CUSTOMER COMPLAINT & PROCESS REJECTION REDUCTION IN CYLINDER HEAD

BITS ZC423T: Project Work by A.Marimuthu 200618TS246 Project Work work carried out at
HYUNDAI MOTOR INDIA LTD, CHENNAI

Submitted in partial fulfilment of B.S. Engineering Technology / Information Systems degree programme Under the Supervision of

Name and Designation
Mr.V.Murali., Asst.Manager
HYUNDAI MOTOR INDIA LTD, CHENNAI.

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE PILANI (RAJASTHAN) October 2009

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project Work entitled CUSTOMER COMPLAINT AND PROCESS REJECTION REDUCTION IN CYLINDER HEAD

and submitted by

A.MARIMUTHU having ID-No. 200618TS246 for the partial fulfilment of the requirements of B.S. (ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY) degree of BITS, embodies the bonafide work done by him/her under my supervision.

____________________

Signature of the Supervisor

Place : CHENNAI Date:

Name, Designation & Organization & Location

V. MURALI
Asst.manager & HYUNDAI MOTOR INDIA LTD

Plot no : 1, Sicot Industrial park, Sirperumpudur T.K, Kanchipuram DT, PIN CODE-602 105

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BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, PILANI DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAMMES DIVISION

First Semester 2009-2010 Fax No. : 01596- 244183

ID No. NAME OF THE STUDENT EMAIL ADDRESS

: 200618TS246 : A.MARIMUTHU : a_mari_muthu@yahoo.co.in

NAME OF THE SUPERVISOR : V. MURALI PROJECT WORK TITLE
: PROCESS REJECTION REDUCTION IN CYLINDER HEAD

Project Work Final Evaluation (Please put a tick (a ) mark in the appropriate box) S No. 1. 2. Evaluation Component Final Project Work Report Final Seminar and Viva-Voce Excellent Good Fair Poor

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Please ENCIRCLE the Recommended Final Grade: Excellent / Good / Fair / Poor Remarks of the Supervisor:
Supervisor Additional Examiner

Name
Qualification Designation Employing Organization Location Phone Number Mobile Number Email Address Signature Place & Date &

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ABSTRACT

The Project is concerned with the identification of the major contributor for the excess 1. Customer Complaint 2. Process Rejection

of Cylinder Head line and to reduce the same. The analysis has been done based on the data of the past 1 year and various parameters related to the problem have been analysed and solutions taken.

The identified problem has been Defined, the parameters affecting have been measured, key parameters have been analysed and then they have been Improved based on its criticality.

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CONTENTS
Chapter
1. PREAMBLE 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 5 4.1 Introduction Problem on hand Importance of the Problem Scope of the Project Introduction The Organisation Organisation Business Profile Other relevant Information Conclusion Customer Complaint Trend – Cylinder Head Line Production & Rejection Details Cost wise rejection Details Process Rejection Trend – Cylinder Head Line Layout – Kappa Cylinder Head Line Process Flow Diagram Process Capability Study 6 7 10 12 13 15 22 25 25 27 28 29 30 32 33 40

Description

Page No.

DETAILS OF THE ORGANISATION

DEFINE

MEASURE ANALYSE 5.1 5.2 Cause & Effect Diagram 4M Analysis 42 43

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IMPROVE 6.1 6.2 Action taken for Major Causes Improvement Standard Self Inspection Check Sheet Preventive Maintenance Check Sheet 46 47 50 51 52

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CONTROL 7.1 7.2

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CONCLUSION

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CHAPTER 1 : PREAMBLE
1.1. INRODUCTION Six Sigma – What is Six Sigma ? Six Sigma at many organizations simply means a measure of Quality that strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects (driving towards six standard deviations between the mean and the nearest specification limit) in any process – from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service.

The statistical representation of Six Sigma describes quantitatively how a process is performing. To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. A Six Sigma effect is defined anything as outside of customer specifications. A Six Sigma opportunity is then the total quantity of chances for a defect. Process Sigma can be easily calculated using a Six Sigma calculator. The fundamental objective of the Six Sigma methodology is the implementation of a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction through the application of Six Sigma improvement projects. This is accomplished through the use of two Six Sigma sub-methodologies: DMAIC & DMADV. The Six Sigma DMAIC process (Define, measure, analyse, improve, control) is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement. The Six Sigma DMADV process (define, measure, analyse, define, verify) is an important system used to develop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. It can also be employed if a current process requires more than just incremental improvement.

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1.2 PROBLEM ON HAND Cylinder Head Line is one of the Machining Lines in the Engine & Transmission shop of Hyundai Motor India Ltd. It produces Cylinder Haed of various models for the i10 & i20 Engines. It has got 47 Machines which are both of NC & CNC (HMC) types. It is a Mass Production line is this one of the Key part of the Engine. The descriptions of the Cylinder Head have been mentioned below :

1.2.1.KAPPA ENGINE:-

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1.2.2.VIEW OF CYLINDER HEAD:

TOP SIDE VIEW FRONT SIDE VIEW REAR SIDE VIEW

IMPROVEMENT AREA BOTTOM SIDE VIEW BOTTOM SIDE VIEW

1.2.3.CUSTOMER COMPLAINT: 1. Engine Cooling Water Leak From Plugged Hole. 2. More consumption of cooling water. 3. Engine Temperature High.

