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Zhou (Chou) story - Newsbreak - 5/30/2014

First pants worn by horse riders of Central Asia 3,000 years ago
Oldest known trousers oriinated in Central !sia" but a#tually Zhou a$e with tubular so#ket
%our#e and other &inks
htt'(//s15523)215*onlineho+e*us/turki#/btn,!r#heoloy/Zhou/-ost!n#ientZhou.uti/n*ht+
htt's(//www*s#ien#enews*or/arti#le/0rst-'ants-worn-horse-riders-3000-years-ao
htt'(//ntrt1*ru/inde$*'h'2newsid320)44 htt'(//news*+ail*ru/so#iety/15416)54/
7ntrodu#tion (
! brie8 re1iew o8 the 9uran 'eo'le #ulture see on 'ae :*N* %tearns ;Zhou Culture<*
=his breakin news be#a+e 1iral in a +atter o8 hours* =hanks .od 8or 'eo'le who do 'ants> ?ithout
the+" we +ay would ha1e waited 8or another de#ade 8or a real i+ae o8 a Zhou* @is 'ants are a bi
deal" they ;an#ientiAe< 'ants 8ro+ 400 BC to 1400 BC* =hey #erti8y that Zhous 'assed the =ari+ Basin
be8ore rea#hin :roto-China* =hey #erti8y that =urkish-style ridin 'ants are at least a +illenniu+ older
than the Co+an and .reek /+'ires" older than /trus#ans in the !'ennine :eninsula" and older than
China* =hat is a really reat news* =hey also #erti8y that the D2"462 leather 'ants introdu#ed in 1)44
by %aint &aurent o8 &! were not in1ented by %aint &aurent" they were su##ess8ully worn three and a
hal8 +illennia be8ore that" and ne1er #o'yrihted*
But the other un+entioned traits are also e+s o8 the 'i#ture* =he ridin boots" whi#h are ;e$tre+ely
un#o+8ortable when walkin<* =he assertion that =Erki# no+ads brouht boots 8ootwear to the #i1iliAed
and un#i1iliAed sedentary world was asserted by the =urkoloists 8or aes" and was taken u' with
sneers and s#orn* =he un#outh old +u++y +akes 8ools o8 the enerations o8 the 'reFudi#ed #ar'ers*
=he #a8tan illustrates the a##ura#y o8 the Chinese annals" it is la'elled to the le8t" in #ontrast with the
Chinese robes la'elled to the riht* Gor the +u#h later Chinese o8 the @an 'eriod" the la'el to the le8t
was a sin o8 barbaris+ and a reason 8or 'er+anent #onsternation* .reat eHorts o8 the +u#h later
Celestial e+'ires were 8utilely s'ent on atte+'ts to re-edu#ate +illions o8 barbarians to swit#h to the
real #i1iliAed 8ashion* 7n the end" so+e o8 those +illions Foined Chinese 'eo'le and turned into bona
0de Chinese in riht la'elled robes* %o+e o8 those Chinese retained their old ethni# na+e @u" like @u
Iintao 胡锦涛*
=he horsewhi' was needed to a##o+'any the de#eased to the =enri 8or rein#arnation* 7n the year
1400 BC" the Buddhis+ had not been in1ented yet* 7t would take another 500 years to #o+e u' with
the Buddhis+ and its rein#arnation* By that ti+e" kurans" =enriis+" and rein#arnation would ha1e
e$isted 8or about 4 +illennia* :robably not in the sa+e 8or+ as they #a+e down to us" but the kurans
and tra1el ne#essities attest to the intended tra1el and rein#arnation* =he horse or horses o8 the Zhou
tra1eler +ust ha1e been interred in the i++ediate 'ro$i+ity o8 the de#eased" otherwise he would not
ha1e rabbed a horsewhi' to o alon* Jn8ortunately" the 'antsK 'eo'le do not re'ort on the horse
re+ains and its LN!" to i1e us a #o+'lete 'i#ture o8 his +ount*
=he LN! o8 the =ari+ 'eo'le is 'oliti#ally hihly #hared and there8ore is a uarded Chinese state
