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CnM 115: GLNLkAL CnLMI51k¥ I

8evlew for 1Pl8u LxAM - SoluLlons
lall SemesLer 2009 / C8n 30437, 30439 & 30462


1he followlna lnsLrucLlons wlll appear exacLlv as Lhev are on vour exam:

ºAnswer everv quesLlon on Lhls exam. ?ou wlll be alven exacLlv 80 mlnuLes (l.e., 1 hour and 20 mlnuLes)
Lo compleLe Lhe exam. uurlna Lhe exam, vou mav consulL Lhe two (2) s|ng|e-s|ded sheets of notes LhaL
vou brouahL ln, buL vou are noL allowed Lo communlcaLe wlLh anvone oLher Lhan vour lnsLrucLor. Ask
vour lnsLrucLor for lnformaLlon on phvslcal consLanLs and converslon facLors. lor compuLaLlons of
numerlcal answers, please use a sclenLlflc calculaLor (l.e., no oLher compuLaLlonal devlce ls allowed).
?ou wlll earn polnLs for everv quesLlon vou answered correcLlv and compleLelv. ÞolnLs for parLlallv-
correcL and/or lncompleLe answers mav be alven aL Lhe dlscreLlon of vour lnsLrucLor."



1. Answer all of Lhe followlna quesLlons reaardlna Lhe per|od|c|ty of meta|s and non-meta|s:

a) Cn Lhe Þerlodlc 1able, whaL ls Lhe Lrend for Lhe meta|||c propert|es of Lhe elemenLs aolna from
lefL Lo rlahL ln a perlod? WhaL ls Lhe Lrend aolna from Lop Lo boLLom ln a aroup?
1he meLalllc properLles or characLers of Lhe elemenLs decrease aolna from lefL Lo rlahL ln a
perlod and |ncrease aolna from Lop Lo boLLom ln a aroup.
1he easlesL wav Lo deLermlne Lhe Lrends on meLalllc properLles ls Lo remember where Lhe
meLals and non-meLals are on Lhe Þerlodlc 1able. 1he non-meLals, for example, are locaLed
Loward Lhe upper-rlahL-hand corner of Lhe Þerlodlc 1able, excepL for Lhe noble aases ln Lhe
lasL column. Colna across Lhe Þerlodlc 1able, sav, on Lhe Lhlrd perlod from na Lo Cl, clearlv
shows LhaL Lhe meLalllc characLers dlmlnlsh slnce na, Ma, and Al are meLals, Sl ls a seml-
meLal, and Þ, S, and Cl are non-meLals. 1he furLher Lo Lhe rlahL, Lhe less meLalllc Lhe
elemenLs are.
Colna down a aroup, Lhe meLalllc characLers lncrease. 1hls ls malnlv due Lo Lhe decrease ln
Lhe flrsL lonlzaLlon enerales of Lhe elemenLs as Lhe elecLrons ln Lhe valence shells become
less aLLracLed Lo Lhe nuclel Lhe laraer Lhe elemenLs are. Cnce aaaln, rememberlna where
Lhe meLals are relaLlve Lo Lhe non-meLals, one can slmplv ao down a aroup, sav, Croup v (or
vA) and show LhaL Lhe elemenLs LhaL are non-meLalllc (n and Þ) become more and more
meLalllc (Sb and 8l) as Lhe valence shells of Lhe elemenLs are slLuaLed furLher and furLher
awav from Lhe nuclel. MeLals Lend Lo lose elecLrons Lo achleve ocLeL whlle non-meLals aaln
elecLrons.
b) ueLermlne from Lhe Þerlodlc 1able Lhe number of valence elecLrons of each of Lhe elemenLs ln
Croup lv (or Croup lvA). Lxplaln brleflv Lhe expecLed chemlcal properLles of carbon (C), slllcon
(Sl), and Lln (Sn) bv conslderlna Lhe number of valence elecLrons, Lhe ocLeL rule, and oLher
relevanL facLors LhaL affecL Lhe chemlcal properLles of each of Lhe above elemenLs.
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n|nt: 1he chemlcal properLles LhaL vou should dlscuss lnclude: formaLlon of caLlon or anlon
(or redox properLles), Lvpes of bonds and/or compounds formed beLween Lhe elemenL ln
quesLlon and oLher elemenLs on Lhe Þerlodlc 1able, wheLher lL favors Lhe formaLlon of
cerLaln speclflc and well-known sLrucLures, eLc.
