Hepatoma A hepatoma is a cancer that starts in the liver.

It is the most common type of cancer originating in the liver. Symptoms The first signs of the disease may include: • • • Abdominal pain Weight loss Large mass that can be felt in the upper right section of the abdomen

People who have had cirrhosis for a long time may also experience: • • • Sudden feeling of illness Fever Sudden abdominal pain and shock (very low blood pressure) caused by a rupture or bleeding of the tumor

Diagnosis At first, symptoms may not offer clues that the disease is present. When the person has had cirrhosis for a long time and a tumor can be felt in the abdomen, the doctor will suspect hepatoma. Other ways to detect the disease include: • • • • Ultrasound Computed tomography (CT) scans Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)scans Liver biopsy. For this, a small sample of tissue is taken for examination under a microscope.

Treatment The survival rate for people with hepatoma is poor. This is because the tumor is usually discovered at a later stage. Treatment options include: • • Surgery, if the tumor is small Chemotherapy. This can slow the growth of the tumor but not cure the cancer.

Cholecystography is an x-ray procedure used to examine the gallbladder when gallstones are suspected. A contrast dye is swallowed prior to the procedure. The contrast dye allows for better visualization of gallstones and other abnormalities of the gallbladder that cannot be seen on a standard x-ray of the abdomen.radiography of the gallbladder and bile ducts, using a radiopaque dye as contrast medium. Gastrojejunostomy

A surgical procedure where the stomach in surgically connected to the jejunum (small intestine). This may be performed in cases of obstructing cancers (for example pyloric carcinoma) of the gastrointestinal tract. Junction of gastric and intestinal mucosa at the surgical anastomosis is seen as the capsule passes through. View from the gastric side at LEFT and from the intstinal side at RIGHT. Gastroduodenostomy A gastroduodenostomy is a surgical reconstruction procedure by which a new connection between the stomach and the first portion of the small intestine (duodenum) is created. Purpose 1. A gastroduodenostomy is a gastrointestinal reconstruction technique. It may be performed in cases of stomach cancer, a malfunctioning pyloric valve, gastric obstruction, and peptic ulcers. 2. As a gastrointestinal reconstruction technique, it is usually performed after a total or partial gastrectomy (stomach removal) procedure. The procedure is also referred to as a Billroth I procedure. For benign diseases, a gastroduodenostomy is the preferred type of reconstruction because of the restoration of normal gastrointestinal physiology. Several studies have confirmed the advantages of the procedure, because it preserves the duodenal passage. Compared to a gastrojejunostomy (Billroth II) procedure, meaning the surgical connection of the stomach to the jejunum, gastroduodenostomies have been shown to result in less modification of pancreatic and biliary functions, as well as in a decreased incidence of ulceration and inflammation of the stomach (gastritis). However, gastroduodenostomies performed after gastrectomies for cancer have been the subject of controversy. Although there seems to be a definite advantage of performing gastroduodenostomies over gastrojejunostomies, surgeons have become reluctant to perform gastroduodenostomies because of possible obstruction at the site of the surgical connection due to tumor recurrence. Gastroduodenostomy  A surgical procedure where the doctor creates a new connection between the stomach and the duodenum. This procedure may be performed in cases of stomach cancer or in the case of a malfunctioning pyloric valve