16 views

Uploaded by pirawin92

c

- Indias Gift to the World
- An Interactive Introduction to Mathematical Analysis-J.lewine
- Dave's Math Tables
- Chad Sheet
- Welders Visual Inspection Handbook-2013 WEB
- Quantitative Recipe !!! by Veera Karthik
- CSU_MTH182_Summer16_1.2585948.HW04
- A Review of Some Methods to Estimate the Tail of the Distribution of the Maximum of a Gaussian Field by M. Wschebor
- Abdul Kal Am Hindustan Times
- Complex Numbers Short
- Copson E. T. - Introduction to the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable (1935)
- EE UG Syllabus Full.doc733539716
- 31 Geometric Series
- B.+Tech+(MAE) Syllabus (2010)
- Revision Notes
- Chapter 1
- Navarathi 2010
- Lecture 7-2 Safety Analysis
- Student Note - Integration Techniques
- Worksheet 1-Derivatives September 2011

You are on page 1of 31

Identify the dierence between sequence and series

Identify the properties of some special series such as geometric series, harmonic

series and pseries

Determine whether a series converges or diverges using test of convergence

Evaluate the radius and interval of convergence of a series

Innite Series

Sequence: {an } = a1 , a2 , a3 , , an ,

n=1

Series:

n=1

an = a1 + a2 + a3 + + an +

Denition 1.1:

The kth partial sum Sk of the series is the sum of rst k terms:

k

Sk =

n=1

an = a1 + a2 + + ak

S1 = a1

S2 = a1 + a2

S3 = a1 + a2 + a3

S100 = sum of rst 100 terms of an

Example:

(i) Sequence:

Series:

n=1

1

1 1 1

= , , ,

n

2

2 4 8

1

1 1 1

= + + +

n

2

2 4 8

1

(ii) Sequence:

Series:

k=0

1

1 1

(1)k+1

= 1 , , , ,

k+1

2

3 4

k+1

(1)

1

1

1

= 1 + +

+ +

k+1

2

3

4

Denition 1.2:

th

Given a sequence

partial sum Sn is the sum of

k=1 ak = {a1 , a2 , a3 , }, the n

rst n terms of the sequence, i.e., Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + + an = n ak . The partial

k=1

sum of rst n terms are

S1 = a1

S2 = a1 + a2

S3 = a1 + a2 + a3

.

.

.

Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + + an

The column on the left (in red) forms a sequence

{Sk }n = S1 , S2 , S3 , , Sn

k=1

If the sequence of the partial sums {Sn } converges to L, then the sum of the series

converges to L, i.e.,

lim Sn = L

S =

an = L

n=1

where L is a nite number. The limit L is the sum of the innite series

may write it as

L=

n=1

an and we

an = a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 +

If the sequence of partial sum {Sn } is not convergent, then it is said to be divergent.

Example 1.1:

Find the limit of the innite series

n=1

1

2n

Solution:

We write down the rst four partial sum of the series

1

2

3

1 1

=

+ =

2 4

4

1 1 1

7

=

+ + =

2 4 8

8

1 1 1

1

15

=

+ + +

=

2 4 8 16

16

S1 =

S2

S3

S4

and from the pattern of the values we conclude that the partial sum is

Sn =

1

2n 1

=1 n

n

2

2

lim Sn = lim

S =

n=1

1

2n

=1

1

=1

2n

converges to 1.

Example 1.2:

Find the limit of the innite series

n=1

1

n(n + 1)

Solution:

We write down the rst four partial sum of the series

1

2

1 1

2

=

+ =

2 6

3

1 1

1

3

=

+ +

=

2 6 12

4

1 1

1

1

4

=

+ +

+

=

2 6 12 20

5

S1 =

S2

S3

S4

and from the pattern of the values we conclude that the partial sum is

n

n+1

Sn =

3

1

n

= lim

n 1 +

n n + 1

S = lim Sn = lim

n

1

n

=1

converges to 1.

Example 1.3:

Determine whether the series with the sequence

1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 ,

is convergent/divergent.