AFTER PLUGGING

That all parts mentioned above have been Rejected As a Process Rejection.

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1.2.4.SEALANT APPLY MISS IN PLUG HOLE: This Project deals with the reduction of the Process Rejection in Cylinder Head Line, and in specific with the Sealant Apply Miss in plug hole. The term sealant refers to the Locking solution for avoid the liquid leakage on plugged hole operation..

SEALANT MISS (NOT OK)

SEALANT APPLIED (OK)

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1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM

1.3.1. Pareto chart – Customer Complaint

16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00
WATER LEAK HEATER PIPE NOT CAM SHAFT HLA - NOT ENTRY LOOSE BURR ON FRT CAM CAP ENTRY TIGHT ROTATION (TIGHT) CAM BORE AREA TIGHT FOR FROM PLUGGED REM OVEL HOLE V/SEAT RUST

91 14 71 11 10 10 44 35 25 14 9 53 62 9 85 78

95

100

100.00 80.00 60.00

8

8

7 6 5 4

40.00 20.00 0.00

DELIVARY PIPE OTHER / OLD PR V/GUIDE RUST CAM BORE LINE EXTRA M ARK M ATERIAL ON OIL M TG AREA DAM AGE HOLE AREA

Defect%

Over all %

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1.3.2. Pareto chart – Defect wise From the above Graph :

35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00

33 75 63 58 48 15 33 10 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 67 71 78 81 84 87

90

93 95 98 100

100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00

3

3

3

3
Top face unwash

2
Drill dia O/ s

2

0.00
HLA bore Sealant M iss in Plug Line M ark Hole M illing Face Cam BoreTool Tool mark M ark Dowel Broken Dat um spec Bot Dist ng Fr & Rr face Bore Pos NG Damage NG Crack & Damage v/ seat area Thread NG Drill broken damage Old PR

Defect%

Over all %

Major contributed rejections are: (Period: Jan’08 ~ Nov’08) Sealant miss in plug hole – 31.22% Leak from v/Guide – 13.72% Cam bore line mark – 9.35% Handling Damage – 5.25%

1.3.3.Approximate Cost Analysis: Total Cost of Rejection due to these issues – Rs. 31.140 Lac’s

Cost of Rejection / Month – Rs.2.595 lacs

Cost of Rejection / Year – Rs.31.140lacs

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1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT Scope of the this project is to reduce the Customer Complaint and Process Rejection percentage in Cylinder Head machining line by taking proper corrective action against major problem. SIG SIGMA concept is taken as a base to reduce the Customer Complaint and Process Rejection. 1. DEFINE 2. MEASURE 3. ANALYSE 4. IMPROVE 5. CONTROL 1.4.1. EXPECTED BENEFITS : 1. CUSOMER COMPLAINT WILL REDUCE 2. PRODUCTIVITY INCREASE 3. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 4. ON TIME DELIVERY 5. MOTIVATION 6. EFFECTIVE UTILISATION OF RESOURCES 7. OVERALL EFFICIENCY WILL INCREASE 8. COST SAVING 9. REDUCTION OF MANUFACTURING COST/TIME.

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CHAPTER 2 : DETAILS OF THE ORGANISATION
2.1. INRODUCTION Hyundai Motor India Limited (HMIL) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hyundai Motor Company, South Korea and is the second largest and the fastest growing car manufacturer in India. HMIL presently markets 18 variants of passenger cars in six segments. The Santro, i10, i20 in the B segment, Getz in the B+ segment, the Accent and Verna in the C segment, the Elantra in the D segment, the Sonata Embera in the E segment and the Tucson in the SUV segment. Hyundai Motor India, continuing its tradition of being the fastest growing passenger car manufacturer, registered total sales of 500,000 vehicles in calendar year (CY) 2008, an increase of 18.5 percent over CY 2007. In the domestic market it clocked a growth of 18.5 percent a compared to 2007, with 186,174 units, while overseas sales grew by 17.4 percent, with exports of 13,339 units . HMIL’s fully integrated state-of-the-art manufacturing plant near Chennai boasts some of the most advanced production, quality and testing capabilities in the country. In continuation of its investment in providing the Indian customer global technology, HMIL is setting up its second plant, which will produce an additional 300,000 units per annum, raising HMIL’s total production capacity to 102,000 units per annum by end of 2009. HMIL is investing to expand capacity in line with its positioning as HMC’s global export hub for compact cars. Apart from expansion of production capacity, HMIL plans to expand its dealer network, which will be increased from 183 to 250 this year. And with the company’s greater focus on the quality of its after-sales service, HMIL’s service network will be expanded to around 1000 in 2010.

