Limiting Design equations AISC

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Limiting Design equations AISC

© All Rights Reserved

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y

= 50 ksi, F

u

= 65 ksi

S-Shapes | ASTM A36, F

y

= 36 ksi, F

u

= 58 ksi

C- and MC-Shapes | ASTM A36, F

y

= 36 ksi, F

u

= 58 ksi

CONDITION ASD LRFD RELATED INFO

Tension

0.6 0.5

y g u e

F A F A 0.9 0.75

y g u e

F A F A

For A

e

, see Equation D3-1.

b p

L L 0.66

y x

F S 0.99

y x

F S

p b r

L L L

Use linear interpolation between L

p

and L

r

.

Strong

Axis

b r

L L 0.42

y x

F S 0.63

y x

F S

Bending

Weak Axis

0.9

y y

F S 1.35

y y

F S

See Note 1.

300

p y y

L r F

L

r

and strengths when L

b

> L

r

are given in the AISC Manual.

Shear (in strong axis)

0.4

y w

F A 0.6

y w

F A

See Note 2.

800

y

Kl r F 0.6 0.658

P

y g

F A 0.9 0.658

P

y g

F A

Compression

800

y

Kl r F

2

150, 000

g

A Kl r

2

226, 000

g

A Kl r

2

286, 000

y

P F Kl r

See Note 3.

Notes:

1. Multiply equations given for L

b

L

p

by value in parentheses for W1490 (0.97), W1265 (0.98), and W615 (0.95).

2. Multiply equations given by 0.9 for W44230, W40149, W36135, W33118, W3090, W2455, W1626, W1214 and all C-

and MC-shapes. In weak axis, equations given can be adapted by using A

w

= 1.8b

f

t

f

.

3. Not applicable to slender shapes. For slender shapes, use QF

y

in place of F

y

, where Q = Q

s

Q

a

from Section E7. For C- and MC-

shapes, also check Section E4.

Basic Design Values 1 Copyright 2011

Based upon simplifying assumptions and arbitrary

limitations. Direct use of the 2010 AISC Specification

may be less constrained and less conservative.

American Institute of Steel Construction

One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700

Chicago, IL 60601

www.aisc.org

Theres always a solution in steel.

HSS | ASTM A500 grade B, Rectangular F

y

= 46 ksi, F

u

= 58 ksi , Round F

y

= 42 ksi, F

u

= 58 ksi

Pipe | ASTM A53 grade B, F

y

= 35 ksi, F

u

= 60 ksi

CONDITION ASD LRFD RELATED INFO

Tension

0.6 0.5

y g u e

F A F A 0.9 0.75

y g u e

F A F A

For A

e

, see Equation D3-1.

Rectangular HSS

0.66

y

F S 0.99

y

F S

See Note 1.

Bending

Round HSS, Pipe

0.78

y

F S 1.17

y

F S

See Note 2.

Rectangular HSS

0.36

y w

F A 0.54

y w

F A

See Note 3.

Shear

Round HSS, Pipe

0.18

y g

F A 0.27

y g

F A

See Note 4.

800

y

Kl r F 0.6 0.658

P

y g

F A 0.9 0.658

P

y g

F A

Compression

800

y

Kl r F

2

150, 000

g

A Kl r

2

226, 000

g

A Kl r

See Note 5.

2

286, 000

y

P F Kl r

Nominal Wall Thickness

Size Limits for

Rectangular HSS, in.*

5

/

8

1

/

2

3

/

8

5

/

16

1

/

4

3

/

16

1

/

8

Flange 18 14 10 9 7 5 3

1

/

2

Bending

Web 20 20 20 18 14 10 7

Shear 20 20 20 18 14 10 7

Compression 20 16 12 10 8 6 4

Notes:

1. Not applicable if limit at right is exceeded (see Section F7).

2. Not applicable if D/t > 2,030/F

y

. (see Section F8).

3. Not applicable if limit at right is exceeded (see Section G5).

4. Not applicable if L

v

/D > 75 (see Section G6).

5. For rectangular HSS, if limit at right is exceeded, use QF

y

in

place of F

y

, where Q = Q

a

from Section E7.2. For round HSS

and pipe with D/t > 3,190/F

y

, use QF

y

in place of F

y

, where Q

= Q

a

from Section E7.2.

*Table only covers up to 64-in. periphery.

Basic Design Values 2 Copyright 2011

Based upon simplifying assumptions and arbitrary

limitations. Direct use of the 2010 AISC Specification

may be less constrained and less conservative.

American Institute of Steel Construction

One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700

Chicago, IL 60601

www.aisc.org

Theres always a solution in steel.