Solution:

S1 = 1 =

1 1

+

2 2

1 1

2 2

1 1

= 1 + (1) + 1 = 1 = +

2 2

S2 = 1 + (1) = 0 =

S3

S4 = 1 + (1) + 1 + (1) = 0 =

1 1

2 2

and from the pattern of the values we conclude that the partial sum is

Sn =

1 1

+ (1)n+1

2 2

We may write

Sn =

1

0

if n is odd

if n is even

Since {Sn } oscillates between 1 and 0, it follows that limn Sn does not exist, hence

the series diverges.

Geometric Series

n

Sn =

k=1

ar k1 = a + ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + + ar n2 + ar n1

where a is the rst term and r is the ratio. We note that the nth term is an = ar n1 .

As we multiply the series with r, we have

n

r Sn =

k=1

ar k = ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ar 4 + + ar n1 + ar n

Then we subtract the rst series with the second series and nd that

r Sn Sn = ar n a

(r 1)Sn = a(r n 1)

a(r n 1)

Sn =

r1

lim Sn =

lim

lim

a(r n 1)

r1

ar n

a

r1 r1

If the ratio |r| < 1, the rst term on the right hand side vanishes (please refer to Theorem

3 in Sequence),

a

S =

1r

So that the geometric series converges if |r| < 1 and diverges if |r| > 1.

Example 2.1:

Determine whether the series converges/diverges,

5

10 20 40

+

+

3

9

27

Solution:

The series is also equivalent to

5 + (5)

2

2

+ (5)

3

3

+ (5)

2

3

Therefore a = 5 and r = 2 . Since |r| = 2 < 1, then the series is convergent and the

3

3

sum of the innite series is

a

5

S=

=

=3

1r

1 ( 2 )

3

Example 2.2:

Determine whether the series conveges/diverges,

1 + 0.4 + 0.16 + 0.064 +

5

Solution:

The series can be rewritten as

1 + 0.4 + (0.4)2 + (0.4)3 +

Therefore, a = 1 and r = 0.4. Since |r| < 1, the series is convergent and the sum of the

innite series is

1

5

S=

= = 1.66

1 0.4

3

Example 2.3:

Write the number

2.317 = 2.31717171717...

as a fraction (ratio of integer).

Solution:

The number can be rewritten as

=

=

=

=

2.31717171717...

2.3 + 0.017 + 0.00017 + 0.0000017 +

17

17

17

2.3 +

+

+

+

1000 100000 100000

17

17

17

2.3 +

+

+

+

3

5

(10)

(10)

(10)7

17

17

1

17

1

+

+

2.3 +

3

3 (10)2

3 (10)4

(10)

(10)

(10)

a + a r + a r2 +

From the second term onward are of the form of Geometric Series with a =

r=

1

. Thus,

(10)2

2.317 = 2.3 +

= 2.3 +

a

1r

17

(10)3

1

(10)2

1

23

17

1147

=

+

=

10 990

495

Example 2.4:

Is the series

22n 31n

n=1

17

and

(10)3

convergent/divergent?

Solution:

22n 31n =

n=1

n=1

n=1

(22 )n 3 3n

4n 3

1

3n

4n

=

3 n

3

n=1

= 3

4

3

n=1

diverges.

4

3

3

Exercise:

1.) Show that the series

2+

2

2

2

+ 2 ++ n +

3 3

3

2.) Determine whether the series converges, if so, nd the innite sum.

i)

ii)

1 1 1

+ 1+

8 4 2

(3)n1

4n

n=1

Telescoping Series

Telescoping Series is a series whose sum appears to have the situation that almost every

term cancels with either a preceding or succeeding term. For example, the series

S =

n=1

1

=

n(n + 1)

n=1

1

1

n n+1

k

1

1

n n+1

Sk =

n=1

1

2

1 1

1 1

1

2 3

3 4

4

1

1

1

1

1

+

+

k1

k1 k

k k+1

++

We can see that the terms with the same colour are canceled with each other. Thus, the

terms which survive are the rst and the last number:

Sk = 1

1

k+1

S = lim Sk = lim

k

1

k+1

=1

Harmonic Series

n=1

1

1 1 1

= 1+ + + +

n

2 3 4

is divergent innite series in spite of the fact that the limit of the sequence when n goes

to innity is zero. The proof of the divergence of the harmonic series is shown below by

comparing the harmonic series with another divergent series:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + + + + + +

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

> 1+ + + + + + + +

2 4 4 8 8 8 8

1+

1

2

1

2

where each colour term of the harmonic series is greater than the corresponding term

in the second series with the same colour, and therefore the sum of the harmonic series

must be greater than the sum of the second series. However, the sum of the second

series is innite,

1+

= 1+

1

2

1

2

+

+

1 1

1 1 1 1

+

+

+ + +

4 4

8 8 8 8

1

1

+

+ =

2

2

It follows that the innite sum of the harmonic series must be divergent.