1he number of valence elecLrons of each of Lhe elemenLs ln Croup lv (or lvA) ls four (4).
1he aroup number Lells us LhaL, aL leasL for Lhe maln-aroup elemenLs.
Carbon (C) has Lhe elecLron conflauraLlon 1s
2
2s
2
2p
2
. Powever, because of Lhe relaLlve slze
and number of proLons (Z = 6) ln C, lL ls oollkelv LhaL C wlll lose or aaln 4 elecLrons Lo form a
C
4+
or C
4-
lon, respecLlvelv. 1hese relaLlvelv larae lonlc charaes on C are verv rare aL besL.
Whlle removlna elecLrons requlres Loo much enerav ln C, addlna elecLrons becomes
lncreaslnalv problemaLlc as Lhe added elecLrons wlll have more and more Lrouble ºseelna"
Lhe nuclear charae. lnsLead, C forms 4 covalenL bonds Lo achleve ocLeL. ln each covalenL
bond, C uses one of lLs valence elecLrons Lo palr up wlLh an elecLron from Lhe valence shell
of anoLher C, anoLher non-meLalllc elemenL (such as n and C), or P. 1he palr of elecLrons
are sald Lo be ºshared" beLween Lwo aLoms. Sharlna a LoLal of 4 palrs or 8 elecLrons alves C
a sLable ocLeL conflauraLlon ln Lhe ouLermosL shell. lurLhermore, Lhe facL LhaL C can form
covalenL bonds verv effecLlvelv amona C aLoms Lhemselves alves rlse Lo an enLlre branch of
chemlsLrv whlch ls called oraanlc chemlsLrv. Craanlc chemlsLrv concerns wlLh Lhe chemlsLrv
of compounds LhaL are carbon-based (such as hvdrocarbons, alcohols, aldehvdes, keLones,
carboxvllc aclds, aromaLlc compounds, eLc.) 1hls lncludes several aroups of bloloalcallv-
slanlflcanL compounds such as carbohvdraLes, proLelns, llplds, and deoxvrlbonuclelc aclds
(unA's) and manv polvmers. 1he Lwo predomlnanL forms of pure carbon are araphlLe and
dlamond. CraphlLe ls conslsLed of sheeLs of sp
2
-hvbrldlzed carbon aLoms whlle dlamond ls a
neLwork of sp
3
-hvbrldlzed carbon aLoms. Carbon ls also found ln manv lnoraanlc
compounds such as Lhe carbonaLes, CC
3
2-
and oxalaLes, C
2
C
4
2-
.
Slllcon (Sl) has Lhe elecLron conflauraLlon 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
2
. Sl ls known Lo be a seml-meLal.
1haL ls, lL has properLles LhaL are Lvplcal nelLher of meLals nor non-meLals. lor example,
unllke carbon, Sl aLoms cannoL form an exLenslve covalenL neLwork amona Lhemselves, as ln
Lhe case of dlamond, due Lo Lhe laraer slze of Lhe Sl aLoms. ?eL, Sl aLoms can form 4
covalenL bonds Lo achleve an ocLeL conflauraLlon. Cn Lhe oLher hand, Sl ls found mosLlv ln
slllcaLes (slllcon oxldes) whlch are consldered a aroup of mlnerals. 1he oxldaLlon sLaLe of Sl
ln slllcaLes ls Lvplcallv +4, lndlcaLlna LhaL Sl has Lhe Lendencv Lo lose 4 elecLrons ln an
oxldaLlon reacLlon. Moreover, Sl ls a well-known seml-conducLor. unllke manv meLals LhaL
are conducLlna due Lo Lhe low number of valence elecLrons LhaL are delocallzed ln an
arranaemenL known as meLalllc bondlna, Sl lLself does noL conducL elecLrlclLv well buL lL can
be ºdoped" wlLh cerLaln elemenLs such as boron (8) and phosphorus (Þ) Lo make Sl
somewhaL conducLlna.
1ln (Sn) has Lhe elecLron conflauraLlon 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3J
10
4s
2
4p
2
. Sn ls known Lo be a
meLal. Pence, lL has Lhe Lendencv Lo form caLlons of varlous charaes, such as +2 and +4,
lndlcaLlna Lhe number of valence elecLrons LhaL Sn wlll lose Lo achleve a hlaher sLablllLv
depends on Lhe slLuaLlon. unllke carbon and slllcon, Sn does noL form covalenL bonds.
