears to be a process change
around week 29 and we can use the above formula to calculate the average incident
rates before and after this point.
For the data up to week 29, i ϭ 0 so i ϩ 1 ϭ 1 and j ϭ 29 giving:
note that C
0
ϭ 0.
To check that this is correct, the total downtime for the first 29 month ϭ 754.4.
Dividing by 29 weeks gives 754.4/29 ϭ 26.0 incidents per week.
Similarly, for the data from week 30, i ϩ 1 ϭ 30 and j ϭ 52 and
● The turning point was taken to be week 29. However, the cusum for week 30 is
higher than that for week 29; should week 30 be selected as the turning point? The
key to interpreting a cusum chart is the slope, and since the slope of the data from
point zero is greatest at week 29, that week is taken as the turning point. However,
the purpose of the chart is to gain insight. It is quite likely that whatever caused the
process change did not occur exactly at the end of ANY particular week, and even if
it did, changes are seldom abrupt. The message from the chart is that there is strong
evidence that a change in process average occurred at around week 29, and the most
likely week for the change is week 29.
● The construction of masks is tedious and time consuming; however, it is recom-
mended that a few be constructed to develop understanding and gain familiarity
with the method.
see the British Standard BS5703.
Constructing and using decision lines (Chart 24.9)
A common method of highlighting changes on the cusum chart is to construct decision
lines. The steps are:
1. Identify the suspected change in process average.
In Chart 24.9, this is week 29.
2. Identify the beginning of the earlier process.
In Chart 24.9, there seems to be no earlier process change, so the first section of the
chart for comparison is taken to be the first week.
x
30 52 ,
ϭ
Ϫ
Ϫ
ϩ ϭ
0 51.5
52 29
24.2 22.0.
x
1 29 ,
ϭ
Ϫ
Ϫ
ϩ ϭ
51.5 0
29 0
24.2 26.0
x
C C
j i
T
i j
j i
ϩ
ϭ
Ϫ
Ϫ
ϩ
1,
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2 3
2 5
2 7
2 9
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2 4
2 9
2 7
2 2
2 4
2 7
2 8
2 3
2 6
3 1
2 9
2 5
2 1
1 9
2 0
2 8
2 0
2 3
2 5
2 1
1 8
2 1
2 7
2 0
2 1
2 5
1 9
2 2
2 4
1 9
2 5
2 8
2 0
1 9
x
Ϫ
T
2 . 8
Ϫ 2 . 2
1 0 . 8
2 . 8
Ϫ 1 . 2
2 . 8
3 . 8
0 . 8
Ϫ 4 . 2
Ϫ 0 . 2
2 . 8
Ϫ 0 . 2
Ϫ 1 . 1
0 . 8
2 . 8
4 . 8
3 . 8
Ϫ 0 . 7
4 . 8
2 . 8
Ϫ 2 . 2
Ϫ 0 . 7
2 . 8
4 . 1
Ϫ 1 . 2
1 . 8
6 . 8
4 . 8
0 . 8
Ϫ 3 . 2
Ϫ 5 . 2
Ϫ 4 . 2
3 . 3
Ϫ 4 . 2
Ϫ 1 . 7
0 . 8
Ϫ 3 . 7
Ϫ 6 . 2
Ϫ 3 . 2
2 . 8
Ϫ 4 . 7
Ϫ 3 . 2
0 . 8
Ϫ 5 . 2
Ϫ 2 . 7
Ϫ 0 . 7
Ϫ 5 . 2
0 . 3
3 . 3
Ϫ 4 . 2
Ϫ 5 . 2
C
u
s
u
m
,