Example 4.1:

Show that each of the following series are divergent.

(i)

n=1

3

n

(ii)

n=3

1

n

Solution:

(i) By the fact that constant can be factored out of the series as follows,

n=1

3

1

=3

n

n

n=1

1

Since n is divergent, any constant multiplies a divergent series it will still be

n=1

divergent and so the series has to be divergent.

n=1

1

1

1

= 1+ +

n

2 n=3 n

=

n=3

1

=

n

3

1

+

2 n=3 n

n=1

1 3

n 2

As we subtract a constant from a divergent series, the series will still be divergent.

In order word, an innity minus a constant which is still innity. So that the series

is divergent.

5.1

If lim an = 0 then the series

n

an is divergent.

n=1

n

n=1

converges.

Example 5.1:

Determine whether the series

n=1

n2

5n2 + 4

is convergent/divergent.

Solution:

By using nth term test,

n2

1

1

= lim

=0

4 =

2+4

n 5n

n 5 + 2

5

n

lim

Example 5.2:

Determine the following series, by using nth term test, whether they are convergent/divergent?

1. Given the series:

n=1

n

2n + 1

n

1

= =0

n 2n + 1

2

lim

Conclusion: Diverges

2. Given the series:

n=1

10

1

n2

1

=0

n n2

Conclusion: Further investigation is needed.

lim

n=1

1

lim = 0

n

n

Conclusion: Further investigation is needed.

n=1

en

n

en

en

= lim

=

n n

n 1

lim

Conclusion: Diverges

Remark:

If limn an = 0, then the series may either converges or diverges. We need to use other

test techniques to conrm.

Theorem 1:

Given a series

n=1

an = a1 + a2 + a3 +

For any positive integer k, if the sum of the same series is taken from (k + 1)th term

onwards

n=k+1

Example 5.3:

Show whether the following series

n=1

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

+

(n + 2)(n + 3)

34 45 56

11

convergent/divergent.

Solution:

Recall the series we have considered earlier (Telescoping series):

n=1

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

+

+

+

n(n + 1)

12 23 34 45 56

1

1

1

=

+

+

1 2 2 3 n=1 (n + 2)(n + 3)

The series in the question is the sum of this series started from third term onwards, this

means that

1

1

=

(n + 2)(n + 3) n=3 n(n + 1)

n=1

1

As we found before the series n(n+1) converges to 1, and thus by the above Theorem,

n=1

the series in the question is convergent and converges to

S =

n=1

1

1

1

1

=1

=

(n + 2)(n + 3)

12 23

3

Theorem 2:

If

an and

i)

ii)

iii)

Example 5.4:

Find the sum of series

n=1

3

1

+ n

n(n + 1) 2

Solution:

By using Theorem 2,

n=1

3

1

+ n

n(n + 1) 2

=3

n=1

1

1

+

n(n + 1) n=1 2n

From the previous results where the rst series is a telescoping series and the second

series has been considered in Example 1.1, the sum of the series given in the question is

12

Example 5.5:

Find the sum of series

n=1

1

1

+

n

5

n

Solution:

By using the theorem,

1

1

+

5n n

n=1

n=1

1

1

+

5n n=1 n

Since the rst series is a geometric series with r = 1 < 1, this series is convergent. The

5

second series is a harmonic series, it is divergent. The sum of these two series is thus

divergent.

5.2

pSeries

n=1

1

1

1

1

1

= p + p + p + p +

np

1

2

3

4

Theorem 3:

Given a pseries,

n=1

1

np

If p 1, the series is divergent.

e.g.,

The series

n=1

1

1

1

1

1

= 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 +

4

n

1

2

3

4

The series

n=1

1

n1/2

1

11/2

1

21/2

1

31/2

13

1

41/2

Exercise:

Determine whether the following series is convergent or divergent:

i) 1 +

ii)

1

1

1

1

+

+

+

+

8 27 64 125

n1.4 + 3n1.2

n=1

iii)

n=1

(n + 1)2

n(n + 2)

5.3

Comparison Test

Suppose that the sum of series

bn is convergent, then the series

an is also

convergent. In other word, a series of positive terms is convergent if its terms

are less than the corresponding terms of a positive series which is known to be

convergent.