c) SuaaesL chemlcal properLles LhaL are slmllar and dlfferenL when Lhe maln-aroup and LranslLlon
meLals are compared.
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8oLh belna meLals, Lhe maln-aroup and LranslLlon meLals are slmllar ln chemlcal properLles
ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhev all prefer Lo lose Lhelr valence elecLrons from neuLral aLoms ln order
Lo achleve hlaher sLablllLv. ln oLher words, maln-aroup and LranslLlon meLals all form
caLlons.
Powever, maln-aroup meLals Lend Lo form caLlons of flxeJ charaes. lor example, Croup l
meLals such as Ll, na, and k form caLlons of +1 charae excluslvelv. Croup ll meLals such as
Ma and Ca form caLlons of +2 charae. LxcepLlon ls exLremelv rare. lor Lhe LranslLlon meLals,
excepL for a few of Lhem, mosL Lend Lo form caLlons of votloble charaes. lor example,
chromlum (Cr) can form caLlons of +2, +3, and +6 charaes. 1hls ls malnlv due Lo Lhe
presence of fllled or parLlallv-fllled J-orblLals ln Lhe valence shell whlch ls a ma[or
characLerlsLlc of LranslLlon meLals. 1he heavler maln-aroup meLals such as ceslum (Cs) and
barlum (8a) also have elecLrons ln J-orblLals, buL slnce Lhe J-orblLals of Lhese elemenLs are
ln Lhe lnner shells and noL Lhe valence shell, Lhe chemlcal properLles of Cs and 8a are unllke
Lhose of Lhe LranslLlon meLals.
d) WhaL ls Lhe aeneral Lrend ln e|ectronegat|v|ty for Lhe noble aases (Croup vlll or vlllA)?
1he noble aas elemenLs (Croup vlll elemenLs) aenerallv do noL have elecLroneaaLlvlLv.
noble aas elemenLs do noL form bonds.
e) Clve an explanaLlon for Lhe dlfference ln elecLroneaaLlvlLles () beLween oxvaen (C) and fluorlne
(l). Also, alve an explanaLlon for Lhe dlfference ln Lhe values of beLween oxvaen and sulfur (S).
n|nt: (O) = 3.4, (F) = 4.0, (S) = 2.6
Cxvaen (C) and fluorlne (l) are boLh elemenLs on Lhe second perlod (same row). l has one
more valence elecLron Lhan C, buL nelLher elemenL has an ocLeL ln Lhelr neuLral sLaLes.
Powever, l ln a covalenL bondlna slLuaLlon has a hlaher Lendencv (or ablllLv) Lo pull Lhe
shared elecLrons Loward lLs nucleus because ln dolna so, lL has achleved Lhe sLaLe of almosL
equlvalenL Lo LhaL of a fluorlde (l
-
) lon. Llkewlse, C has such a Lendencv llke l Lo pull Lhe
shared elecLrons Loward lLs nucleus ln a covalenL bondlna slLuaLlon. Powever, C requlres
Lwlce as manv ºaddlLlonal" elecLrons as l Lo achleve Lhe ocLeL sLaLe, whlch ls slmllar Lo Lhe
C
2-
lon. C also has one less proLon Lhan l, maklna lL relaLlvelv harder Lo aLLracL Lhose
ºaddlLlonal" elecLrons. 1hus, Lhe elecLroneaaLlvlLv of C ls noL as hlah as l.
Cxvaen and sulfur (S) are ln Lhe same aroup (same column) on Lhe Þerlodlc 1able. 1hev
boLh have 6 valence elecLrons, meanlna LhaL Lhev wlll need Lo ºacqulre" Lwo more elecLrons
Lo achleve ocLeL conflauraLlon. ln covalenL bondlna slLuaLlons, C has a hlaher Lendencv Lo
pull Lhe shared elecLrons Loward lLs nucleus Lhan S because of Lhe shorLer dlsLance beLween
Lhe valence shell and Lhe nucleus of C relaLlve Lo LhaL beLween Lhe valence shell and Lhe
nucleus of S. ln oLher words, lL would be more dlfflculL for Lhe nucleus of S Lo aLLracL Lhe
shared elecLrons because Lhe elecLrons are farLher awav. 1herefore, Lhe elecLroneaaLlvlLv of
C ls hlaher Lhan Lhe elecLroneaaLlvlLv of S.