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The year 2008 has been a significant year for Hyundai Motor India. It achieved a significant milestone by rolling out the fastest 300,000th export car. Hyundai exports to over 95 countries globally; even as it plans to continue its thrust in existing export markets, it is gearing up to step up its foray into new markets. The year just ended also saw Hyundai Motor India attain other milestones such as the launch of the i10 & i20 and yet another path-breaking record in its young journey by rolling out the fastest 20,00,000th car . The Hyundai Verna has bagged some of the most prestigious awards starting with the Overdrive ‘Car Of the Year 2007’, CNBC-TV 18 Autocar ‘Best Value For Money Car 2007’ and ‘Performance Car of the Year 2007’ from Business standard monitoring.

This year i10 won the ‘Executive Car of The Year 2008’ award from Business Standard Motoring Magazine and NDTV Profit – Car & Bike HMIL has also been awarded the benchmark ISO 14001 certification for its sustainable environment management practices. Hyundai's 7th manufacturing unit outside the parent country is also the group's largest overseas production base. Even as the project was being conceptualized, Hyundai Motors India Ltd.(HMIL) was always going to play an important role in Hyundai Motors Company's international operations. That the company is fully owned by the parent group and the integrated unit at Sriperambudur can today roll out cars with almost 85% localized content, bears testimony that the Indian operations have been put down to play an important role in Hyundai's goal for the 21st century - to be joint the ranks of the GT-10 (Group 10) Companies.

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2.2. THE ORGANISATION 2.2.1. PRODUCTS SMALL SEGMENT EPSILON ENGINE : G4HC The G4HC displaces 1.0 L (999 cc) with a larger 66 mm bore and 73 mm stroke. Power is 58 hp (43 kW) at 5700 rpm, but torque is up substantially to 81 ft·lbf (110 N·m) at 3000 rpm. G4HG The G4HG is a 1.1 L (1086 cc) version with a 67 mm bore and 77 mm stroke. Output is 64 hp (48 kW) at 5500 rpm and 9.6 kgf·m (94 N·m) at 3000 rpm. MIDDLE SEGMENT - ALPHA ENGINE : 1.3 L GETZ The G4EH is a 1.3 L engine. Output was 71 hp (53 kW) at 5500 rpm and 81 ft·lbf (110 N·m) at 3000 rpm for the carbureted 1.3 CON version and 83 hp (62 kW) at 5500 rpm and 86 ft·lbf (117 N·m) at 3000 rpm for the SOHC 1.3 S. 1.5 L ACCENT The G4EK is a 1.5 L engine. The SOHC 1.5 S generated a respectable but not notable 92 hp (69 kW) at 5500 rpm and 97 ft·lbf (132 N·m) at 4000 rpm, although some websites quote the torque rating as being 97 ft·lbf (132 N·m) at 2700 rpm. European version makes 90 HP (66 kW) at 5500 RPM and 129 (or 132) Nm at 2900 (or 3000) RPM (try it and you'll see it's true). DOHC on the Alpha II pushed output to 101 hp (75 kW) at 5800 RPM and 98 ft·lbf (133 N·m) at 3000 rpm. The turbocharged Alpha, also introduced in 1993, produced 115 hp (86 kW) at 5500 rpm and 123 ft·lbf (167 N·m) at 4500 rpm.

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1.6 L ACCENT VIVA The alpha family continued at least through 2005 in Hyundai's Accent economy car. The G4ED Alpha II was enlarged to 1.6 L (1599 cc) thanks to a 76.5 mm bore and 87 mm stroke. A 10:1 compression ratio produced 104 hp (78 kW) at 5800 rpm with 106 ft·lbf (144 N·m) of torque at 3000 rpm. The Alpha II has a cast iron engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads with 4 valves per cylinder. It uses MFI fuel injection and features forged steel connecting rods. The Alpha engine family is produced in Ulsan, South Korea. CVVT Alpha II was introduced in the 2006 Accent. Power output also increased to 112 PS and 108 lb/ft torque. It has COP(Coil-On-Plug) ignition, graphite-coated pistons and new cylinder block design to increase strength. Throttle body bore has increased from 48 to 52 mm. Engine and automatic transmission control is now integrated into one module and the PCM is located in the engine compartment. It is ULEV-certified in all 50 states.

2.0 L SONATA The G4GF (also called the 2.0 D) is the 2.0L (1975cc) version. It shares the larger 82mm bore of the 1.8 but is stroked to 93.5 mm. It has a cast iron engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. It uses MFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder and features forged steel connecting rods. Output is 140 hp (104 kW) at 6000 rpm and 133 foot pounds of torque (180 N·m) at 4800 rpm.

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Beta II ELANTRA During 2001-2002, the new Beta II engine made its debut in models such as the XD Elantra and GK Tiburon. Output is 138 hp (102 kW) at 6000 RPM with 136 foot pounds of torque (184 N·m) at 4500 RPM. It has a cast iron engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. The latest version of the 2.0L Beta engine (G4GC) features CVVT, which only in intake side, a first for Hyundai/Kia. The following changes were noted.