Suppose that the sum of series

an is divergent, then the series

bn is also

divergent. In other word, a series is divergent if its terms are greater than the

corresponding terms of a series which is known to be divergent.

Example 5.6:

Determine whether the series

n=1

2n2

5

+ 4n + 3

converges/diverges.

Solution:

Since n 1, thus 2n2 + 4n + 3 > 2n2 , then

5

5

< 2

2n2 + 4n + 3

2n

The series

n=1

5

5

=

2

2n

2

n=1

1

n2

Comparison Test the series

n=1

2n2

5

+ 4n + 3

14

is convergent .

Example 5.7:

Determine whether

n=3

ln n

n

converges/diverges.

Solution:

Since ln(e) = ln(2.7183) = 1, therefore, ln n > 1 for n 3. Thus,

1

ln n

>

for n 3 .

n

n

1

We know that the series n is a harmonic series and it is divergent. By Theorem 1

n=1

1

the series n=3 n is also divergent, and by Comparison Test,

n=3

ln n

n

diverges .

Exercise:

Determine, by using Comparison Test, whether the series converges or diverges:

i)

n=1

2

n4 + 2

ii)

n=1

5.4

4 + 3n

2n

an

and

n=1

bn

n=1

an

lim

=c

n bn

where c > 0 is a nite number.

If the limit of

an

bn

is positive,

an

= c > 0,

n bn

lim

then the sums an and bn are either both convergent or both divergent.

n=1

n=1

In other word, if the limit is positive, the terms of these two series are growing at

the same rate, so either both series converge or diverge together.

15

n

If the limit of an is zero, and the sum bn converges, then the sum an converges.

b

In other word, if the limit is zero, the bottom terms are growing more quickly than

the upper terms. So that if the bottom series converges, the upper series which is

growing more slowly must also converge.

n

If the limit of an is innite, and the sum bn diverges, then the sum an diverges.

b

In other word, if the limit is innite, the bottom series is growing more slowly. If

the bottom series diverges, the upper series must also diverge.

Remark:

The Limit Comparison Test only applies to series with non-negative terms, i.e., an , bn >

0 for all n.

Example 5.8:

By using Limit Comparison Test, determine whether the series

n=1

2n

1

1

converges/diverges.

Solution:

Let

an =

2n

We choose

bn =

Then,

an

lim

=

n bn

Since the series

n=1

1

2n 1

1

2n

1

1

1

2n

1

=1>0

n 1 1

2n

= lim

1

is a convergent geometric series (please see Example 1.1), by

2n

n=1

2n

1

converges.

1

Example 5.9:

By using Limit Comparison Test, determine whether the series

k=1

2k 2 + 3k

5 + k5

16

converges/diverges.

Solution:

The highest power of the numerator is 2k 2 and the highest power of the denominator

proportional to k 5/2 . We let

2k 2 + 3k

ak =

5 + k5

and choose

2k 2

2

bk = = 1/2

k

k5

Then the limit

an

lim

=

k bn

2k 2 +3k

5

lim 5+k

2

k

k 1/2

2

2k + 3k k 1/2

lim

k

2

5 + k5

3

2

k (2 + k )

k 1/2

= lim

k 5/2

2

5

k

+1

k5

Since

n=1 bk is pseries with p =

2k 2 + 3k

diverges.

5 + k5

k=1

2+

lim

1

,

2

5

k5

3

k

=1>0

+1

Exercise:

By Limit Comparison Test, determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

i)

k=1

4k 2 2k + 6

8k 7 + k 8

ii)

n=1

17

3n

5

+1

5.5

Given a series

an .

n=1

an+1

i) If lim

= L < 1, then the series

n

an

an+1

ii) If lim

= L > 1, then the series

n

an

an+1

iii) If lim

= L = 1, then the series

n

an

an is convergent.

n=1

an is divergent.

n=1

n=1

Example 5.10:

Use the ratio test, determine whether the given series is convergent/divergent:

i)

n=1

1

n!

ii)

k=1

(2k)!