2. lor Lhe compounds ln each palr, predlcL whlch compound has bonds wlLh areaLer lonlc characLer:

a) ÞP
3
and nP
3

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8oLh ÞP
3
and nP
3
are known Lo be covalenL compounds. 1haL ls, elecLrons are shared
beLween Þ and P ln ÞP
3
and beLween n and P ln nP
3
. Powever, lf one musL declde whlch of
Lhese Lwo compounds has a areaLer lonlc characLer, Lhe besL wav Lo do lL ls Lo sLudv Lhe Lwo
facLors, and averaae , ln each compound. lL would be easler Lo do so lf Lhe values are
known. lor Þ and P, Lhe value ls ldenLlcal or nearlv ldenLlcal. lor n, Lhe value ls abouL
0.9 hlaher Lhan LhaL of elLher Þ or P. Clearlv, Lhen, ls a beLLer lndlcaLor of lonlc characLer
ln comparlna ÞP
3
and nP
3
. lf vou sLlll remember Lhe Lrlanaular dlaaram wlLh lonlc, covalenL,
and meLalllc characLers aL each of Lhe verLlces, ls prlmarllv Lhe facLor LhaL separaLes Lhe
lonlc from Lhe covalenL and meLalllc characLers ln a bondlna slLuaLlon. When comparlna ÞP
3

and nP
3
, beLween Þ and P ls zero ln ÞP
3
whlle beLween n and P ls 0.9 ln nP
3
. nP
3

Lherefore should be placed ln Lhe Lrlanaular dlaaram aL a locaLlon closer Lo Lhe lonlc corner
Lhan ÞP
3
. Nn
3
|s the compound w|th a greater |on|c character.
b) CC
2
and CS
2

verv slmllar Lo ÞarL a), values are Lo be compared ln order Lo answer Lhe quesLlon. As
examlned ln Þroblem 1 ÞarL e), Lhe elecLroneaaLlvlLv of C ls hlaher Lhan LhaL of S. Pence,
beLween C and C ln CC
2
ls aolna Lo be hlaher Lhan beLween C and S ln CS
2
. 1herefore,
CC
2
|s the compound w|th a greater |on|c character.