Bolts | ASTM A325 or F1852, F

u

= 120 ksi; ASTM A490 or F2280, F

u

= 150 ksi

Welds | F

EXX

= 70 ksi

Connected Parts Copyright 2011 by AISC

CONDITION ASD LRFD RELATED INFO

Tension

0.38

u b

F A 0.56

u b

F A --

Shear (N bolts, per shear plane)

0.23

u b

F A 0.34

u b

F A Multiply by 1.25 for X bolts.

Slip Resistance (Class A, STD holes)

0.12

u b

F A 0.18

u b

F A Per slip plane. See Note 1. B

o

l

t

s

Bearing

0.6 1.2

u c u b

F l t F d t 0.9 1.8

u c u b

F l t F d t See Note 2.

Shear (all welds except CJP)

0.3

EXX w

F A 0.45

EXX w

F A See Note 3.

Tension 0.32 0.5

EXX w u BM

F A F A 0.48 0.75

EXX w u BM

F A F A See Section J2.1a. PJP

Groove

Welds

Compression (joint not

finished to bear)

0.48 0.6

EXX w y BM

F A F A 0.72 0.9

EXX w y BM

F A F A

See Section J2.1a. W

e

l

d

s

CJP Groove Welds Strength equal to base metal. --

Tension

0.6 0.5

y g u e

F A F A 0.9 0.75

y g u e

F A F A

For A

e

, see Equation D3-1.

Shear

0.4 0.3

y g u n

F A F A 0.6 0.45

y g u n

F A F A

--

Block Shear

0.3 0.5

u nv bs u nt

F A U F A 0.45 0.75

u nv bs u nt

F A U F A See Note 4.

25 Kl r 0.6

y

F A 0.9

y

F A

C

o

n

n

e

c

t

e

d

P

a

r

t

s

Compression

25 Kl r Same as for W-shapes with A

g

= A

--

Notes:

1. For Class B, multiply by 1.67. Multiply by value in parentheses for SSL perpendicular to load direction (1.0), OVS or SSL

holes parallel to load direction (0.85), and LSL holes (0.7). Multiply by 0.85 if multiple fillers are used within grip.

2. For LSL holes perpendicular to load direction, multiply by 0.83.

3. For fillet welds, multiply by 1.5 for transverse loading (90-degree load angle). For other load angles, see Section J2.

4. For calculation purposes, F

u

A

nv

cannot exceed F

y

A

gv

. U

bs

= 1 for a uniform tension stress; 0.5 for non-uniform tension stress.

K=1

Analysis and Design Copyright 2011 by AISC

Simplified Method (see Note 1)

Step 1. Perform first-order analysis. Use 0.2% of total story gravity load as lateral load in gravity-only load combinations.

Step 2. Establish the design story drift limit and determine the lateral load required to produce it.

Step 3. Determine the ratio of the total story gravity load to the lateral load determined in Step 2. For ASD, multiply by 1.6.

Step 4. Multiply first-order results by the tabular value. K=1, except for moment frames when the tabular value is greater than 1.1.

Ratio from Step 3 (times 1.6 for ASD, 1.0 for LRFD) Design Story

Drift Limit 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 120

H/100 1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.5/1.4

H/200 1 1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4/1.3 1.5/1.4

H/300 1 1 1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5/1.4

H/400 1 1 1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4/1.3 1.5/1.4

H/500 1 1 1 1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4/1.3

Elastic Methods

(for plastic design, see Appendix 1)

Effective Length

Forces and

Moments

Limitations Reference

First-order analysis method second-order effects

captured from effects of additional lateral load

K = 1 for all frames

(see Note 2)

From analysis

2nd

/

1st

1.5;

Axial load limited

Appendix

7.3

Effective length method second-order analysis with

0.2% of total story gravity load as lateral load in

gravity-only load combinations (see Note 3)

K = 1, except for

moment frames

with

2nd

/

1st

> 1.1

From analysis

(see Note 3)

2nd

/

1st

1.5

Appendix

7.2

Direct analysis method second-order analysis with

notional lateral load and reduced EI and AE (see Note 3)

K = 1 for all frames

From analysis

(see Note 3)

None Chapter C

Notes:

1. Derived from the effective length method, using the B

1

-B

2

approximation with B

1

taken equal to B

2

.

2. An additional amplification for member curvature effects is required for columns in moment frames.

3. The B

1

-B

2

approximation (Appendix 8) can be used to accomplish a second-order analysis within the limitation that B

2

1.5.

Also, B

1

and B

2

can be taken equal to the multiplier tabulated for the simplified method above.

4.

2nd

/

1st

is the ratio of second-order drift to first-order drift, which is also represented by B

2

.

When ratio exceeds 1.5, simplified

method requires a stiffer structure.

R

m

= 0.85/1.0

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