4k

iii)

k=1

1

2k 1

Solution:

i) Let an =

1

.

n!

By ratio test,

an+1

lim

n=

an

= lim

n=

1

(n+1)!

1

n!

n!

n= (n + 1)!

1

= lim

=0<1

n= n + 1

= lim

ii) Let ak =

(2k)!

.

4k

By ratio test,

ak+1

lim

k=

ak

2(k+1) !

4k+1

(2k)!

4k

= lim

k=

(2k + 2)! 1

k=

(2k)!

4

1

(2k)!(2k + 1)(2k + 2)

=

lim

4 k=

(2k)!

1

=

lim (2k + 1)(2k + 2) = +

4 k=

= lim

18

iii) Let ak =

1

.

2k1

By ratio test,

ak+1

lim

k=

ak

= lim

k=

1

2(k+1)1

1

2k1

2k 1

k= 2k + 1

1

2 k

= lim

=1

k= 2 + 1

k

= lim

Exercise:

Use ratio test to determine whether the following series are convergent/divergent.

i)

k=1

3k

k!

ii)

n=1

5.6

Consider the sum

1

5n

an .

n=1

1

n

n

1

n

n

an converges absolutely.

n=1

an diverges.

n=1

n

Example 5.11:

Use the Root Test to determine whether the following series

i)

k=1

4k 5

2k + 1

ii)

n=1

converge or diverge.

19

1

ln(n + 1)

Solution:

i) By using Root Test,

lim

4k 5

2k + 1

1

k

4k 5

k 2k + 1

5

4 k

= lim

=2>1

k 2 + 1

k

=

lim

ii) By using Root Test,

lim

1

ln(n + 1)

1

n

n

1

= lim

n

ln(n + 1)

1

= lim

=0<1

n ln(n + 1)

Exercise:

Determine, by using Root Test, whether the following series

1)

n=1

2)

k=1

3n + 1

2n 1

k

1e

3)

k=1

4)

nn

2 (16n )

1

nn

k=1

converges/diverges.

5.7

An alternating series is a series whose terms are alternately positive and negative, e.g.,

n=1

(1)n1

1 1 1 1 1

= 1 + + +

n

2 3 4 5 6

20

The alternating series test is used when the terms of the underlying sequence alternate.

Suppose that we have a series

n=1

(1)n1 an = a1 a2 + a3 a4 +

i) {an } is a decreasing sequence, i.e., a1 a2 a3 , and

ii) lim an = 0,

n

Example 5.12:

Use AST determine whether the following series

1)

n=1

(1)n1

n

2)

k=1

(1)k+1 (k + 3)

k(k + 1)

converges/diverges.

Solution:

1) The series is given by

n=1

(1)n1

1 1 1 1 1

= 1 + + +

n

2 3 4 5 6

ii) limn an = limn

1

n

1

n

>

1

,

n+1

and

= 0.

Thus, both conditions of AST are satised and it may conclude that the series is

convergent.

2)

(k + 3)

k+4

k(k + 1) (k + 1)(k + 2)

(k + 2)(k + 3) k(k + 4)

=

k(k + 1)(k + 2)

2

k + 5k + 6 k 2 4k

=

k(k + 1)(k + 2)

k+6

=

>0

k(k + 1)(k + 2)

ak ak+1 =

21

for all k 1. We found that ak ak+1 > 0 ak > ak+1 which satises the rst

condition of AST.

ii) The limit

3

1+ k

k+3

lim

= lim

=0

k k(k + 1)

k k + 1

Thus, the second condition of AST is satised and the series converges.

Exercise:

Use AST determine whether the following series

1)

n=1

(1)n+1

n2

2)

(1)k+1 ek

k=1

converges/diverges.

Types of Convergence

A series

an is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute value of

convergent. E.g., the series

n=1

|an | is

(1)n1

1

1

= 1 2 + 2

2

n

2

3

n=1

(1)n1

=

n2

n=1

1

1

1

= 1+ 2 + 2 +

n2

2

3

is divergent, we call the series conditionally convergent.

an is convergent and

Theorem 4:

If a series

an is called absolutely convergent, then the series is convergent.