• •

• • • • •

• •

• • •

Redesigned block with external contouring of cylinder bores (ilo flat sides), extra ribbing & one extra transaxle fixing point (now 5)(less NVH) Crankshaft now has 8 counterweights ilo 4.(NVH) Cast & ribbed aluminium sump pan (ilo pressed steel sheet) with stronger joint to transaxle (NVH) 20mm longer intake rams, 8% smaller surge tank, resonator added, spark timing & valve lift optimized, lighter valve springs, denser conrod bearings, returnless fuel system (ilo return type) with higher fuel pressure & smaller injectors (torque spread & econ) Cylinder head machined to more precise tolerances Head gasket now 2-layer (ilo 3) Idle speed reduced to 700 rpm from 800 rpm (NVH) Hydraulic engine mounts (4) ilo rubber (NVH) Heat shield installed between engine & air filter, reducing heating of induction air (+2% output). New camcover with I-piece high-specific gravity polypropylene baffle (ilo 2piece pp) Oil flow reduced (econ) Mechanical valve lash adjusters (solid lifters) replace hydraulic, improving valve clearance precision (durability). Lower valve spring load reduces valve train friction (perf). Engine cover installed (NVH & dress up engine bay) Catalytic converter now upstream adjoining exhaust manifold (ilo under car) (emissions) Other detail changes to: alternator, intake manifold brace, power steering & a/c pulleys, idle speed actuator, oil filler cap & drive plate between engine & torque converter

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2.2.2.PROCESSES:

The Press Shop A computer controlled line that converts sheet metal to body panels of high dimensional accuracy and consistency. Process : Blanking, Shearing & Stamping The Body Shop A hi-tech line that builds full body shells from panels. Automated robotic arms are used for intricate welding operations that ensure superior and consistent build quality. Process : Spot Welding, Projection Welding & Co2 Welding The Paint Shop This is one of the most modern paint shops in the country and uses the environment friendly water based process for superior and lasting exteriors. A unique process management system followed here helps us deliver the most extensive colour range, independent of minimum batch requirements, helping customers get their preferred colour anytime. Process: Pre-Coating, Phosphate & ED Painting The Aluminium Foundry Forges the engine cylinder blocks for our cars to exacting design specifications. Process : Cylinder Head Casting The Engine and Transmission Shop One of the biggest engine shops in the country, this unit is equipped with the most modern tooling and testing facilities to make a wide range of engines inhouse. Process : Machining, Heat Treatment & Eng & TM Assembly Vehicle Assembly Shop One of the biggest Vehicle shops in the country, this unit is equipped with the most modern facilities to make a wide range of Vehicles Process : Assembly & Testing of Vehicles

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The Plastic Extrusion Unit Moulds the dashes, bumpers and other plastic components to perfect fit and finish. Process : Moulding & Sub Assembly The Plastic Paint Shop One of the very few manufacturing units in India to have this facility in-house, Hyundai's plastic paint shop delivers a high grade finish on exterior plastic components. Process : Spray Painting of Bumpers. Heat Treatment One of the very few Heat Treatment units in India to have this facility in-house, Hyundai’s Heat treatment division is to get hardened parts for Transmission assy Like Shafts, Speed gears Process : Carburising , Quenching , Shot Blasting

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2.2.3. FACILITIES The Test Track With comprehensive performance testing facilities like rattle testing and ABS brake testing, this track is designed to meet pre-delivery (PDI) certification standards to exacting Euro specifications. R&D Hyundai and Kia together have R&D centres in the United States, Europe, Japan apart from the global R&D headquarters at Ulsan, Korea. The Hyundai Motor Group has recently dedicated an annual R&D spend of close to US$ 2 Billion, up from US$ 1.2 Billion to enhance its thrust on new product development and achieve global quality benchmarks by year 2005. This includes the $30 Mn Hyundai-Kia Design and Technical Center in Irvive, California. The R&D team focuses on the development of new products and technologies that include interior and exterior design changes, development of new generation engines and alternate fuel systems, concept vehicles and advanced passenger safety and comfort systems, in line with evolving customer preferences across the globe. Recent successes of the team include the development of the Hyundai patented Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi) engine in association with Detroit Diesel and the award winning Fuel Cell Santa FE. Some of the ongoing projects that the Hyundai R&D team is involved in include the development of the 'World Engine' in association with Daimler Chrysler and Mitsubishi and the development of Automotive Telematics in association with IBM. That the efforts of the Hyundai R&D team has paid great dividends to the company is evident from the fact that the company's newly engineered products like the Santa Fe and the Getz have made waves in the global automotive markets and the 'US Consumer Reports' magazine has ranked Hyundai cars in level with that of Honda in its recent quality rankings

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2.2.4. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

Managing Director

Executive Director

Executive Director

Executiv Director

Plant Head

Group Head Press & Body Dept Heads

Group Head Paint shop Dept Heads

Group Head Veh Assy Dept Heads

Group Head Eng & TM Dept Heads

Section Heads

Section Heads

Section Heads

Section Heads

Asst.Manager

Asst.Manager

Asst.Manager

Asst.Manager

Sr. Engineers / Tech Associates

Sr. Engineers / Tech Associates

Sr. Engineers / Tech Associates

Sr. Engineers / Tech Associates

Technicians & Apprentices

Technicians & Apprentices

Technicians & Apprentices

Technicians & Apprentices

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2.3.ORAGANISATIONAL BUSINESS PROFILE