3. Answer all of Lhe followlna quesLlons reaardlna ethano|, C
2
n
6
C, and acet|c ac|d, C
2
n
4
C
2
:

a) Should eLhanol and aceLlc acld boLh be consldered organ|c compounds? Whv or whv noL?
8oth ethano| and acet|c ac|d shou|d be cons|dered organ|c compounds. ApparenLlv, when
one examlnes Lhe ºbackbone" of elLher of Lhe compounds, lL ls conslsLed of Lwo carbon
aLoms covalenLlv bonded Lo each oLher. 1he ºbackbone" of carbon aLoms ls Lo be
ºsurrounded" bv hvdroaen aLoms. Such an arranaemenL ls verv Lvplcal Lo LhaL ln oraanlc
compounds. 1he dlfference beLween eLhanol and aceLlc acld, wlLhouL drawlna Lhe deLalled
Lewls sLrucLures, seems Lo be Lhe number of oxvaen aLoms and Lhe wav Lhe oxvaen aLoms
are connecLed Lo Lhe carbon ºbackbone." 1hls would deLermlne Lhe dlfference ln Lhe
fooctlooolltv of eLhanol and aceLlc acld.
b) LLhanol and aceLlc acld boLh dlssolve well ln waLer. Cne explanaLlon ls LhaL eLhanol has Lhe
bvJtoxvl otoop (-CP) and aceLlc acld has Lhe cotboxvl otoop (-CCCP), whlch ls Lhe
comblnaLlon of a hvdroxvl and a carbonvl (C=C) aroup. LLhanol and aceLlc acld boLh possess Lhe
ablllLv Lo lnLeracL favorablv when mlxlna wlLh waLer (l.e., so-called ºllke dlssolves llke") Lhrouah
Lhe chemlsLrv of Lhese fooctloool otoops. ConsLrucL proper Lew|s structures for boLh eLhanol
and aceLlc acld. Clrcle Lhe hvdroxvl and carboxvl funcLlonal aroups ln Lhe sLrucLures.
LLhanol AceLlc Acld

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c) uraw resonance structures for Lhe aceLlc acld molecule.

?ou need noL show Lhe ºeLhoxlde" lon. ln Lhe case of aceLlc acld, Lhe hvdroaen aLom on Lhe
hvdroxvl aroup needs noL be deLached. Powever, boLh resonance sLrucLures of Lhe aceLlc
acld musL be shown. Cr, alLernaLlvelv, vou mav show Lhe resonance sLrucLures of Lhe
aceLaLe lon, as ln Lhe dlaaram above.
d) An acld can be deflned as a proLon (P
+
) donor. Lxplaln wheLher eLhanol or aceLlc acld ls
expecLed Lo be Lhe sLronaer acld, based on araumenLs consLrucLed from Lhe known chemlsLrv of
compounds conLalnlna Lhe hvdroxvl and Lhe carboxvl aroups.
1he resonance sLrucLures of Lhe aceLaLe lon (second flaure ln ÞarL c) lndlcaLe slanlflcanL
sLablllLv of Lhe C-C-C arranaemenL. 1hls can be sald for everv slLuaLlon where resonance
applles. 1here ls no resonance ln Lhe ºeLhoxlde" lon, or whaLever ls lefL afLer Lhe P
+
on Lhe
hvdroxvl aroup leaves Lhe eLhanol molecule. Pence, Lhe ºeLhoxlde" lon ls less sLable Lhan
Lhe aceLaLe lon, whlch means LhaL Lhe acldlc P
+
ls less ºwllllna" Lo leave Lhe eLhanol mole-
cule Lhan Lhe aceLlc acld molecule. 1he molecule wlLh Lhe hlaher Lendencv Lo donaLe P
+

(sponLaneouslv) ls Lhe sLronaer acld. AceLlc acld (whlch Lhe name lmplles) ls clearlv a
sLronaer acld Lhan eLhanol.