Example 6.1:

The series

n=1

(1)n1

1 1

= 1 +

n

2 3

22

|an |

(1)n1

=

n

n=1

n=1

1

1 1

= 1+ + +

n

2 3

6.1

n=1

an .

an+1

= L < 1, then the series

an

therefore converges).

n=1

If lim

If lim

an+1

= L > 1, then the series

an

an+1

= 1, then the series

n

an

(inconclusive).

n=1

If lim

n=1

an diverges.

Example 6.2:

Determine the type of convergence of the following series

(1)n

n=1

n3

3n

Solution:

Let

an = (1)n

n3

,

3n

(n + 1)3

3n+1

lim

an+1

an

n

(1)n n3 /3n

(n + 1)3 3n

= lim

3

n

3n+2

n

3

1 n+1

= lim

n 3

n

=

lim

1

= lim

n 3

1+

1

1

n

23

1

3

Power Series

Identify properties of the power series,

determine radius of convergence,

determine interval of convergence, represent some functions using power series.

7.1

n=0

cn xn = c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + c3 x3 +

E.g.,

i)

n=0

ii)

n=0

xn = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +

x3 x5

(1)n x2n+1

=x

+

2n + 1

3

5

For each xed x value, the series becomes as what we had learned earlier (no variable) and

we can use the appropriate techniques to test whether the series converges or diverges.

E.g.,

n=0

xn = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +

n=0

2n = 1 + 2 + 22 + 23 +

which is divergent.

1

If x = , the series becomes

2

n=0

1

2

=1+

1

+

2

1

2

24

1

2

What we need to do here is to nd what is/are the possible value of x that will make

the series converges. There is a number R such that the power series will converge for

|x| < R and will diverge for |x| > R. The number R is called the radius of convergence

of the series. This can be written in interval form as

|x| < R

R < x < R

This is called interval of convergence. Note that the series may or may not converge if

|x| = R. There are four possibilities of interval of convergence:

i) R < x < R ,

(R, R)

ii) R x < R ,

[R, R)

iii) R < x R ,

(R, R]

iv) R x R ,

[R, R]

Therefore, we must check whether the end point values should be included or not so

that the power series will converge for these values. To completely identify the interval

of convergence all that we have to do is determine if the power series will converge for

x = R and x = R.

E.g.,

n=0

xn = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +

|x| < 1 or

1 <x <1

Here, the radius of convergence R = 1. The end point values 1 and 1 are not inclusive.

Example 7.1:

For what values of x is the series

n!xn

n=0

converges?

Solution:

By Ratio Test,

lim

an+1

an

(n + 1)!xn+1

n

n!xn

n!(n + 1)xn x

= lim

n

n!xn

= lim |(n + 1)x|

=

lim

lim (n + 1)|x| =

25

The series diverges for all values of x except when x = 0, thus, the radius of convergence

R = 0.

Example 7.2:

Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence of the series

n=0

(1)n xn

n+1

Solution:

By Ratio Test,

lim

(1)n xn /(n + 1)

xn+1

n+1

n n + 2

xn

n+1

= lim |x|

n

n+2

1

1+ n

= lim |x|

2 = |x|

n

1+ n

=

lim

For the series to converge, |x| < 1. Thus, the radius of convergence R = 1, and the

interval of convergence is 1 < x < 1. To test the inequality signs let x = 1, then

n=0

(1)n (1)n

=

n+1

n=0

(1)2n

=

n+1

n=0

1

=

n+1

n=1

1

n

This is a Harmonic series and thus divergent. So that x = 1 is not included in the

interval of convergence. Now let x = 1,

n=0

(1)n (1)n

=

n+1

n=0

(1)n

=

n+1

n=1

(1)n1

n

By AST, the series converges (See Example 5.12). So that x = 1 is included in the

interval of convergence. Therefore the interval of convergence is 1 < x 1.

Example 7.3:

Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence of the series

n=1

(1)n1 xn

n3

26

Solution:

By Ratio Test,

(1)n xn+1 /(n + 1)3

lim

n

(1)n1 xn /n3

xn+1

n3

= lim

n

n (n + 1)3

x

=

=

n

n+1

lim

lim

1

1+

1

n

|x|

|x|

= |x|

The series converges if |x| < 1. Therefore, the radius of convergence R = 1. For nd the

interval of convergence, we consider rst at x = 1,

n=1

(1)n1 (1)n

=

n3

n=1

(1)2n1

1

=

3

n

n3

n=1

where 2n 1 is an odd number for all integer n and thus (1)2n1 = 1. Since the last

series is a pseries with p = 3, thus the series converges. At x = 1,

n=1

(1)n1 (1)n

=

n3

n=1

(1)n1

(1)n

=

n3

n3

n=1

By AST where

i) {1/n3 } is a decreasing sequence, and

ii) limn

1

n3

=0

Example 7.4:

Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence of the series

k=0

(1)k x2k

(2k)!

