Introduction

This paper demonstrates the different types of employees personality in an organization, using which the manager understands their behavior towards the changes during the management process and accordingly applies the motivational techniques. This paper analyses the different types of personality classified under the Eysenck’s PEN Model. By studying the different personalities, the manager can accordingly apply the motivational techniques to change the employee’s resistance to changes.

Personality: Definition
In terms of Psychology, Personality refers to a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological state (Millet, Organization Behavior, 5th edn). Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual interacts and reacts to the environment. It is often described in terms of the measurable traits that a person exhibits (Robbins, Organization Behavior, 12th edn). Personality may be defined as the underlying causes within the persons of individual behavior and experiences .Personality psychologist do not agree to all these. Personality description considers the ways in which we should characterize an individual. (Cloninger, 2008). Sullivan(1953)defined personality as the characteristic ways in which an individual deals with other people.He belived it was meaningless to think of an individual as an object of psychological study ,since an individual develops and exists only in context of relations with other people. (Engler, 2003)

Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors.

Personality researcher have spent considerable time in describing individual differences .There are two approaches to classify people:

Types approach

Trait approach

Types approach proposes the personality comes in a limited number of distinct categories in which categorizes of people are with similar characteristics .A small type of type suffice to describe all people. Trait approach describes about the personality trait. A personality trait is a characteristic that varies from one person to another and causes a persons more or less consistent behavior .Trait promises a more detailed analysis of personality than types since each traits refers to a more focused set of characteristics. Psychologist and psychiatrists have oscillated in their technique in between the use of traits and types. (Cattel, 2008) The personality traits and types can be studied through two approaches namely Nomothethic, where individuals are studied by comparing their trait scores and Idiographic where individuals are studied independently. Only by doing both the kind of research we can understand whether their understanding can be generalized –that is applied to understand other people too.

Eysenck Model of Personality(P-E-N):
Also known as the “Big Three Model”, this trait based model was formulated by H. Eysenck . He provided an excellent framework for potential relationship between the personality characteristics and perceptions. The PEN model is

comprehensive in description by proposing a hierarchy of four levels and by making a clear distinction among those levels. This characteristic can play another critical role for the comparison with other trait theories Individual differences in personality or temperament are analyzed in terms of traits. Eysneck further supposes that traits themselves are inter-correlated and make up higher-order factors or super factors, which Eysneck calls "types". (Robbins, 2008) Three Dimensions of Personality According to Eysenck’s theory, there are only three major dimensions or super factors in the description of personality:
  

Extraversion (E) Neuroticism (N) Psychoticism (P)

Based on the three-dimensional description of personality , the PEN model further attempts to provide causal explanation of personality. The PEN model looks for psycho physiological, hormonal and other biological mechanisms responsible for the personality dimensions.

Extraversion: The extraversion personality types are conceptualized as trait characteristics such as individual’s level of sociability, affiliation, participation activity and positive esteem. It concentrates on the positive and arousal affects. Persons with

extraversion type personality tend to be energetic, sensible, active, confident, assertive and dominant. Neuroticism: The neuroticism personality types involve traits such as an individual’s level of anxiety, emotionality and negative esteem. It concentrates on the negative and activation affects. Neuroticism personality people are anxious, shy, low selfesteem and tensed.

Psychoticism: The Psychoticism personality is conceptualized as accessing traits such as an individual’s tendencies towards egocentricity, sensation seeking and locus of controls. It concentrates on the anger affects. These kinds of personalities are creative, aggressive, bold and sensation-seeking.

E and N provide a 2-dimensional space to describe individual differences in behavior. An analogy can be made to how latitude and longitude describe a point on the face of the earth. Also, Eysneck noted how these two dimensions were similar to the four personality types, first proposed by the Greek physician Hippocrates.

   

High N and High E = Choleric type High N and Low E = Melancholic type Low N and High E = Sanguine type Low N and Low E = Phlegmatic type

The major strength of Eysenck's model was it was able to provide detailed theory of the causes of personality. For example, Eysneck proposed that extraversion was caused by variability in cortical arousal: "introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so are chronically more cortically aroused than extraverts".

While it seems counterintuitive to suppose that introverts are more aroused than extraverts, the putative effect this has on behavior is such that the introvert seeks lower levels of stimulation. Conversely, the extravert seeks to heighten his or her arousal to a more favorable level by increased activity, social engagement and other stimulation-seeking behaviors. (Cattel, 2008)

Comparison with other theories The major alternative to Eysenck's three-factor model of personality is a model that makes use of five broad traits, often called the Big Five model . The traits in the Big Five are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism

Extraversion and Neuroticism in the Big Five are similar to Eysenck's traits of the same name. However, what Eysenck calls the trait of Psychoticism corresponds to two traits in the Big Five model: Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Eysenck's personality system did not address Openness to experience. (Revelle, 1997)

Motivation:
Motivation is an internal state,rather a dynamic state that propels action,directs behaviour, and is oriented towards satisfying both the instinctual and cultural needs and goals. (Chamarro-Premuzic, 2008) During the Management change process, there are bound to be resistances put up by the employees to the changes occuring . The changes are difficult to accomplish and resistance should be expected whenever a change involves a significant impact on culture of the entire organization.As employees are not happy with the changes even after the explanation given by the top management as they are comfortable with the present atmosphere,the manager needs to take into account that the employees are all different.What suits to one type of employee may not be suitable to the other types. Hence the managers must take into account the various types of employee and based on that he needs to chart out a motivation technique accordingly.