C

(
x
Ϫ
T
)
Ϫ 0 . 2 Ϫ 0 . 2
2 . 5
0 . 3
1 1 . 0
1 3 . 8
1 2 . 6
1 5 . 3
1 9 . 1
1 9 . 9
1 5 . 6
1 5 . 4
1 8 . 1
1 7 . 9
1 6 . 8
1 7 . 5
2 0 . 3
2 5 . 0
2 8 . 8
2 8 . 1
3 2 . 8
3 5 . 6
3 3 . 4
3 2 . 6
3 5 . 4
3 9 . 4
3 8 . 2
4 0 . 0
4 6 . 7
5 1 . 5
5 2 . 2
4 9 . 0
4 3 . 8
3 9 . 5
4 2 . 8
3 8 . 6
3 6 . 8
3 7 . 6
3 3 . 8
2 7 . 6
2 4 . 4
2 7 . 1
2 2 . 4
1 9 . 1
1 9 . 9
1 4 . 7
1 1 . 9
1 1 . 2
6 . 0
6 . 2
9 . 5
5 . 2
0 . 0
M
R
3 . 0
5 . 0
1 3 . 0
8 . 0
4 . 0
4 . 0
1 . 0
3 . 0
5 . 0
4 . 0
3 . 0
3 . 0
0 . 9
1 . 9
2 . 0
2 . 0
1 . 0
4 . 5
5 . 5
2 . 0
5 . 0
1 . 5
3 . 5
1 . 3
5 . 3
3 . 0
5 . 0
2 . 0
4 . 0
4 . 0
2 . 0
1 . 0
7 . 5
7 . 5
2 . 5
2 . 5
4 . 5
2 . 5
3 . 0
6 . 0
7 . 5
1 . 5
4 . 0
6 . 0
2 . 5
2 . 0
4 . 5
5 . 5
3 . 0
7 . 5
1 . 0
F
E
D
AC
B
Ϫ
2
0
Ϫ
1
0 0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
C u s u m
C
h
a
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t

2
4
.
9
C
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c
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An introduction to cusum (cumulative sum) charts 317
3. From the point identified in step 2, draw a straight line through the suspected
process change point (week 29 in Chart 24.9, line AB).
4. From the point identified in step 2, draw a vertical line above (or below depending
on whether we are testing to see if the process has increased or decreased) a dis-
tance of 5s.
In Chart 24.9, 5s ϭ 5 ϫ 3.38 ϭ 16.9 and the first cusum value is Ϫ0.2, so the line, AC
extends down to Ϫ0.2 Ϫ 16.9 ϭ Ϫ17.1.
5. From the point identified in step 2, count 10 observations along the chart and draw
a vertical line above (or below) a length of 10s from the line AB: 10s ϭ10 ϫ3.38 ϭ33.8.
The line is labelled DE.
6. Draw a line from C through E and continue it. If it cuts the chart, then we conclude
that the process has changed. In this case the line cuts the cusum at F.
● In Chart 24.9, week 4 is an out-of-control point, as would be seen if an X/MR chart
were been drawn. There is no simple way of seeing this on the cusum chart. For this
reason, the cusum chart is usually used in conjunction with other charts. (It would,
of course, be possible to calculate the upper action limit (UAL) using the formula for
the X/MR chart and check by eye that no individual observations are above this value.)
● Constructing decision lines can be quite quick with a little practice, but is still laborious.
● A key use of the cusum chart is to identify where a process might have a change in aver-
age, and then to return to the other control charts to see if this is indeed mirrored there.
Weighted cusum charts
When to use weighted cusum charts
Weighted cusums are an extension of cusums used wherever the opportunity for the met-
ric being monitored to vary is different for each observation. Thus, the weighted cusum
is used in the same situations as p and u charts as well as for many variables situations.
For example, the downtime chart recorded hours of downtime per week and so the
opportunity for downtime remained constant, however, if the number of items of
equipment being monitored varied from week to week, perhaps because we are moni-
toring hired items and the number of items varies with workload, then a weighted
cusum chart would be needed.
The basic concepts behind the weighted cusum chart are the same as for the cusum
chart, but the formulae and charting are more difficult.
As an example of the weighted cusum we return to the loss incident data used to illus-
trate the c and u charts in the previous chapter. Since the number of exposure hours
varies each month we should use a weighted cusum chart rather than a cusum chart.
Chart format
As usual the data and calculations are provided below the table. In a weighted cusum
chart we plot the cumulative cusum against the cumulative hours (in the case of
H6529-Ch24.qxd 4/23/05 4:10 PM Page 317
Implementing and Using SPC 318
Chart 24.10). For example, after 10 months we have monitored a total of 2.50 million
hours, and the cumulative sum of incidents is ϩ5.22. As will be immediately obvious,
the horizontal distance between the points varies. This is because each month has a
varying number of exposure hours.
Setting up and interpreting a weighted cusum chart
1. Enter the number of incidents, x, and the number of exposure hours, w, onto the chart.
2. Determine the target value. In this case the average number of incidents per million
exposure hours was used, and was calculated as:
3. For each month calculate the expected number of incidents wT and enter the data
on the chart. For month i ϭ 1, w ϭ 0.23 hours so wT ϭ 0.23 ϫ 4.31 ϭ 0.991 incidents.
This tells us that at a rate of 4.31 incidents per million man hours, we expect 0.991
incidents this month which had 0.23 exposure hours.
4. For each month calculate the difference between the actual and the expected inci-
dents, x Ϫ wT.
For month 1, x ϭ 3 incidents and wT ϭ 0.991 giving a value of 3 Ϫ 0.991 ϭ 2.009.
Enter the data into the appropriate row below the chart.
5. For each month calculate the cumulative number of hours, ⌺w and enter the data
into the appropriate row below the chart.
6. For each month calculate the weighted cusum; that is, the cumulative difference
between the actual and expected number of incidents, ⌺(x Ϫ wT) and enter it below
the chart.
7. Find the maximum and minimum values of the weighted cusum for scaling purposes.
8. Calculate the standard deviation, s, the formula is:
where:
w

