CHAPTER 11

1. ENGLISH TRANSFORMATIONS
For each of the following sentences, give the D-structure and annotate it with
arrows indicating what transformations have applied. Be careful, since some
of these sentences might have PRO in them.
a) How was the plot discovered ! the authorities"
) #hich animals appear to have lost their collars"
c) $lan told me who wanted to seem to e invincile.
2. BOUNDING THEORY
#h! is the following sentence ungrammatical"
%#ho& did '(P )eorge tr! to find out '*P whati '(P t& wanted ti+++"
Draw a tree showing the e,act prolem with this sentence.
3. PICTURE NPS
#h! is the grammaticalit! of the following sentence surprising" Does the
theor! we have presented in this chapter predict this to e acceptale"
#ho-m) did !ou see a picture of"
4. IRISH
-(he idea ehind this prolem set is ta.en from /c*los.e! 0110)
2ome dialects of 3nglish allow a .ind of wh-construction, where the ase
position of the wh-word is filled a resumptive pronoun4
(his is the oo.i that the police are arresting ever!one who reads iti.
5n /odern 5rish, this .ind of construction is ver! common. /odern 5rish has
two different wh-complementi6ers -notice that these are not wh-words, which
go in the specifier of *P, these are complementi6ers)4 a
L
, a
N
. (he
complementi6er a
L
is found in sentences li.e -a). 2entence -i) shows a
simple sentence without wh-movement using the non-wh-complementi6er go.
2entences -ii) and -iii) show two possile forms of the 7uestion. -ii) has the
©2002 Andrew Carnie.
2!nta,4 Prolem 2ets 8
7uestion moved onl! to an intermediate *P specifier. -iii) has the wh-phrase
moved to the topmost specifier.
a) i) Bíonn fios agat i gconaí [CP go bhuailfidh an píobaire an t-amhrán].
be.HAB no! at.".# al!a$s that pla$.%&' the piper the song
()ou al!a$s no! that the bagpiper !ill pla$ the song.*
ii) Bíonn fios agat i gconaí [CP caid+i a
L
bhuailfidh an píobaire ti].
be.HAB no! at.".# al!a$s !hati C,-P pla$.%&' the piper ti
()ou al!a$s no! !hat the bagpiper !ill pla$.*
iii) [CP Cáid+i [.P a
L
bhíonn fios agat i gconaí [CP ti a
L
bhuailfidh an píobaire ti]]/
0hat C,-P be.HAB no! at.".# al!a$s C,-P pla$.%&' the piper
(0hat do $ou al!a$s no! the piper !ill pla$/*
9ow the distriution of the complementi6er a
N
seems to e lin.ed to the
presence of a resumptive pronoun. *onsider the -ii) sentences in -) and -c).
Both show resumptive pronouns and the complementi6er a
N
4
b) i) Bíonn fios agat i gconaí [CP caid+i a
L
bhuailfidh an píobaire ti].
be.HAB no! at.".# al!a$s !hati C,-P pla$.%&' the piper ti
()ou al!a$s no! !hat the bagpiper !ill pla$.*
ii) [CPC+n Píobaire1 a
N
['P mbíonn fios agat i gconaí [CPcaid+i a
L
bhuailfidh séj
ti]]/
0hich piper C,-P be.HAB no! at.".# al!a$s !hati C,-P pla$.%&' he
(0hich bagpiper do $ou al!a$s no! !hat he !ill pla$/*
c) i) 'á máthair an fhir san otharlann.
Be.P23# mother the man.435 in.the hospital
('he man6s mother is in the hospital.*
ii) C+ a
N
bhfuil ai mháthair san otharlann/
!ho C,-P be.P23# his mother in.the hospital
(0ho is 7his) mother in the hospital/*
(he a
N
complementi6er and the resumptive pronouns are oldfaced in the
aove e,amples. #here precisel! does the a
N
-resumptive strateg! appear"
5n what s!ntactic environment do !ou get this construction"
5. BINDING THEORY
5n chapter 8, !ou were as.ed wh! the sentence elow causes a prolem for
the inding theor!. Remind !ourself of !our answer, and then e,plain how
©2002, Andrew Carnie
2!nta,4 Prolem 2ets :
the model of grammar we have proposed in this chapter accounts for this
fact.
#hich pictures of himself does ;ohn despise"
6. ENGLISH
Do derivations for each of the following sentences. (he! ma! involve head-
to-head movement, do-insertion, e,pletive insertion, 9P<DP movement and
wh-movement.
a) *ar sales have surprised the stoc.ro.ers.