The Hyundai India plant located in Irungattukottai, 30 kilometres from Chennai was built in record time. The plant is first self-sufficient manufacturing unit in India to be independently invested by an overseas automobile company. Incorporated in May 1996, the groundbreaking ceremony for the Chennai plant was held in December in the same year, and the first pilot Santro was ready in a record-breaking 17 months. The plant which stands on a 500+acre plot has been built with an initial investment of more than Rs. 2500 crores. It has a capacity to make 120,000 cars and 130,000 engine transmission units per annum and is the largest overseas investment made by the Korean Company. HMIL commenced operations with 70%-localized content, which is one of the highest amongst all car manufacturers. The entire powertrain and the body panels are made in-house and the integrated manufacturing setup at the Hyundai Motors Chennai plants consists of: Hitachi Zosen 2500 ton presses for the body panels State-of-the-art Paint shop Final assembly line Engine and transmission lines Aluminium foundry Plastic extrusion unit In-house R&D Centre Hyundai has brought in 14 Korean companies and helped them setup base in India for sourcing components. The total vendor base consists of 60 companies located at the plant site itself. HMIL aims to increase localized content to over 90% in the millennium.

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The Present Although the HMIL is said to have initially planned to launch their Indian operation with a car for the mid-sized segment, the company changed policies and introduced the Santro for the small car market. A decision which in hindsight, seems to have paid handsome dividends. A formal study was commissioned by Hyundai prior to the launch of the Santro, to gauge the - as Mr. Leeham, Director Marketing & Sales says-so-stated" needs of the Indian small car buyer. Several factors right from the design of the car, the cooling of the AC, and the dealer network have been on the basis of the study so as to present to the people the kind of car that they want and need. The Santro has been designed by in-house Hyundai expertise. Modeled on the Hyundai Atos, the Mercedes A140 and Suzuki's Wagon R, and then customized to Indian tastes, the Santro takes the best of all the cars viz. the driveability of the Atos, the safety & design of the Mercedes A140, and roominess of the Wagon R. The Santro (which is available in three variants - the L2, GLS1 and GLS2) was launched in September 1998, and the company has targeted a production of 60,000 Santros per year. With sales of 30,000 vehicles in the last eight months HMIL seems to be fairly on target. The monthly sales of the Santro (from October 98 to August '99 are given below) Month Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Units 1123 3444 3881 2753 2157 4290 3531 4519 4634 Month July August Hyundai Santro has captured 30%of the market share in the small car segment and 10% in the overall auto industy Units 4,949 7002 The cumulative sales of the Hyundai Santro( Oct '98-Aug '99) are 42,283 units.

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The Future Hyundai Motors India Ltd. plans to build a world-class facility, which will offer quality products and services to the discerning consumer. It plans to enforce the " global optimum production system", setting its goal to achieve the utmost result with the lowest running cost. The Indian operations will play an important role for Hyundai to develop and expand their presence in the neighboring South East Asian countries and plans to export the Santro as SKDs (semi-knockdown kits) and CBUs (completely built units) to the neighboring countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. In fact the Santro has been launched in its parent country under a new name the Visto The body panels and the engine as well as the transmission components are entirely imported from India, and the Visto is being assembled by HMC at their Ulsan Plant. By doing so HMIL has created a record of sorts. As Mr. BVR Subbu, managing director of HMIL says "This is first time in the history of the Indian passenger car industry that an international product has first made its debut in the Indian market and then taken from its shores to parent company's domestic market" The company also has plans to introduce several new models in the Indian market, and the pre-production and road tests of its next car are already being conducted. Code-named the LC-I, HMIL plans to introduce a mid-sized (1400 - 1800 cc) car in October 1999. Although similar to the Hyundai Accent which already sells in Korea, the LC-1 (like its predecessor the Santro) has been specially designed for the Indian market at the Hyundai Design Centre at Namyong, Korea. The company also plans to launch at a later date a multi-utility vehicle in the Indian market. By the year 2008 HMIL will employ around 3000 workers operating in multiple shifts.

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2.4. OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION PARENT COMPANY ( HMC, KOREA ) Established in 1967, Hyundai Motor Co. has grown into the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group which includes Hyundai Mobis and over two dozen autorelated subsidiaries and affiliates. Employing over 68,000 people worldwide, Hyundai Motor posted US$27.383 billion in sales in 2005 (on a non-consolidated basis). Hyundai motor vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5000 dealerships and showrooms. Hyundai Motor Co. is a sponsor of the 2006 FIFA Germany World Cup. Further information about Hyundai Motor Co. and its products is available

2.5. CONCLUSION Hyundai today enjoys a market share of around 20% and is looking at the doubling that figure. Given the Indian market's response to the Santro & i10, the company seems to be well on course.... Best customer service Best technology Fully Automated Engine shop. Best quality products

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CHAPTER 3: DEFINE

Define the Goals of the Improvement Activity. At the Project level goals might be to reduce the defect level and increase throughput. Apply data mining methods to identify potential improvement opportunities.
Problem Definition In this project the Cylinder Head line has been taken for study due to its high rejection trend in the last 1 year. The top three problems related to the rejection will be summarised and one problem will be solved using the DMAIC concept. The following tabulations show the rejection trend of each component; the cost wise rejection details and an exhaustive rejection trend of Cylinder Head line The Process flow diagram for the Cylinder Head machining line has also been given below to know the overall Production sequence and the product characteristics varying due to the incoming sources of variation. The diagram also shows the Process characteristics for each and every stage of production.

