Introduction

:
You are aware that sugar dissolves in water but oil does not. What factors determine whether one
substance will dissolve in another?
A solvent is a substance that is capable of dissolving other substances and forming a homogeneous
mixture called a solution. The substance dissolved is called the solute and is the component present in
the smallest amount.
The dissolving process involves a consideration of the relative strength of three intermolecular attractive
forces. The type of forces between solute-solute molecules and solvent-solvent molecules must be
considered. These intermolecular attractions must be broen before new solute-solvent attractive forces
can become effective. A solute will dissolve in a solvent if the solute-solvent forces of attraction are great
enough to overcome the solute-solute and solvent-solvent forces of attraction. A solute will not dissolve if
the solute-solvent forces of attraction are weaer than individual solute and solvent intermolecular
attractions. !enerally" if all three of the intermolecular forces of attraction are roughly e#ual" the
substances will be soluble in each other.
This means that ionic or polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents" while non-polar solutes dissolve in non-
polar solvents. $olar and ionic solutes %& '&T dissolve in non-polar solvents and vice versa.
(emember that when applying the solubility rule: )*ies %issolve *ies)" that there are no absolutes and
there are exceptions with a small amount of solubility possible. The rule is most useful when maing
comparisons between a series of compounds.
The three intermolecular forces +listed in order of increasing strength, that determine which solute is
soluble in a particular solvent are:
London Dispersion/van der Waal’s Forces are net attractive forces generated by temporary charge
imbalances among molecules. -very molecule has these forces. .ee example below:
Solubility and Polarity
C11-4-5
Dipole-Dipole Forces describe the interaction between molecules with dipole moments +positive and
negative ends of the molecule,. &nly polar molecules exhibit these forces. .ee example below:
ydro!en "onds are special bonds between an atom of hydrogen and either fluorine" oxygen" or nitrogen. .ee
example below:
#$e botto% line& ' solute %ust $ave t$e sa%e set o( (orces to be soluble in a particular solvent)
*e%e%ber+ li,e dissolves li,e-
/n $art A of this experiment you will determine the solubility of a polar solute +glycerol," a non-polar solute
+iodine," and an ionic solute +sodium chloride, in three different solvents: water" ethanol" and hexane.
Water is a highly polar solvent" ethanol is moderately polar and hexane is non-polar. +'ote that when two
li#uids are involved" the terms miscibility and immiscibility are used rather than solubility,
You will then analy0e the data and answer a series of #uestions related to solubility and polarity.
/n $art 1 of this experiment your teacher will have a series of labelled beaers containing a variety of
common solvents. Your teacher will attempt to dissolve sodium chloride +an ionic networ solid," graphite
+a covalent networ solid," and sugar +a molecular solid, in each of these solvents.
$rior to performing this lab" show the following demonstration to students so they can
have a visual of the 2lie dissolves lie3 concept.
Li,e Dissolves Li,e De%onstration .CCl4 and /ater /it$ I0 and 1%n24 added3&
http:44chemed.chem.purdue.edu4demos4main5pages467.8.html
(You may also want to use the links at the end of this document to give students
a better idea of intermolecular forces and VSEPR theory).
Part '& Dissolvin! Polar+ 4on-Polar and Ionic Solutes in #$ree Di((erent Solvents
2b5ective&
9ow does the nature of the solute and the nature of the solvent affect solubility?
6aterials&
: test tubes" : rubber stoppers" test tube rac
8 m* glycerol" iodine" sodium chloride" 67 m* distilled water" 67 m* ethanol" 67 m* hexane
Procedure&
6. $repare a data table that will allow you to record your observations for each solute-solvent
combination. +see below,
Data #able&
Data 'nalysis&
Solvent 7 Solute !lycerol /odine .odium chloride
%istilled Water
-thanol
9exane
;. $lace 7 m* of water in each of three test tubes. Add 6 m* of glycerol to the first test tube" two small
iodine crystals to the second and a few small sodium crystals to the third. +<A=T/&': %o not touch
the iodine crystals>, .topper all three test tubes" shae them vigorously" and allow them to stand for 6
minute. &bserve the contents of each test tube and record your observations.
8. (epeat .tep ; using ethanol instead of water. +/s ethanol polar or non-polar?,
?. (epeat .tep ; using dichloromethane instead of water. +/s dichloromethane polar or non-polar?,
7. (ecord if the solute is insoluble" slightly soluble or very soluble in the particular solvent. +(emember
to use %iscible and i%%iscible to describe t$e solubility o( t/o li8uids,.
6. /n which solvent is glycerol most soluble? /n which solvent is it the least soluble?
;. /n which solvent is sodium chloride most soluble? /n which solvent is it the least soluble?
8. /n general" in what type of solvent +non-polar" moderately polar" or highly polar, are polar solutes
most soluble? -xplain why.
?. /n which solvent is iodine the most soluble? /n which solvent is it the least soluble?
7. When interactions are wea" then the molecules can be easily separated from each other. $redict
whether a non-polar compound or a polar compound is more easily separated into isolated molecules.
-xplain.
994ote t$at all t$e interactions are due to : and - c$ar!es attractin! eac$ ot$er)
@. What is the nature of the attracting charges in ionic compounds?
A. What is the nature of the attracting charges in polar compounds?
B.
;. What is the nature of the attracting charges in non-polar compounds?

