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Solubility and Qualitative Analysis of Solutions

Solution Properties
Homogeneous mixtures of substances composed of at least one solute (substance that gets
dissolved) and one solvent (substance that does the dissolving).

An aqueous solution is a homogeneous mixture using water as the solvent.
clear (transparent)
coloured or colourless
conductive/nonconductive
acidic, basic, or neutral

Electrolytes are compounds that conduct electricity in aqueous solutions, while nonelectrolytes do not
conduct electricity.

Intermolecular Forces
the force of attraction and repulsion between molecules
generally much weaker than covalent and ionic bonds
(intramolecular forces)

1. dipole-dipole forces
a force of attraction between polar molecules where the
oppositely charged dipoles attract one another
the greater the polarity of the molecule, the greater the
strength of the dipole-dipole force

hydrogen bonds
a specific type of dipole-dipole forces that are stronger due to larger differences in
electronegativity in the covalent bonds (N-H, O-H, and F-H)
these highly polar covalent bonds result in strong dipoles forming on the hydrogen atom and
highly electronegative atom (either N, O, or F), producing very strong dipole-dipole bonds

2. London dispersion forces
weak intermolecular forces
in nonpolar molecules
due to the simultaneous
attraction of the elecrons of
one molecule by the
positive nuclei in the
surrounding molecules
by increasing the
number of electrons in
the molecule, the
strength of London
forces increases


Explaining Solutions
For solutions to result, intermolecular forces must form between the particles of the solvent and the
particles of the solute.
The intermolecular forces that are produced by the solution should be equivalent to (or greater
than) the intermolecular forces between solute particles.

Polar molecular compounds
Dipole-dipole forces (or hydrogen bonds) attract polar particles to each other.
A polar solvent can form dipole-dipole forces (or hydrogen bonds) with polar particles.
Generally, polar compounds will dissolve into polar solvents, but not into nonpolar solvents

Nonpolar molecular compounds
London dispersion forces attract nonpolar particles to each other.
Polar particles are unable to participate in London dispersion forces due to the transient nature
of these intermolecular forces.
Nonpolar solutes prefer to dissolve in nonpolar solvents rather than polar solvents.

Ionic compounds
Electrostatic forces of attraction hold ionic compounds together.
A polar solvent can form ion-dipole forces with the charged particles of the ionic compound.
If the electrostatic forces are weaker than the ion-dipole forces, the ionic compound wont
dissolve.
If the electrostatic forces are stronger than the ion-dipole forces, the ionic compound wont
dissolve.

Further complicating solution formation, many solvents and solutes contain both polar and nonpolar
portions (and in some instances, ionic portions).
This generally allows these compounds to form solutions in varying amounts with both polar and
nonpolar compounds.
The influence of the polar portion diminishes as the size of the nonpolar portion increases.
Similarly, the addition of more polar portions lessens the nonpolar character of the compound.

Often, determining whether two compounds will form a solution with one another requires simple
experimentation.

London Dispersion Forces
The intermolecular forces acting within nonpolar compounds are London dispersion forces.
temporary, transient displacements of electron clouds around atoms
result in short-lived dipoles and the attractive forces will eventually be lost
weak intermolecular forces

Nonpolar Mixtures
London dispersion forces are
believed to be responsible for
nonpolar solutes dissolving in
nonpolar solvents.
transient dipoles (constantly moving)
only compounds that allow for transient dipoles can perform
this interaction
nonpolar dissolves nonpolar
The Importance of Being Water

Known as the universal solvent, water dissolves more substances than any other liquid.

1. highly polar compound (large difference in electronegativity)

O
H H
.
.
.
.

two strongly
polar bonds
two electron
lone pairs

-




2. capacity for hydrogen bonds (two donor,
+
, and two acceptor,
-
)

O
H H
.
.
.
.

can form 4
H bonds



3. small size of molecules
water molecules can work inside larger molecules to find sites for intermolecular interactions
capable of forming dipole-dipole, H-bonds, and ion-dipole forces

Solubility

Solubility is a quantitative property of a solute that measures how much of that substance can be
dissolved in a solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.
measured in g/100 mL

A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of a solute at a specific temperature and
pressure.
unsaturated solutions can dissolve more solute
supersatured solutions contains more than the maximum


Solubility Curves

A solubility curve shows the relationship between the
solubility of a solute and the temperature of the solution.

As temperature is increased, the solubility of solids tends to
increase.


