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K.VIDYADHAR (10J41A0379)

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins
materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by
causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the
work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of
molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a
strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction
with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. This is in
contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting
a lower-melting-point material between the work pieces to
form a bond between them, without melting the work
Parts are joined together by Fusion. Fusion is
brought about by a combination of heat and
pressure between parts being joined. In normal
welding processes very high temperatures and
little or no pressure is used.
Welding conditions
Smooth joint surfaces that match each other
Surfaces clean and free from oxides, grease and dirt.
Metals to be joined have same microstructure
Manual Metal Arc (MMA)
Metal Arc Gas Shielded (MAGS) MIG
Tungsten Arc Gas Shielded (TAGS) TIG
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

Types of Electric Arc Welding
Welding power source
Positive (+) lead is connected
to the torch
Negative (-) lead is connected
to the work piece

Sheilding Gas
Purpose of shielding gas is to
protect the weld area from the
contaminants in the atmosphere
Gas can be Inert, Reactive, or
Mixtures of both
Argon, Helium, and Carbon
Dioxide are the main three gases
used in MAGS
Tungsten Arc Gas Shielded (TAGS) TIG
TIG is similar to MMA in that
heat for welding is produced
by forming an arc between a
metal electrode and the
Used in joining magnesium and
Aluminium, stainless steels etc.

In the TIG process the arc
is formed between a
pointed tungsten
electrode and the work
piece in an inert
atmosphere of argon or
helium. The small intense
arc provided by the
pointed electrode is ideal
for high quality and
precision welding.
The electrode is not consumed during welding. When filler metal
is required, it must be added separately to the weldpool. There
are two currents one for starting the arc the other switched on
using a trigger or foot pedal, this is a high frequency current
to maintain the arc, this is generated by a separte unit.
Superior quality welding
Can be used in mechanised systems
Used to weld aluminium and stainless
Free of spatter
Low distortion
Equipment used in TAGS
Power source
TIG must be operated with a
constant current power source -
either DC or AC
Electrodes for DC welding are normally pure
tungsten. In AC welding, as the electrode will be operating
at a much higher temperature, It should be noted that
because of the large amount of heat generated at the
electrode, it is difficult to maintain a pointed tip and the end
of the electrode assumes a spherical or 'ball' profile.
Sheilding Gas
Argon + Hydrogen
Helium is generally added to increase heat
input (increase welding speed or weld
penetration). Hydrogen will result in cleaner
looking welds and also increase heat input,
however, Hydrogen may promote porosity
or hydrogen cracking.
Shielding gas is selected according to the material being welded.
Filler Rod
Filler rods are used when additional filler metal is
required in the weld area they come in different

Alloy steel
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total
amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical
properties. Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: low-alloy
steels and high-alloy steels..Most commonly, the phrase "alloy steel"
refers to low-alloy steels.
Every steel is truly an alloy, but not all steels are called "alloy steels".
Even the simplest steels are iron (Fe) (about 99%) alloyed
with carbon (C) (about 0.1% to 1%, depending on type). However, the
term "alloy steel" is the standard term referring to steels
with other alloying elements in addition to the carbon. Common
alloyants include manganese (the most common one), nickel,
chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less common
include aluminum,cobalt,copper,cerium,niobium,titanium,tungsten,
tin, zinc, lead, and zirconium.
Alloy steel EN24
EN24 is a high quality, high tensile, alloy steel . Usually supplied
readily machine able in T condition, it combines high tensile
strength, shock resistance, good ductility and resistance to wear.
A nickel chromium molybdenum steel with high strength and
toughness. Used for gears axles and high strength studs. Supplied as
rolled, annealed and hardened and tempered. Supplied as black round
or square bar and bright round or square, and hexagons.
EN24 is available from stock in round bar, flat bar and plate.

EN24 alloy steel properties
EN24 is usually supplied in the finally heat treated condition
(quenched and tempered to "T" properties) up to a limiting ruling
section of 250mm, which is superior to grades 605M36, 708M40 or
709M40 .
EN24 is a very popular grade of through-hardening alloy steel, which
is readily machinable in the "T" condition. (Refer to our machinability
guide). EN24T is most suitable for the manufacture of parts such as
heavy-duty axles and shafts, gears, bolts and studs. EN24T can be
further surface-hardened typically to 58-60 HRC by induction or
nitride processes, producing components with enhanced wear
In addition to the above, EN24T is capable of retaining good impact
values at low temperatures, hence it is frequently specified for harsh
offshore applications such as hydraulic bolt tensioners and ship borne
mechanical handling equipment.

Tensile test

Tensile testing, also known as tension testing, is a
fundamental materials science test in which a sample is
subjected to a controlled tension until failure. The results
from the test are commonly used to select a material for an
application, for quality control, and to predict how a material
will react under other types of forces. Properties that are
directly measured via a tensile test are ultimate tensile
strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area. From
these measurements the following properties can also be
determined: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield strength,
and strain-hardening characteristics. Uniaxial tensile
testing is the most commonly used for obtaining the
mechanical characteristics of isotropic materials.
For anisotropic materials, such as composite
materials and textiles, biaxial tensile testing is required.

Microstructure test using (SEM)
Scanning electronic microscope)
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron
microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a
focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the
sample, producing various signals that can be detected and that contain
information about the sample's surface topography and composition.
The electron beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the
beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an
image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer.
Specimens can be observed in high vacuum, in low vacuum, and (in
environmental SEM) in wet conditions.
The most common mode of detection is by secondary electrons emitted
by atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary
electrons is a function of the angle between the surface and the beam.
On a flat surface, the plume of secondary electrons is mostly contained
by the sample, but on a tilted surface, the plume is partially exposed
and more electrons are emitted. By scanning the sample and detecting
the secondary electrons, an image displaying the tilt of the surface is

Welding of EN24 specimen is done using TIG welding setup and
destructive and non destructive tests are performed to determine the
characteristics of the weldments.