:. What is meant by an induced dipole?
+<onsider a sightseeing boat. &n average" the people may be relatively evenly spread out on the
boat. 1ut at any given time" they may be more on the left or the right depending on what there is
to see. -lectrons are lie that in a non-polar compound. &n average" theyCre evenly spread out.
1ut at any given time" or in the presence of a charged4polar molecule" they may be more on one
side than the other. This is an induced dipole.,
:. %raw ; 1r; molecules" and show a moment in time when they have induced dipoles that cause them
to be attracted to each other.
6D. $olar compound interactions are termed dipole-dipole because each already is a polar substance.
%raw ; 9<l molecules and show how they would be arranged when interacting.
66. Water" and some other compounds" have strong dipole-dipole interactions called $ydro!en bonds.
%raw ; 9;& molecules with a hydrogen bond between them.
6;. /ons interact strongly with polar compounds. That is why salts" which are made of ions" can dissolve
in water. %raw a picture that shows how this occurs.
68. Which part of a water molecule is attracted to a cation +positive ion,?
6?. Why wonCt non-polar compounds dissolve in water too? &r why doesnCt salt +'a<l, dissolve in
hexane?
<onsider two groups of people - your friends" and your ac#uaintances. /n the absence of friends" you
interact fine with ac#uaintances" but the attraction isnCt strong. When friends are around" then your
interaction with them is so strong" that it excludes ac#uaintances.
'ow consider two groups of molecules - other water molecules lie yourself" and butanol molecules. /n
the absence of other water molecules" you interact fine with butanol" but the attraction isnCt strong.
When more water is around" then your interaction with that is strong" and so the butanol is excluded.
Thus" it is not so much that non-polar compounds canCt interact with water as much as that the
interaction of water with other water molecules +hydrogen bonds, is much stronger.
67. 'ow explain why 'a<l wonCt dissolve in hexane +a non-polar solvent, using a similar thought
process.
6A. Within each pair of compounds" pic the one more liely to be soluble +mix, with water. -xplain.
a, '98 +polar, and <9? +non-polar,
b, 9<l +polar, and /<l7 +non-polar,
6B. You observe that a substance dissolves in hexane but not in water. What ind of substance do you
thin it is" polar or non-polar? -xplain.
6:. .alt and sand are mixed together as solids. %escribe what happens at the molecular level" when
you add water.
;D.
@. The formula and molecular geometry of water is:
/s water polar? -xplain.
2ptional .De%onstration3&
Part "& D issolvin! Sodiu% C$loride .an ionic net/or, solid3+ ;rap$ite .a
covalent net/or, solid3+ and Su!ar .a %olecular solid3 in a Series o(
Solvents)

<ovalent networ solids" such as diamond are huge extending structures which are held together
by covalent bonds. %o you thin solvent molecules could surround and disorder these substances?
/onic networ solids are composed of charged atoms which also extend into huge structures. Eany
common solvents are partially charged because of their shape and the une#ual sharing of electrons
between different atoms. Water is an example of such polar solvents. The positive end of water can
be attracted to the negative ions in ionic networs. *iewise" the negative end of water can be
attracted to the positive ions. &ne by one" the ions in ionic networ solids can be )pluced) away
and surrounded by polar solvent molecules and dispersed randomly throughout the solution. %o
you thin that ionic networ solids are soluble in non-polar solvents?
Eolecular solids are more difficult to distinguish by solubility because the individual molecules in
these networs can either be polar or non-polar. As a general rule" )lie dissolves lie) meaning that
non-polar molecules dissolve in non-polar solvents and vice versa.
Your teacher will have a series of labelled beaers containing a variety of common solvents. Your
teacher will attempt to dissolve sodium chloride" graphite" and sugar in each of these solvents.
(ecord detailed observations of the results" and write an explanation for each observation given
your nowledge of solubility and solids. You probably donCt now whether sugar +sucrose, is a polar
or non-polar molecular solid. Eae sure you describe how you can tell from the solubility results.
Solvents used in Solubility #ests&
Solvent Polar or 4on-Polar
Water polar
Eethanol polar
Acetone polar
9exane non-polar
Toluene non-polar
1en0ene non-polar

#$e (ollo/in! /ebsites provide additional in(or%ation about inter%olecular (orces and <S=P*
t$eory so t$at students can $ave a better understandin! o( polarity)
Su%%ary&
For a solution to form" the solvent molecules must overcome intermolecular attractions in the solute and
find their way between and around the solute molecules. At the same time" the solvent molecules
themselves must be separated from each other by the molecules of the solute. This is accomplished best
when the attractions between the molecules of both components are similar. /f the attractions are
sufficiently different" the strongly attracted molecules will cling together" excluding the wealy attracted
molecules" and immiscibility will result. &il and water do not mix because the water molecules" strongly
attracted to each other" will not allow the wealy attracted oil molecules between them.
The three intermolecular forces +listed in order of increasing strength, that determine which solute is
soluble in a particular solvent are: *ondon %ispersion4van der WaalGs forces" dipole-dipole forces and
hydrogen bonds.
Inter%olecular Forces&
http:44www.elmhurst.edu4Hchm4vchemboo46@DAintermolec.html
<S=P* 6ovie&
http:44www.lsua.us4chem6DD64vsepr4Web-xport4vsepr4ie74index.html

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