Solubility of Gases in Water
Gas
Solubility (g/100 mL) at specified temperature
0
o
C 20
o
C 50
o
C
N
2(g)
0.0029 0.0019 0.0012
O
2(g)
0.0069 0.0043 0.0027
CO
2(g)
0.335 0.169 0.076
NH
3(g)
89.9 51.8 28.4

Gases have greater solubility at lower temperatures.
As the solvent temperature increases, dissolved gas
molecules gain energy and will more easily escape the
intermolecular forces form with the solvent.

Solubility of Liquids
liquids that mix with one another in all proportions are
miscible and will form a single, homogeneous layer
liquids that separate into separate layers instead of mixing
(heterogeneous) are immiscible


Solubility Categories

Qualitative definitions at room temperature and pressure can be used to describe the solubility of solid
compounds.

high solubility indicates
saturation point is greater
than 0.1 mol/L

low solubility indicates
saturation point is less than
0.1 mol/L

insoluble means negligible
solubility (saturation point is
less than 1 mg/L)


The reason 0.1 mol/L is used:
most ionic compounds have solubilities significant larger or smaller than this
convenient for experimental purposes


Precipitation
To precipitate (verb) means to form a solid from aqueous solution when the maximum
concentration has been exceeded.

A precipitate (noun) is a solid formed in a chemical reaction or through a decrease in solubility.


Double Displacement

AX + BY AY + BX

metal displaces metal; nonmetal displaces nonmetal

lead(II) nitrate + sodium iodide lead(II) iodide + sodium nitrate

the formation of a precipitate (solid) will cause double displacement reactions to occur

need to use the solubility rules to determine if a precipitate will form

the neutralization of an acid by a base will cause double displacement reactions to occur
sodium hydroxide + sulfuric acid sodium sulfate + water
the formation of a gas will cause double displacement reactions to occur

sodium sulfide + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + hydrogen sulfide

Chemical Equations in Solution

potassium iodide + silver nitrate potassium nitrate + silver iodide
KI
(aq)
+ AgNO
3(aq)
KNO
3(aq)
+ AgI
(s)


Total ionic equation shows all high solubility ionic compounds in their dissociated form.

K
+
(aq)
+ I
-
(aq)
+ Ag
+
(aq)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
K
+
(aq)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
+ AgI
(s)


Spectator ions are present in a reaction system, but does not change during the course of the chemical
reaction.
need not be written in the chemical equation (remove K
+
(aq)
and NO
3
-
(aq)
)

I
-
(aq)
+ Ag
+
(aq)
AgI
(s)


Net ionic equation is a way of representing a reaction by writing only those ions or neutral substances
specifically involved in an overall chemical reaction.

Writing Net Ionic Equations
Step 1 Write the balanced chemical equation with full chemical formulas for all reactants and
products.
Step 2 For all ionic compounds with high solubility, rewrite the formulas as dissociated ions,
to show the total ionic equation.
Step 3 Cancel identical amounts of identical entities appearing on both the reactant and product
sides of the total ionic equation.
Step 4 Write the net ionic equation, by removing all cancelled entities, and reduce the
coefficients if necessary.

Qualitative Chemical Analysis
Tests used for the identification of the specific substances present.
(e.g. flame tests, solubility, litmus paper, conductivity)

Colours of Solutions Colours of Flames
Ion Solution Colour Ion Flame Colour
Groups 1, 2, 17 colourless H
+1
(aq)
colourless
Cr
+2
(aq)
blue Li
+1
(aq)
bright red
Cr
+3
(aq)
green Na
+1
(aq)
yellow
Co
+2
(aq)
pink K
+1
(aq)
violet
Cu
+1
(aq)
green Ca
+2
(aq)
yellow-red
Cu
+2
(aq)
blue Sr
+2
(aq)
bright red
Fe
+2
(aq)
pale green Ba
+2
(aq)
yellow-green
Fe
+3
(aq)
yellow brown Cu
+2
(aq)
blue (halides)/green (others)
Mn
+2
(aq)
pale pink Pb
+2
(aq)
light blue-grey
Ni
+2
(aq)
green Zn
+2
(aq)
whitish green
CrO
4
-2
(aq)
yellow
Cr
2
O
7
-2
(aq)
orange
MnO
4
-
(aq)
purple

Sequential Qualitative Chemical Analysis
based on precipitation of low-solubility products

solution known to contain
Pb and/or Sr
add NaCl
white precipitate no precipitate
solution contained
lead(II) ions,
precipitated as PbCl
no lead(II) ions
were present
filter
add Na SO
white precipitate no precipitate
solution contained
strontium ions,
precipitated as PbCl
no strontium
were present
ions



sequential qualitative analysis for anions in solution