4. Conslder Lhe nlLraLe lon, nC
3
-
:

a) Clve Lhe proper formula of Lhe compound conLalnlna Lhe maaneslum and nC
3
-
lons.
Mg(NO
3
)
2

b) WrlLe a balanced chemlcal equaLlon for Lhe dlssolvlna of Lhe compound ln ÞarL a) ln waLer.
lnclude Lhe phvslcal sLaLe of each reacLanL and producL ln vour equaLlon.
Mg(NO
3
)
2
(aq) Mg
2+
(aq) + 2 NO
3

(aq)
c) nC
3
-
ls a verv sLable lon. lL makes nlLraLe-conLalnlna compounds verv soluble ln waLer based on
Lhermodvnamlc araumenLs. Cn Lhe oLher hand, Lhe sLablllLv of nC
3
-
can be explalned bv a
comblnaLlon of lLs shape and orblLal-overlapplna. 8ased on Lhe alven Lewls sLrucLure of nC
3
-
,
predlcL Lhe shape of Lhe nC
3
-
lon from Lhe vSLÞ8 Lheorv. uraw Lhe nC
3
-
lon lvlna perpendlcular
Lo Lhe plane of Lhls sheeL of paper.

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1he shape should be Lrlaonal planar.

1he aLom ln Lhe cenLer ls n. 1he Lhree C aLoms are shown as Lhe darker balls.
d) ÞredlcL Lhe number and Lvpe of hybr|d orb|ta|s formed ln Lhe n aLom ln nC
3
-
.
1hree (3)
2
hybr|d orb|ta|s are formed ln n.
e) ÞredlcL Lhe hybr|d|zat|on of Lhe C aLoms formlna sloole bonds wlLh n ln nC
3
-
. !usLlfv brleflv
based on vour answers ln ÞarLs c) and d).
1he hvbrldlzaLlon ls
3
. 1he mosL lmporLanL facLor ls LhaL C needs Lo hold 4 ºLhlnas"
equallv well: 3 lone palrs (or non-bondlna elecLron palrs) and a palr of bondlna elecLrons ln
Lhe slnale bond wlLh n. 1hus, four hvbrld orblLals are needed.
f) ÞredlcL Lhe hvbrldlzaLlon of Lhe C aLom formlna a Jooble bond wlLh n ln nC
3
-
. !usLlfv brleflv.
1he hvbrldlzaLlon ls
2
. 1here are 2 lone palrs and a slama () bond wlLh n. Pence, Lhree
hvbrld orblLals are needed. 1he double bond ls conslsLed of a bond and a bond.
a) uraw Lhe resonance structures of Lhe nC
3
-
lon, lncludlna Lhe sLrucLure as shown ln ÞarL c).

1he charaes on Lhe sLrucLures are called ºformal charaes."
h) Clve a conclse explanaLlon of Lhe accompllshmenL and llmlLaLlon of Lhe valence 8ond Lheorv ln
descrlblna Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe nC
3
-
lon ln llahL of vour answers ln ÞarLs c) Lhrouah a).
n|nt: urawlna a dlaaram showlna orblLal-overlapplna ln nC
3
-
should be helpful alLhouah lL
ls noL requlred.
Colna back Lo Lhe flaure ln ÞarL c), Lhe Lrlaonal planar arranaemenL represenLs Lhe lavouL of
Lhe Lhree C aLoms surroundlna Lhe n aLom. Powever, as polnLed ouL ln ÞarL a), Lhe
resonance sLrucLures of nC
3
-
predlcL LhaL each n-C bond should be equlvalenL. 1he
valance 8ond Lheorv predlcLlons of Lhe hvbrldlzaLlon of Lhe n and C aLoms, Lherefore, onlv
- 7 -
applv Lo one parLlcular Lewls sLrucLure. v8 falls Lo compleLelv explaln Lhe resonance hvbrld
of nC
3
-
. ?eL, Lhe expecLaLlon of a bond as menLloned ln Lhe v8 Lheorv lavs Lhe foundaLlon
for Lhe delocallzed--elecLron descrlpLlon of Lhe resonance hvbrld. lor a more elaboraLed
dlscusslon, read up on Lhe delocallzed--elecLrons of Lhe benzene molecule.