se#ret subFe#t" larely known 8ro+ years o8 sensationaliAed and hihly de+aoued re'orts on
Cau#asoid ;7ndo-/uro'eans< s'eakin ;=okharian< lanuae on one side" and Chinese #ounter
de+aoy on the other side* =he a1ailable bits and 'ie#es suest Central !sian (read( =Erki#) and
7ndian +ales and +ostly lo#al eastern ladies* Con8usion" densely airbrushed by 'o'ulation eneti#s"
blots the 'i#ture" lea1in +etallury to lead the 0eld with 're#ise" 1eri0able" and #onsistent data*
=he +ost strikin is the tubular so#ket a$" an i+'le+ent so uniMue and dianosti# that it beats by a
+ile the 3400-year aed +odel o8 the 'ants* =he tubular so#ket a$ is an oddity in the world o8 a$es" it
is known 8ro+ the early 'eriod o8 the bronAe #astin" and only 8ro+ the li+ited areas o8 northern hills
o8 the -eso'ota+ia" !ltai and surroundin %outh %iberia" and the northern areas o8 what is China
today* 7t is known 8ro+ the to+bstone s#ul'tures routinely attributed to the %#ythians (or Ci++erians)"
and dated a##ordinly to the 'ost-)th #ent* BC* =hat datin surely needs 1eri0#ation by instru+ented
+ethods* =he tubular so#ket a$es belon to the %te''e -etallury na+ed by /* Chernykh /ast !sian
-etalluri#al :ro1in#e (Chernykh /* %te''e -etallury)* =he -iddle BronAe !e +etalluri#al 'eriod o8
1)00-1200 BC in#ludes #onstituent ar#heoloi#al #ultures o8 3300 - 2300 BC 8or :it .ra1e Culture" 2"
500 - 1" 500 BC 8or !8anasie1 Culture" 1)00 - 1200 BC 8or =i+ber .ra1e Culture" 1500 - 1200 BC 8or
!ndrono1 Culture" 1400 - 600 BC 8or 9arasuk Culture* 7n the +etalluri#al 'eriodiAation" they belon to
the third stae o8 the /ast - ?est s'rawl in the 3rd-2nd +ill* BC* =he early 'hase o8 the /urasian
'ro1in#e" dated 25-22 #enturies BC" is re+arkable be#ause o8 the start o8 two swi8t
#ounter-'ro'aatin ;wa1es< o8 the 'astoral 'eo'lesK +iration 8ro+ the west to the east and 8ro+ the
east to the west that le8t their tubular so#ket tra#es in -eso'ota+ia" %outh %iberia" and the northern
China o8 today*
=he tubular so#ket a$ was but a sinle #o+'onent o8 the ;%#ythian #o+'le$< that also in#luded other
'e#uliar +etalluri#al and non-+etalluri#al obFe#ts" not ne#essarily interred with the de#eased as
attire or tra1el utensils* =hese distin#t obFe#ts in#luded sy+boli# bronAe kni8es that with ti+e turned
into round and sMuNre #oins" and turtle shell notebooks that arri1ed with the Zhou 'eo'le* =his
tra#eable uniMue +odel o8 the a$ allows to #onne#t the .uties in the west with the Zhous in the east"
and s'e#ulate that .uties stand 8or .uAes" a eneti# =Erki# 8or ;tribe<" and Zhous stand 8or IuA" a
eneti# =Erki# 8or ;union" tribal #on8ederation<* =he IuA still stands 8or ;union< in 9aAakhstan" and is OA
in %la1i# (PQ)" whi#h has a 8or+ %ouA (RSTQ)" like in the na+e J%%C (RRRU) where the 8irst Cyrilli# C
stands 8or %ouA (RSTQ)*
The contents of the breaking news
!r#haeoloists in China ha1e un#o1ered in the Vanhai ra1eyard in the =ari+ Basin the worldKs oldest
'ants" ae #a 3*3 thousand years* 7t is the +ost an#ient 'ants e1er 8ound on earth* =hey are de#orated
with e+broidery* =he tailorin in1ol1ed no #uttin( 'ant se#tions were sha'ed on a loo+ in the 0nal
siAe* =rousers was sewn toether 8ro+ three 'ie#es o8 brown-#olored wool #loth" one 'ie#e 8or ea#h le