27

Solution:

By Ratio Test,

lim

ak+1

ak

k

x2k /(2k)!

(2k)!

x2k+2

2k

= lim

k (2k + 2)!

x

(2k)!

= lim

|x|2

k (2k)!(2k + 1)(2k + 2)

1

= lim

|x|2 = 0

k (2k + 1)(2k + 2)

=

lim

Thus, the series converges for all x and the radius of convergence R = and interval

of convergence is (, ).

Example 7.5:

Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence of the series

where

(2)n xn

an =

4

n

n=1

an

Solution:

By Ratio Test,

(2)n+1 xn+1 / 4 n + 1

= lim

n

(2)n xn / 4 n

n

= lim 2x 4

n

n+1

an+1

lim

n

an

lim 2x 4

1

1+

1

n

= | 2x| = 2|x|

Thus, the series converges when 2|x| < 1 or |x| < 1 . The radius of convergence R = 1 .

2

2

At x = 1 ,

2

(2)n ( 1 )n

(2)n (2)n

1

2

=

=

1

1

4

n

4

n4

n=1

n=1

n=1 n

Since this is a pseries with p =

n=1

1

4

1

1, it is divergent at x = 2 . When x = 1 ,

2

1

(2)n ( 2 )n

=

4

n

n=1

(2)n (2)n

=

4

n

By AST,

28

n=1

(1)n

4

n

i)

4

n

1

ii) lim = 0

4

n

n

the series converges by AST test. Therefore, the interval of convergence is 1 < x 1 .

2

2

7.2

If a is a constant, and if x is replaced with x a, then the resulting series has the form

n=0

E.g.,

i)

n=0

ii)

k=0

(x 1) (x 1)2

(x 1)n

(x 1)n

=1+

+

++

+

n+1

2

3

n+1

(1)k (x + 3)k

(x + 3)2 (x + 3)3

= 1 (x + 3) +

+

k!

2!

3!

Theorem 5:

Given a power series

true:

n=0 cn (x

ii) The series converges for all x.

iii) There is a positive number R such that the series converges if |x a| < R and

diverges if |x a| > R.

iv) The series may converges or diverges at either of these values x = aR or x = a+R.

If the series converges for |x a| < R, then the value a is at the center between a R

and a + R:

Example 7.6:

Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence for the series

n=1

(x 5)n

n2

29

R

x

a

aR

a+R

Solution:

By Ratio Test,

lim

(x 5)n /n2

lim

(x 5)n+1

n2

(n + 1)2

(x 5)n

n

n+1

lim

1

1+

lim

1

n

|x 5|

|x 5|

= |x 5|

Thus, the series converges if |x 5| < 1. The radius of convergence is R = 1. The

interval is

|x 5| < 1

1 < x 5 < 1

51 <

x

<5+1

4<

x

<6

When x = 6,

n=1

(x 5)n

=

n2

n=1

(6 5)n

=

n2

n=1

1

n2

When x = 4,

(4 5)n

(1)n

(x 5)n

=

=

n2

n2

n2

n=1

n=1

n=1

By AST,

i)

1

n2

1

= 0.

n n2

ii) lim

6.

30

Example 7.7:

Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence for the series

k=1

k(x + 2)k

3k+1

Solution:

By Ratio Test,

(k + 1)(x + 2)k+1 /3k+2

n

k(x + 2)k /3k+1

(k + 1)(x + 2)k+1 k(x + 2)k

= lim

n

3k+2

3k+1

k+1

x+2

= lim

n

k

3

x+2

=

3

lim

x+2

< 1,

3

|x + 2| < 3

|x + 2| < 3

3 < x + 2 < 3

5 <

x

<1

At x = 5,

k=1

k(x + 2)k

=

3k+1

k=1

k(3)k

=

3k 3

k=1

k(1)k 3k

1

=

k 3

3

3

(1)k k

k=1

At x = 1,

k=1

k(x + 2)k

=

3k+1

k=1

k(3)k

=

3k 3

k=1

k

3

This series is divergent. The interval of convergence is 5 < x < 1 or (5, 1).