3. Þrovlde a conclse explanaLlon for each of Lhe followlna:

a) 1here are more lone palrs on Lhe cenLral aLom ln xel
4
Lhan ln Sl
4
.
xel
4
Sl
4


1he cenLral aLoms are xe and S, respecLlvelv. Clearlv, expandlna Lhe ocLeL of boLh xe and S
has resulLed ln cerLaln number of lone (or non-bondlna) palrs of elecLrons belna placed on
xe and S. 1here are Lwo lone palrs on xe ln xel
4
and onlv one lone palr on S ln Sl
4
. Pence,
Lhere are more lone palrs on Lhe cenLral aLom ln xel
4
Lhan ln Sl
4
.
b) MaC has hlaher laLLlce enerav Lhan kCl.
1here are Lwo facLors LhaL are Lvplcallv consldered ln comparlna laLLlce enerales. llrsL of all,
Lhe charaes on Lhe lons are examlned. 1he hlaher Lhe lonlc charaes, Lhe sLronaer Lhe
elecLrosLaLlc aLLracLlon exlsLs beLween Lhem. Ma and C exlsL as Ma
2+
and C
2-
ln MaC. 1hls
ls compared wlLh k
+
and Cl
-
ln kCl. 1he hlaher lonlc charaes ln MaC should be a sLrona
[usLlflcaLlon for Lhe hlaher laLLlce enerav of MaC.
Second, Lhe slzes of Lhe lons ln Lhe crvsLal laLLlce also plav a role ln Lhe deLermlnaLlon of
laLLlce enerav because of Lhe lnfluence of lonlc slze on Lhe packlna efflclencv ln Lhe crvsLal.
Ma
2+
and C
2-
apparenLlv allow a beLLer packlna efflclencv because of Lhelr smaller slzes.
Powever, Lhls ls [usL an educaLed auess. More lnformaLlon on Lhe solld packlna of MaC and
kCl wlll need Lo be aaLhered Lo consLrucL a more convlnclna araumenL. 8eaardless of Lhe
efflcacv of Lhls araumenL based on lonlc slzes, Lhe lonlc charaes araumenL alone should be
raLher convlnclna.
c) MeLals have properLles of belna ducLlle and malleable.
uucLlllLv refers Lo a maLerlal havlna Lhe ablllLv Lo be pulled or sLreLched wlLhouL breaklna.
MalleablllLv refers Lo a maLerlal havlna Lhe ablllLv Lo be hammered lnLo a Lhln sheeL, for
example, wlLhouL breaklna. 1hese Lwo concepLs are verv slmllar, alLhouah belna ducLlle
ofLen lmplles belna malleable. 1he opposlLe, however, cannoL be sald.
MeLals ln aeneral are boLh ducLlle and malleable because of Lhe arranaemenL of Lhe meLal
aLoms ln meLalllc bondlna. 1he non-dlrecLlonal naLure of meLalllc bondlna allows Lhe meLal
- 8 -
aLoms Lo shlfL pasL each oLher wlLhouL alLerlna Lhe properLles of Lhe bulk meLal ln Lhe case
LhaL Lhe meLal ls belna sLreLched or hammered Lo alLer lLs shape.
d) MeLals have hlah elecLrlcal and Lhermal conducLlvlLv.
MeLal aLoms are held LoaeLher ln bulk meLal bv meLalllc bondlna, whlch can be descrlbed bv
Lhe meLal aLoms (or kernels) belna surrounded bv a ºsea" of Lhelr valence elecLrons. 1hese
valence elecLrons are hlahlv delocallzed, meanlna LhaL Lhev have Lhe ablllLv Lo freelv move
from one place Lo anoLher. ln oLher words, Lhese elecLrons are noL assoclaLed wlLh anv
parLlcular meLal aLom from whlch Lhev are derlved, hence, Lhev are noL locallzed. Pavlna
moblle charaes Lo carrv elecLrlc currenL or heaL ls Lhe foundaLlon of conducLlvlLv.
e) 1he packlna efflclencv of lron, le, whlch assumes a bodv-cenLered cublc sLrucLure, ls hlaher Lhan
LhaL of polonlum, Þo, whlch assumes a slmple cublc sLrucLure.
1he packlna efflclencv refers Lo Lhe amounL of occupled space ln a unlL cell of a solld (meLal,
lonlc compound, eLc.), Lhe hlaher Lhe amounL of occupled space, Lhe hlaher Lhe packlna
efflclencv. Slmple cublc sLrucLure ls known Lo have low packlna efflclencv because Lhere ls
onlv one neL aLom ln a unlL cell, Lhe bodv-cenLered cublc sLrucLure has a relaLlvelv hlaher
packlna efflclencv because Lhere are Lwo neL aLoms ln a unlL cell. 1hus, Lhere ls less unused
(or empLv) space ln Lhe bodv-cenLered cublc sLrucLure Lhan Lhe slmple cublc sLrucLure.