The Cause and Effect diagram for the Cylinder Head – Sealant Miss has also been given below. The sources of variation due to Man. Machine, Material and Method has been depicted.

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3.1.CUSTOMER COMPLAINT DETAILS

16.00

91 14 71 11 85 78

95

100

100.00 80.00 60.00

D E F E C T S i n %

14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00

10

10 44

9 53

62 9

8

8

7 6 5 4

35 25 14

40.00 20.00 0.00

WATER LEAK HEATER PIPE NOT CAM SHAFT HLA - NOT ENTRY LOOSE BURR ON FRT CAM CAP ENTRY TIGHT ROTATION (TIGHT) CAM BORE AREA TIGHT FOR FROM PLUGGED REM OVEL HOLE

V/SEAT RUST

DELIVARY PIPE OTHER / OLD PR V/GUIDE RUST CAM BORE LINE EXTRA M ARK M ATERIAL ON OIL M TG AREA DAM AGE HOLE AREA

Defect%

Over all %

Water Leak Is contributes 14% in overall Customer Complaint
CUSTOMER COMPLAINT DUE TO SEALANT MISS DUE TO SEALANT MISS IN TERM OF PPM FOR THE PERIOD OF JUL’08 – MAY’09 = 745.88ppm

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3.2.PRODUCTION & REJECTION DETAILS

PRODUCTION QTY. PART DESCRIPTION
JUL’08~ JUL’09

TOTAL PRODUCTION 227765 177184 173498 186386 156433 860266 % REJ. BASED ON OVERALL REJ. 24.28% 13.34% 34.24% 5.16% 22.98% 100.00%

TOTAL REJECTION QTY. 7230 3689 9272 1502 5610 23

AUG '09

SEP'09 9094 8100 11780 18732 7468 55174

CYLINDER HEAD CYLINDER BLOCK CRANK SHAFT CAM SHAFT CON. ROD TOTAL

210611 161117 151961 150650 142418 816757

8060 7967 9757 17004 6547 49335

COST OF REJECTION (Rs.)
RAW MTL. COST

% REJ. BASED ON PROD. 3.79% 2.08% 5.34% 0.81% 3.59% 15.61%

PROCESS COST 603 846 610 123 332 2514

UNIT COST 2111 1800 1055 283 768 6017

TOTAL COST 13341520 6640200 9781960 425066 4308480 34497226

CUML. %

PPM

1508 954 445 160 436
3503

24.28% 37.62% 71.86% 77.02% 100.00%

37898 20820 53442 8059 35862 156080

1200000 949950

1102475 86.4% 81.9% 813600

100.0%

100% 90% 80% 70% 60%

REJ. COST (RS.)

900000

% REJ. CUML.

600000

50.4% 476160

50% 40%

300000

27.2% 156216

30% 20% 10%

0 CYL. HEAD CYL. BLOCK CRANK SFT. CAM SFT. CON. ROD

0%

COMPONENT NAME

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3.3.COSTWISE REJECTION DETAILS

COST OF POOR TOTAL PART DESCRIPTION REJECTION QTY. TOTAL UNIT COST COST 1512215 CYLINDER HEAD CYLINDER BLOCK CRANK SHAFT CAM SHAFT CON. ROD TOTAL 6821 2217 7 2514 7858 1433 5909 24535 1833 1326 8 283 996 6655 0 405539 5885364 3644093 100.00% 1.11% 16.15% 4608162 1041970 28.59% 82.74% 83.85% 100.00% 12.65% 41.50% 41.50% QUALITY % OF TOTAL COST
CUML. %

54.14%

3.3. COSTWISE REJECTION DETAILS

Cost
16000000 15122157 10419708

Cost in Lacs

5885364 6000000 4608162 405539

-4000000 CYLINDER HEAD Cost 15122157 CYLINDER BLOCK 4608162 CRANK SHAFT 10419708 CAM SHAFT 405539 CON. ROD 5885364

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3.4. PROCESS REJECTION TREND – CYLINDER HEAD LINE

35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00

33 75 63 58 48 15 33 10 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 67 71 78 81 84 87

90

93 95 98 100

100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00

3

3
THREAD DAM AGE

3
DRILL BROKEN

3
TOP FACE UNWASH

2
DRILL DIA O/S

2

0.00
HLA BORE CAM BORE M ILLING SEALANT M ISS IN PLUG LINE M ARK TOOL M ARK FACE TOOL M ARK HOLE DOWEL BROKEN DATUM SPEC NG BORE CRAKE & BOT DIST NG FRT & REAR POSITION NG DAM AGE FACE DAM AGE V/SEAT AREA DAM AGE OTHERS

Defect%

Over all %

From the above Graph: Major Top 3 contributed rejections are: (Period: Jul’08 ~ May’09) Sealant Miss in Plug Hole – 33.22 % HLA Bore Line Mark – 13.72 % Cam Bore Tool Mark – 9.35 %