and an insert 8or the #rot#h* Ginished 'ants in#luded side slits" strins 8or 8astenin at the waist and
wo1en desins on the les* /$'erts belie1e that the 'ants beloned to one o8 !sian no+ads* =he 0nd
#on0r+s that the no+ads sewed s'e#ial #lothin to ride on horseba#k*
Jlrike Be#k and -ayke ?aner o8 the .er+an !r#haeoloi#al 7nstitute in Berlin studied toether with
#olleaues two 'airs o8 woolen trousers burial in /astern =urkistan* Cadio#arbon analysis showed that
they were about 3" 300 - 3" 000 years old*
Gor +ost o8 the an#ient history 'eo'le wore owns" robes" tuni#s" toas or" as obser1ed on the 5"
300-year-old body o8 WtAi the 7#e+an" a three-'ie#e #o+bination o8 loin#loth and indi1idual leins*
=rousers is a relati1ely re#ent inno1ation* Jntil now" the oldest 'ants were #onsidered to #o+e 8ro+
Ne'al" their ;ae< is only 2" 400 years* /arlier" the lo#als wore skirts and #a'es* But when ridin
a''eared" it #a+e with 'ants*
!##ordin to s#ientists" this #on0r+s the lon-held assu+'tion that the a''earan#e o8 the 0rst 'ants
was asso#iated with the horse ridin* =he woolen trousers had in the #rot#h sewn a 'ie#e o8 8abri#
'rote#tin this 'art o8 the hu+an body" and 'ro1ided a #loser ri' o8 the inner thih" reMuired at ridin
on a horseba#k*
=he s#ientists were stru#k by another another 0nd* Ce#onstru#tion o8 the 0ndins showed that the
wide #rot#h 'art o8 the an#ient 'ants was hanin by 8olds" e$a#tly in a 8ashion o8 the =Erki# 'ants one
still #an see in =urkey* One o8 the ?aner #olleaues tried the 'ants sewn a8ter the 'atterned o8 the
oldest 'ants" and #on#luded that they were ;e$tre+ely un#o+8ortable when walkin<* -* ?aner
#o++ented( ;?hile walkin" the internal 'arts o8 the les" the #rot#h and the lower abdo+en are not
subFe#ted to a lon 'eriod o8 8ri#tion* =he 'roble+ be#o+es a#ute only when riders ha1e to s'end a lot
o8 ti+e on horseba#k*< !''arently" the =urkish +en howe1er ha1e no 'roble+s wearin ridin trousers
as a daily attire*
=he dis#o1ery attests that the horse ridin e$isted in the =ari+ Basin three and a hal8 thousand years
ao* O1er the aes" Central !sia 'assed throuh #y#li#al 'eriods o8 aridi0#ation and hu+idi0#ation"
dri1in out and attra#tin no+adi# 'astoralists*
Other illustrations related to the the+e" #annibaliAed 8ro+ other related arti#les(
Emergence of the Eurasian Metallurgical Province
=he initiators o8 the no+adi# +o1e+ent were 'eo'le who le8t behind +onu+ents where ar#haeoloists
re#oniAe the so-#alled %intashta or !bashe1o-%intashta #o++unity* =he :etro1 #ulture also beloned
to that #o++unity* !s be8ore" the 'o'ulations o8 that #o++unity disdained ari#ulture" and without
doubt" the ani+al husbandry re+ained #entral to their daily li1es* !lso" on the basis o8 the #o''er ore
de'osits east o8 the Jrals and in 9aAakhstan" there was su##ess8ully de1elo'in +etal +inin industry*
Gi* 6 :hase in 8or+ation o8 the /urasian -etalluri#al :ro1in#e*
=wo #ounter-'ro'aatin wa1es in the s'read o8 the #ultural 8or+ations* !sterisks denote to+bs and
san#tuaries" 'oints and o1al sha'es denote isolated 0nds o8 +etal o8 the %ei+a-=urbino a''earan#e

=he kuran #e+eteries al+ost disa''eared beyond the Jrals( the an#ient ritual o8 #onstru#tion ra1e