End

31

- An Interactive Introduction to Mathematical Analysis-J.lewineUploaded byZerina Dragnic
- Dave's Math TablesUploaded byManuel F. Presnilla
- Chad SheetUploaded byMatthew Tong
- CSU_MTH182_Summer16_1.2585948.HW04Uploaded byHaardikGarg
- Quantitative Recipe !!! by Veera KarthikUploaded byVeera karthik
- A Review of Some Methods to Estimate the Tail of the Distribution of the Maximum of a Gaussian Field by M. WscheborUploaded byadaniliu13
- Copson E. T. - Introduction to the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable (1935)Uploaded byAbner Lim
- EE UG Syllabus Full.doc733539716Uploaded byAnimesh Manna
- Complex Numbers ShortUploaded byRavi Teju
- 31 Geometric SeriesUploaded byDiego Romé
- B.+Tech+(MAE) Syllabus (2010)Uploaded byAshok Dargar

- Indias Gift to the WorldUploaded byhitesh_sydney
- Revision NotesUploaded bypirawin92
- Chapter 1Uploaded byPu Thea
- Navarathi 2010Uploaded bypirawin92
- Welders Visual Inspection Handbook-2013 WEBUploaded byduurkahin
- Abdul Kal Am Hindustan TimesUploaded bypirawin92
- Lecture 7-2 Safety AnalysisUploaded bypirawin92
- Student Note - Integration TechniquesUploaded bypirawin92
- Worksheet 1-Derivatives September 2011Uploaded byJoao Tomocene
- Student Note - Differentiation TechniquesUploaded bypirawin92
- Derivative Module 2 September 2011Uploaded bypirawin92
- Derivatives Module 1 September 2011Uploaded bypirawin92
- Student Note - SequenceUploaded bypirawin92
- Limit and ContinuityUploaded bypirawin92
- Cranes NotesUploaded byEko Kurniawan

- Chapter 5 Conduction Shape FactorUploaded byergarry
- Nsit Ece SyllabusUploaded byRishi Jha
- Diff Eq NotesUploaded byMin Jae Park
- TUP-M 1-17 (math)Uploaded byRuru Martin
- Syllabus BSCP MATHS 2017-2018 (1).PDF.pdfUploaded byRock mondal
- Electrical & Electronics EnggUploaded bySatha Nanthan
- 301_LectNtoiUploaded byMarcos Vinícius
- Course of Modern an 00 WhitUploaded byGuomin Ji
- 30062 Detailed SyllabusUploaded byStanko Radovanovic
- Multiple Fourier Series and Fourier IntegralsUploaded bydrunkfsoul
- Fourier Series, part 3.pdfUploaded byJacob Bains
- Chapter 2. Power SeriesUploaded byAlex
- math_bologna_en_27ekim2016.pdfUploaded byRay Gobbi
- 2013 Electives 101 PrimerUploaded byMarie
- 1422527523.pdfUploaded byHARISHKOTHARU48
- Maths 11 BookUploaded byaakshit
- AMA SolutionsManualUploaded byYeung Kin Hei
- Chemical EnggUploaded byMohammed Ibu
- Senior Highschool 00 CrawUploaded bySuvankar
- Greatest Mathematicians of All TimesUploaded byRyan Christian Aban
- MathEconNotes(1)Uploaded byzaheer khan
- Cornell University - A First Course in the Differential and Integral CalculusUploaded byluizmenezes2010
- M.N. Huxley-The Distribution of Prime Numbers_ Large Sieves and Zero-Density Theorems (Oxford Mathematical Monographs)-Oxford University Press (1972)Uploaded byDaniél Cárdenas
- MECHUploaded byJerrin Paul
- ist_ca_2015Uploaded byDAVID
- [Larson] Introduction to Real AnalysisUploaded byMatteo Esposito
- Pade approximantsUploaded byTheodore Liolios
- TutorialUploaded byHadrien Faryala
- JEEVAN-MATHSUploaded bySanthosh Viswanadh
- Anna university syllabus-2013 regulationUploaded byThanga Raja Dhinakaran