) Have !ou seen m! model airplane collection"
c) *an !ou find the lightul store"
d) ;ohn was itten ! an advertising e,ecutive.
e) 5t is li.el! that (ami will leave 9ew =or..
f) (ami is li.el! to leave 9ew =or..
g) 5t seems that 2us! was mugged.
h) 2us! seems to have een mugged.
i) #hat did !ou u! at the supermar.et"
&) 5 as.ed what Beth ought at the supermar.et.
.) #hat is li.el! for Beth to have ought at the supermar.et"
l) #hat is li.el! to have een ought at the supermar.et"
7. SERBO-CROATIAN
0
-Data from Bos&.ovic@ 011> as cited in ?asni. 0111a)
5n this chapter, we have proposed that a wh-phrase appear in the specifier of
*P, to chec. a '#H+ feature. Our account of ounding theor! re7uires that
onl! one wh-phrase appear in the specifier of *P. *onsider the following
data from 2ero-*roatian -also .nown as 2erian or *roatian). $ssume that
2ero-*roatian is 2@O at D-structure.
a) Ao s&ta gd&e .upu&e"
who what where u!s
B#ho u!s what where"C
) %Ao .upu&e s&ta gd&e"
c) %Ao s&ta .upu&e gd&e"
d) %Ao gd&e .upu&e s&ta"
1
'his problem set !as contributed b$ #imin 8arimi.
©2002, Andrew Carnie
2!nta,4 Prolem 2ets D
#hat prolems does this data raise for our anal!sis" *an !ou see a wa!
around these prolems"
8. BINDING AND SCRAMBLING
E
/odern Persian has a .ind of movement often called scrambling. =our tas.
in this prolem set is to figure out whether scramling is 9P movement,
head-to-head movement or wh-movement. (he Persian word hamdiga
means Feach otherG and is an anaphor. $ssume that anaphors are su&ect to
the inding theor! of chapter 8, and that the! must e in argument positions
to e ound. 2entence -a) shows the asic order. 2entences -) and -c)
show the surface word order after scramling has applied. (he scramled
sentences mean almost e,actl! the same thing as -a). H$B stands for
BhaitualC
a) /oGallem-H. fe.r mi-.on-an '*P .e '(G 'vP achche-hHi
teacher-P? thought H$B-do-IP? that child-P?
'@P a.s - H -!e hamdigai<%. - ro e modir neshun dHd-an+++.
picture-P?-3J each other - RK to principal sign gave-IP?
B(he teachers. thin. that the childreni showed 'each otherGs+i<%. pictures to the
principal.C
) /oGallem-H. 'a.s-H-!e hamdigai<%.-ro+m fe.r mi-.on-an '*P .e '(G 'vP
'achche-hHi + '@P tm e modir neshun dHd-an++++.
c) '$.s-H-!e hamdigai<%.-ro+m moGallem-H& fe.r mi-.on-an
'*P .e '(G 'vP achche-hHi '@P tm e modir neshun dHd-an++++.
9. IRISH
I
-(he idea ehind this prolem set is ta.en from /c*los.e! 01>1)
=ou ma! want to do prolem 8 aove efore attempting this 7uestion.
5rish has a numer of different complementi6er forms. 5n declarative clauses
-statements), it uses the complementi6er go/gur. $s discussed in the te,t
aove, when there is a 7uestion, this complementi6er switches to the wh
form a
L
4
a) *eapann tL go huailfidh an pMoaire an t-amhrNn
2
'his problem set !as contributed b$ #imin 8arimi.
3
'his problem set !as suggested b$ an anon$mous Blac!ell re9ie!er.
©2002, Andrew Carnie
2!nta,4 Prolem 2ets >
thin. !ou that pla!.FO( the piper the song
P=ou thin. that the piper will pla! the song.P
) *aidQ a
?
cheapann tL a
?
huailfidh an pMoaire"
#hat #H thin. !ou #H pla!.FO( the piper
P#hat do !ou thin. the piper will pla!"P
9ote carefull! the numer of a
L
complementi6ers in sentence -). -)
provides evidence that wh-phrases stop off in intermediate specifiers of *P
-for su&acenc! reasons). 3,plain wh!. =ou need to ma.e the assumption
that the complementi6er a
L
onl! shows up when a wh-phrase has at one
point shown up in its specifier.
©2002, Andrew Carnie

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