30

Approximate Cost Analysis of Top 3 Major Problems : Total Cost of Rejection due to these issues / Qtr – Rs.23.37 Lac’s

Cost of Rejection / Month – Rs.7.8 lac’s

Cost of Rejection / Year – Rs. 93.48 lac’s

Hence, I am going to analyse the Major contribution of Sealant Miss in Plug Hole Problem in Cylinder Head
Approximate Cost Analysis for Sealant Miss Problem:Total Cost of Rejection due to Sealant Missing / Qtr – Rs. 21.5 Lac’s

Cost of Rejection / Month – Rs.4.48 lac’s
Cost of Rejection / Year– Rs. 53.8 lacs

31

3.4.1.CYLINDER HEAD LINE – LAYOUT

LAY OUT – KAPPA CYLINDER

HEAD LINE

IE GB20 -170

MAIN GANG WAY

32

3.4.2. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

33

34

35

36

WHAT IS MEAN BY SEALANT?
SEALANT IS NOTHING BUT ONE TYPE OF LOC TITE.IT WILL BE USED FOR BLOCK THE SMALL HOLES. SPECIFICATION:TYPE COLOUR : LOC TITE 962 : RED

CONTINER CAPACITY : 1LITRE

WHAT IS MEAN BY PLUG?
PLUG IS NOTHING BUT ONE OF THE METAL CAP THAT PRODUCED BY PRESSING OPERATION.THIS OUTER DIA METER WILL BE VARIED DEPEND UPON APPLICATION.
TOP SIDE VIEW BOTTOM SIDE VIEW

PRESSING DIRECTION

Dia28mm Dia32 mm

SIDE VIEW

37

IE GB20 – 170 M/C PROCESS DETAILS: 1.PART INPUT

CYLINDER HEAD MOVING ON CONVEYOR

2.SEALANT APPLY IN PLUG HOLE

CYL.HEAD

ROBOT

SEALANT APPLY BY ROBOT

CYL.HEAD AFTER APPLY THE SEALANT

3.PLUG PRESS BY HYD.PRESS

HYD.PRESS

PLUG PRESSING BY HYD PRESS

CYLINDER AFTER PLUG PRESS

38

CHAPTER 4: MEASURE

Measure the existing system. Establish valid and reliable metrics to help monitor progress towards the goal(s) defined at the previous step. Begin by determining the current baseline. Use exploratory and descriptive data analysis to help you understand the data.
Critical Process affecting the Sealant Apply Miss:Incoming Source of Variation

Critical to Process characteristics

Machine Maintenance Frequency

Sealant change frequency & Setting

Critical Tools

Other Product Quality affecting Parameters

Process & Machine Capability

39

4.1. INCOMING SOURCE OF VARIATION:

40

CHAPTER 5 : ANALYSE

Analyse the System to identify ways to eliminate the gap between the current performance of the system or process and the desired goal. Apply statistical tools to guide the Analysis.
The various statistical tools that can be implemented for analysing the problems are shown below:

a. Sources of variation b. Hypothesis testing c. Root cause analysis d. Process mapping e. Graphical techniques f. Correlation techniques and g. Multi variable charts

Of the above mentioned tools the Scatter diagram method of analysis has been taken up in the study.

41

5.1.CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM - I

1. a.Cause & Effect Diagram

1.b. 5 Why Analysis : 1. Datum Position shift in Cylinder block, 2. Shift due to un-even clamping / butting of the component 3. Raw material distance variation, 4. Raw Material Casting variation. 5. Casting variation due different supplier.

2. Effect of Knock hole Drilling Posn. On Reaming Posn. (#40) :

42

5.2. 4M ANALYSIS FOR SEALANT MISS

43

5.3.CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM - II

44

CHAPTER 6: IMPROVE

Improve the system. Be creative in finding new ways to do things better, cheaper or faster. Use Project management and other planning and management tools to implement the new approach. Use statistical methods to validate the improvement.
The tools which are being used here are: a. Design of experiments b. Simulation c. Optimization d. Change management e. Strategy of experimentation

The various problems analysed have been given solutions based on the requirements. The improvements have been taken in the following categories:

a. Man b. Machine c. Material d. Method

45

6.1 ACTION FOR MAJOR CAUSES We have found the following root causes for the Sealant Missing. From 4M analysis. 6.1.1. Incoming air pressure drop for Sealant Supply Unit. 6.1.2. No Inspection 6.1.3. No Detect / Preventive Mechanism (Mistake Proof) 6.1.4. No Control System for Hourly Inspection.

Root cause: Incoming air pressure drop for Sealant Supply Unit. Action Taken:
ALARM MASSAGE HAVE BEEN CREATED IN M/C PLC.WHENEVER THE AIR PRESSURE DROP MASSAGE WILL DISPLAY AS “AIR PRESSURE DROP “. AS WEL AS M/C PROCESS WILL NOT START.

Root cause: No Inspection after Sealant applies. Action Taken:
AWARNESS TRAINING HAVE BEEN GIVEN TO STAGE OPERATOR TO CHECK THE SEALANT CONDITION VISULLY IN ALL CYLINDER HEAD. ONE MANPOWER DIPLOYED FOR 100% INSPECTION.