ϭ the average number of hours per month ϭ 13.924/35 ϭ 0.398,
n ϭ 35 months,
x

ϭ average number of incidents per million hours ϭ 60/13.924 ϭ 4.31.
(i.e. the same as T in this case).
The calculations for are given below the chart, and the total is 224.
Therefore
s ϭ
Ϫ
ϫ ϭ
0.398
(35 1)
224 1.62
( )
2
x wx
w
Ϫ
s
w
n
x wx
w
ϭ
Ϫ
Ϫ
( 1)
( )
2

T ϭ
total number of incidents
total number of eexposure hours
60 incidents
13.924 million
ϭ
hhours
4.31 incidents per million hours. ϭ
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319
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H6529-Ch24.qxd 4/23/05 4:10 PM Page 319
Implementing and Using SPC 320
9. Scale the chart so that 2s units on the vertical axis corresponds to one unit on the
horizontal axis. In this case, 2s ϭ 3.2 should cover approximately the same dis-
tance on the vertical axis as 1 million exposure hours on the horizontal axis.
10. Plot the data.
11. Interpret the chart in the same way as for the non-weighted cusum.
There is a major change in slope at around months 16 and 17. A mask or decision
lines could be constructed to confirm this, or the corresponding u chart can be
reviewed.
The formula for calculating the process average for a span of data between any
two points is still straightforward, but a little more complicated than before. To
determine the process average between two points, i and j, x

iϩ1,j
The formula for
doing so is:
where C
i
is the cusum value for month i. ⌺W
i
is the cumulative exposure hours for
week i. For example, the average number of incidents per million exposure hours
from month i ϩ 1 ϭ 5 to j ϭ 17 is given by:
To check this, the total number of incidents during this period was 30 and the total
number of exposure hours was 4.229 resulting in 7.1 incidents per million hours
exposure.
Summary
In this chapter we provided an introduction to cumulative (cusum) charts. We saw that:
● The cusum sum chart is a very powerful chart for identifying changes in the process
average.
● They monitor the cumulative difference between the recorded values and a target
value. The target is usually chosen to be the process average.
● Cusums can be used for both variables and attributes data.
● Cusum charts complement, and are usually used in conjunction with other control
charts. The usual Schewhart charts are better at identifying all process signals except
small changes in process average whilst the cusum chart is particularly good at iden-
tifying small sustained changes in average.
● The chart is more difficult to draw and interpret, and interpretation is by analysing
changes in slope.
● To aid interpretation either masks can be constructed or decision lines can be drawn
on the chart.
x
5 17 ,
ϭ
Ϫ
Ϫ
ϩ ϭ
13.68 1.90
5.18 0.95
4.31 7.1.
x
C C
W W
T
i j
j i
j i
ϩ
ϭ
Ϫ
Ϫ
ϩ
1,
⌺ ⌺
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