+ounds was Mui#kly dyin there* !r#haeoloists dis#o1ered +any 1illaes o8 that #o++unity" but as a
rule the settle+ents were not i+'ressi1e with their lare siAe*
=he %intashta/!bashe1o/:etro1 #ulture dis'lay ty'i#al traits o8 the 'ea#e8ul #oloniAation and
a+ala+ation* =he aboriinal 8oot hunter 'o'ulation #ontinued their traditional non-'rodu#in
e#ono+y" with lare tra#ts o8 8orest needed 8or the sustenan#e o8 ea#h 8a+ilyX that li+ited the siAe o8
the 1illaes 8ar+in natural resour#es within the i++ediate 1i#inity* =he new#o+ers brouht alon
their 'rodu#in ani+al husbandry e#ono+y that did not #o+'ete with the aboriinal e#ono+y* =hey
enaed aboriines into +etal 'rodu#tion as su''liers o8 the ore and #har#oal" and 'ossibly o8 the
inots* On the so#ial le1el" a+ala+ation went on as inter-ethni# +arital unions* 7n the lino o8
'hysi#al anthro'oloy" the no+ads o8 the western 'art o8 the ste''e belt are ter+ed %outhern
/urasian !nthro'oloi#al Gor+ationX these are the 'eo'le #alled 9urans within the 7ndo-/uro'ean
linuisti# Jrhei+at hy'othesis* =he northern 8oot hunters are ter+ed Northern /urasian
!nthro'oloi#al Gor+ation" they o##u'ied the northern belt o8 /urasia 8ro+ the ?hite %ea to the
Baraba ste''es" and are ter+ed ar#heoloi#ally :itYCo+b ?are Cultures (Z*Bunak" 1)54" =*Chikishe1a"
2010)*
&ike the :ilri+s 1s* !+erindians" like the #onMuistadors 1s* -esoa+eri#ans" and like any other
#olonial e$'ansion" the no+adi# new#o+ers are relati1ely 8ew" and barely 1isible ar#heoloi#allyX but
their 1isibility +ay be relati1ely hih i8 the 1isibility o8 the aboriinal ar#heoloi#al ba#kdro' is e1en
less 'ro+inent" and i8 their ar#heoloi#al #ulture is 1ery distin#t* %oon" their oHs'rins be#o+e
'hysi#ally indistinuishable 8ro+ the aboriinal 'o'ulation" e$#e't 8or their #ontinued e#ono+i#al and
so#ial traditions" obser1ed as disa''earin kuran #e+eteries* =he e#ono+i#al and +arital #o+'a#ts
+ay #ontinue inde0nitely" until a new u'hea1al #hanes the s#enery*
=he se#ond no+adi# ;wa1e< (or the eastern i+'ulse) 1ery Mui#kly arose a 1ery de1elo'ed ty'e o8
+etallury in the 1ast areal o8 the %ayano-!ltai +ountain syste+* =he relati1ely 'ri+iti1e +etalluri#al
#enters o8 the 're#edin 'eriod went throuh a sudden burst o8 hih-te#h 'rodu#tion o8 thin-walled
bronAe #astins o8 0ne and 'er#han#e uniMue 8or+s o8 wea'ons* =here were #ast s'earheads" kelt
a$es" #ur1ed kni1es with s#ul'ted i+aes o8 1arious ani+als and e1en hu+ans (Gi* 2)* =he 1ast
+aFority o8 these obFe#ts were 8ound in 1ery strane #enota'h ra1es" where ar#haeoloists ha1e
8ound no hu+an re+ains* =he width o8 the distribution area o8 these unusual antiMuities is a+aAin(
8ro+ the ?estern and e1en Central China" to the /astern Balti#" i*e*" +ore than si$ thousand k+* But in
this enor+ous territory were 8ound sur'risinly s+all nu+ber o8 these +etal obFe#ts" not +ore than
si$ hundred*
Giure 2* %o+e 8or+s o8 the %ei+a-=urbino ty'e +etal 'rodu#ts

Emergence of the East Asian Metallurgical Province
%o+e #lue on the oriin o8 the /ast !sian -etalluri#al :ro1in#e is i1en by the 'ro1enan#e o8 the
uniMue tubular so#ket a$es" that 8ollow the 'ra#ti#e o8 tubular so#ket arrowheads and s'ear blades*