Root cause: No Detect / Preventive Mechanism (Mistake Proof) Action Taken:
AUTOMATIC SEALANT CHECKS SENSOR HAS BEEN PROVIDED.TO CHECK SEALAT CONDITION 100%.AS WELL AS TO ELIMINATE ONE MAN POWER WHO IS DOING INSPECTION MANUALLY.

Root cause: No Control System for Hourly Inspection. Action Taken:
HOURLY INSPECTION CHECK SHEET HAVE BEEN PROVIDED TO ENSURE THE HOURLY INSPECTION STATUS BY STAGE OPERATOR.

46

6.2 IMPROVEMENT STANDARD

6.2.1. IMPROVEMENT SHEET -I

47

6.2.2. IMPROVEMENT SHEET – II

48

CHAPTER 7: CONTROL

Control the New system. Institutionalize the improved system by modifying compensation and sincentive systems, policies, procedures, MRP Budgets, Operating Instructions and other management Systems. You may wish to utilize systems such as ISO 9000 to assure that documentation is correct.
The tools which are being used here are:

a. Self Inspection Check Sheet. b. Preventive Maintenance Sheet Updated For Detection Mechanism. c. POKA YOKE / Mistake proofing d. Gauge control plan and e. Other Control plans

49

7.1 SELF INSPECTION CHECK SHEET

50

7.2. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECK SHEET

51

CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION
The DMAIC concepts has been used in the Cylinder Head machining line for reducing the Customer Complaint & Process Rejection due to Sealant Missing in Plug Hole. Problem has been targeted and solutions taken. The Improvements are and the analysis done during the Project. The Control Plan has been formulated so as to avoid based on the study the Customer Complaint and Process Rejection due to Sealant Missing in Plug Hole.

The details of the Customer Trend and PR Trend have been given below which shows for itself the reduction in the PR due to Sealant Missing in Plug Hole.

CUSTOMER COMPLAINT TREND - WATER LEAK
160

144
140 120

Action taken

QTY IN N OS

100 80 60 40 20 0 JUL'08 MAY09 JUN'09 JUL'09 AUG'09 SEP'09

zero
12 14 21 24 0
OCT'09

0
NOV'09

MONTH

52

PROCESS REJECTION TREND AFTER IMPROVEMENT:

PROCESS REJECTION TREND - SEALANT MISS
1200

1095
1000

QTY IN NOS

800

600

zero
65 32
JUL'09

400

200

34
AUG'09

45
SEP'09

12
OCT'09

0
NOV'09

0 JUL'08 MAY09 JUN'09

MONTH

53

BIBLIOGRAPHY
SUNG .H. PARK, Six Sigma for Quality and Productivity, Asian Productivity organization - Japan, Second Edition 2003.

AMITVA, Fundamental of Quality Control Improvement, Mitra Publishers, Second Edition 2001.

EVERALD .E. ADAM, Production and Operation Management, Ronald Publication, Fifth Edition 2001.

www.isixsigma.com

www.whatis.techtarget.com

www.qualitydigest.com

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Checklist of items for the Final Project Work Report
Is the report properly hard bound? Spiral bound, soft bound reports are not acceptable. Is the Cover page in proper format as given in Annexure A? Is the Title page (Inner cover page) in proper format? (a) Is the Certificate from the Supervisor in proper format? (b) Has it been signed by the Supervisor? Is the Abstract included in the report properly written within one page? Have the 5. keywords been specified properly? Is the title of your report appropriate? The title should be adequately descriptive, precise 6. and must reflect scope of the actual work done. Have you included the List of abbreviations / Acronyms? Uncommon abbreviations / Acronyms should not be used in the title. Does the Report contain a summary of the literature survey? Yes / No Does the Table of Contents include page numbers? iAre the Pages numbered properly? Are the Figures numbered properly? (Figure Numbers and Figure Titles at the bottom of 9. the figures) Are the Tables numbered properly? (Table Numbers and Table Titles at the top of the tables) Are the Captions for the Figures and Tables proper? Are the Appendices numbered properly? 10. Is the conclusion of the Report based on discussion of the work? Yes / No Are References or Bibliography given at the end of the Report? 11. Have the References been cited properly inside the text of the Report? Is the citation of References in proper format? Yes / No 12. Have you written your report according to the guidelines? The report should not be a mere printout of a Power Point Presentation. Source code need not be included in the report. A Compact Disk (CD) containing the softcopy of the Final Report and a copy of the Final Seminar Presentation made to the Supervisor / Examiner (both preferably in PDF format 13. only) has been placed in a protective jacket securely fastened to the inner back cover of the Final Report. Please write your name and ID No with a marker on the CD as well as the CD Jacket. Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No

1. 2. 3. 4.

7. 8.

Declaration by Student:

I certify that I have properly verified all the items in this checklist and ensure that the report is in proper format as specified in the course handout. __________________
Place: CHENNAI Date: ______ Signature of the student Name: A.MARIMUTHU ID No.: 200618TS246

55