Motivation Theory:
There are several theories that can motivate people to work toward the changes and the managers can have look at these theories.Each of the theories have their own advantages and inadvantges.Its neccesary for the manager to choose the appropriate theory considering the types of personality.Some of the theories that the managers can consider are :

ERG Theory:
This theory was formulated by Clayton P.Alderfer. This theory categorises the human needs that influence worker’s behavoir into three categories:  Existence needs  Relatedness needs  Growth needs

The Existence needs covers Maslows 1st two levels-physiological and safety needs.The physilogical needs are what controls his behavior and thoughts.The safety needs refer to the safety of the job and to its familyand his incomes. The Relatedness needs covers his social requirement towards his family, colleagues and his environment. The Growth needs refers to his internal

needs.The ERG theory recognises that the order of importance of the three categories vary for each individual. The manager has to understand that employees have several needs, which needs to be satisfied simultaneously. Expectancy Theory: The expectancy theory of Victor Vroom deals with motivation and management.An individuals performance is based on individual factors such as skill, knlowledge and experience.The expectancy theory is based on three beliefs:  Valence  Expectancy  Instrumentality

Valence refers to the emotions that people hold with outcomes for the job they have done.The management needs to look at what employees value. Instrumentality refers to the perception level of employee about the manager’s promise. The expectancy level is about the level of confidence the employee has about his performance of doing a job .

Motivation Techniques:
Perhaps one of the most effective ways of motivating a team member is to ensure that they understand and appreciate the aims of an organization and are supported by their managers in working towards the achievement of those aims. There are a range of motivational techniques that can be used to improve their output, reduce workplace stress and increase self-confidence. But the problem is choosing the best motivation technique for the different personality types.We need to affect only a few behavior of the personalites to bring about a lasting change.Hence its necessary to look at the various employee types explained in the the Eysneck model and choose the appropriate motivation techniques . http://www.careers-help.co.uk/executive-motivational-techniques.htm From the Eysenck model we can tabulate the characteristic of the various personality as follows :

Neuroticism High Anxious, Moody,depressed, pessimistic, tense, shy, low-self esteem

Extraversion Energetic, sensible, lively, active, assertive, confident, dominant

Psychoticiscm Umempathetic, creative, sensationseeking, aggressive, cold

Low

Stable, positive, calm, optimistic, confident, relaxed

Associable, passive, slow, reflective, introspective, unconfident

Altruistic, rational, patient, conformist, organized, down-to- earth

From the above table its very clear that the different personality types exhibhit different traits very different from one another.Analysing this, the different motivational techniques for the different types are constructed .

Extraversion: The extravert type personality is generally outward, towards the people. They are very much active in the social circle and often express emotions. They are motivated by other people and them to want the world. They seek variety in their lives. Their attitude is often relaxed and confident. They are understandable and accessible. They tend to act first and think later. At work, they seek variety and action and like working with other people. They prefer work that has breadth rather than depth. Implication: The main restraining forces to change for extroverts will be his “social status”. Such people’s preference for familiar actions and events is impendent to change. All these while the extrovert have been dominating characters. They may also have high needs for “security” and “social” which may be threatened during change. Using the Clayton’s ERG theory, the employee needs have to be taken care of. For an extravert, his social needs have to be taken care of. This is possible by adding peer pressure on his work and makes him realize his worth to the entire team. Another way is through education and training regarding the positive aspects of the changes. Neuroticism: The neurotic type personality is generally nervous in nature. They are inactive in the social circles. They tend to worry a lot. They lack motivation and remain unfocused. They have low self-esteem as a result. Their moods tend to swings to extreme ends all the time. Hence they remain inaccessible. They are pessimists, who take the gloomiest view of their surroundings.

Implication: The main restraining forces to change for extroverts will be “fear”. Since the neurotic person have no clear idea about the benefits of the changes, their fears builds up. The manager needs know about these. He needs to apply the reinforcement and expectancy theory for them. By explaining the benefits, the expectancy of the employees can be met and any further queries regarding the changes must be explained. If it isn’t working, enforce the employer to work hard by making him more accountable for his work which adds up responsibility to him. Psychoticism: The psychotic type of personality is sensation-seeking people who seek a lot of variety in the work they do. These types of people are very aggressive in nature. They are egocentric in nature too, caring about themselves only and not caring about the surrounding in which they live in. They are confined in their attitude to their own needs. These people can thus be labeled as “Selfish”. They don’t have a clear mind since they are reckless and lose focus often. They respond quickly without thinking. Implication: The main restraining forces to change for extroverts will be due to “Invert thinking”. These sorts of people tend to think about themselves and as a result look into changes for their personal gain only. They don’t care about the benefits for the company. The manager needs to apply the apply the Reinforcement theory, thereby encouraging the desired behavior from them, through the reinforcers such as payment, challenging assignments and appraisal.