%u#h tubular so#ket a$es were 8ound in -eso'ota+ia" in the !ltai" and in the Northern China* 7n the
-eso'ota+ia" they are attributed to the no+adi# horse #attle+en .uties (.uAes)" =uruks (=Erk)"
9o+ans (9u+ans)" 9anars" %ubars" and &ulu" in China they are asso#iated with the no+adi# horse
#attle+en Zhou (Ious" IuA ;union" tribal #on8ederation<) and Iuns (Cons" 'robably standin 8or @uns)"
in the !ltai they are asso#iated with the %ei+a-=urbino +etal 'rodu#tion*

=hat was a birth o8 another reat +etalluri#al 'ro1in#e" whi#h is #alled /ast !sian -etalluri#al
:ro1in#e* Co+'ared with the /urasian -etalluri#al :ro1in#e it had a +u#h +ore #o+'le$ stru#ture*
7n the ar#heoloy" the eastern ;wa1e< is known as the %ei+a-=urbino trans#ultural 'heno+enon (a8ter
two 8a+ous #e+eteries( %ei+a and =urbino)* =he warlike no+adi# 'o'ulations ra'idly +o1ed westward
in 'arallel" but to the north 8ro+ the on#o+in wa1e o8 the !bashe1o-%intashta tribes" 'ri+arily alon
the southern stri' o8 the /urasian 8orest Aone* 35-40 #enturies later by the sa+e 'ath headin
eastward would as swi8tly +o1e s+all Cossa#k deta#h+ents" these restless and undis#i'lined subFe#ts
o8 the Cussian state* Cossa#ks were =Erki# +er#enaries o8 1arious tribal ethni#ity" enerally de0ned by
their an#estral lo#ation( Vaik Cossa#ks" Lon Cossa#ks" =erek Cossa#ks" et#* Cossa#ks were hired 8or a
deter+ined season" or a deter+ined #a+'ain or task*
@owe1er" in the se#ond hal8 o8 the 2nd +ill* BC the no+adi# 'astoralists o8 the /ast !sian -etalluri#al
:ro1in#e dra+ati#ally #haned the orientation o8 their aressi1e intentions* @en#e8orth" their eyes
8o#used +ainly on the southeast (Gi* 3)" where rose ri#hest #ultural #enters o8 the an#ient Chinese
state #alled %han (Vin)" whi#h #enters are +ainly #onne#ted with the @uanhe (Vellow Ci1er) basin* =he
ste''e e$tra#ts" whose #ulture ar#haeoloists #all 9arasuk" inherited +any wea'ons 8or+s 8ro+ the
'rior %ei+a-=urbino 'heno+enon" 0rst o8 all #astin the so-#alled sinle-eded #ur1ed kni1es with
de#orated handles (Gi* 2)* =hese 8or+s o8 wea'ons" or rather their i+itations" s'read throuhout the
territory o8 the %han 'rin#i'ality* !''arently" 8ro+ that ti+e oriinated the reat #on8rontation
between the ste''e 'astoral warriors and an#ient and +edie1al Chinese #i1iliAations*
Giure 3* -aFor i+'a#t dire#tions o8 the #ultural unions belonin to the northwestern (%ayan - !ltai)
#enters o8 the /ast !sian -etalluri#al :ro1in#e durin the 0nal de1elo'+ent o8 the /urasian ;ste''e
belt< * =he western le o8 the eastward +iration 'asses the =ari+ Basin" #arryin the le8t la'elled
#a8tans" oldest ridin 'ants" ridin boots" tubular so#ket a$es" horsewhi's" #era+i# [asks" kaury
(#owrie" #owry) shell diade+s" dress buttons" et#*

Giure 4* BronAes o8
northern style" 8ro+ Gu
@aoKs to+b* (a) 9ni8e* (b)
-inors* (#) Bow-sha'ed
obFe#t
Giure 5* ObFe#ts 8ro+ 1arious 0nds at %hilou" %han$i*
(a) .old earrins with turMuoise beads* (b) BronAe ar#
(head orna+ent2) (@unni# diade+)* (#) Battle a$e with
tubular sha8t hole* (d) ?and or s'atula* () &adle* (8)
Bell-sha'ed rattle* () Boat sha'ed 1essel
Giure 4* !$es* %a+e
s#ale" (a) !$e o8 the
ty'e yue* (b) !$e o8 the
ty'e e* (#) !$e with
tubular so#ket

9eihtley L* %yno'sis o8 Zhou story