6. 1he hvdroxvl radlcal (-CP) ls a hlahlv reacLlve specles where Lhe C aLom does noL have an ocLeL
alLhouah Lhere ls a slnale bond beLween Lhe C and P aLoms. ?ou can flrsL Lhlnk of a waLer molecule
and Lhen lmaalne LhaL one of Lhe Lwo P aLoms leaves whlle carrvlna awav wlLh lL one elecLron. 1he
hvdroxvl radlcal plavs an lmporLanL role ln aLmospherlc chemlsLrv, lL has a Lendencv Lo comblne wlLh
an P aLom from oLher compounds, causlna Lhem Lo break up. 1hus, -CP ls someLlmes called a
ºdeLeraenL" radlcal because lL helps Lo clean up Lhe aLmosphere.

a) uraw Lhe Lewls sLrucLures for boLh Lhe hvdroxlde (CP
-
) lon and Lhe hvdroxvl radlcal (-CP).
ulscuss brleflv how Lhe sLrucLures help explaln Lhe dlfferenL properLles LhaL Lhe hvdroxlde lon
and Lhe hvdroxvl radlcal have.
CP
-
-CP

Pvdroxlde ls a sLable lon whlle Lhe hvdroxvl radlcal ls unsLable. ln Lhe hvdroxlde lon, Lhe C
aLom has an ocLeL conflauraLlon whlle Lhe P aLom has a dueL conflauraLlon. 8oLh aLoms are
Lherefore sLable ln Lhe hvdroxlde lon. ln Lhe hvdroxvl radlcal, Lhe C aLom has onlv 7 valence
elecLrons. Pence, Lhe C aLom would ºdesperaLelv" seek Lo aaln one more elecLron Lo form
Lhe hvdroxlde lon or aaln one enLlre P aLom Lo form Lhe waLer molecule, P-C-P.
- 9 -
b) 1he bond enerav of Lhe C-P bond ls approxlmaLelv 460 k!/mol. use Lhls facL and Lhe oLher
bond enerales (ln k!/mol) alven below Lo [usLlfv whv Lhe hvdroxvl radlcal ls so ºeaaer" Lo seek Lo
comblne wlLh an P aLom ºpulled" from anv compound.
S-P 368 n-P 393 C-P 414
AlLhouah breaklna a bond such as Lhe S-P, n-P, or C-P bond would requlre 368, 393,
and 414 k!/mol of enerav respecLlvelv, formaLlon of Lhe C-P would teleose 460 k!/mol of
enerav whlch ls more Lhan enouah Lo ºcompensaLe" for Lhe enerav consumed ln breaklna
Lhe orlalnal bond. 1he formaLlon of Lhe C-P bond aL Lhe expense of Lhe breaklna of
anoLher bond lnvolvlna an P aLom ls Lherefore overall favorable because Lhe process ls
aenerallv exoLhermlc.
c) LsLlmaLe Lhe H
rxn
° for Lhe followlna:
•OH(g) + CH
4
(g) •CH
3
(g) + H
2
O(g)
-CP
3
ls Lhe radlcal formed when an P aLom ls ºpulled." use Lhe bond enerales alven ln ÞarL b).
8ond breaklna:
C-P 460 k!/mol
C-P 4 x 414 k!/mol = 1636 k!/mol
8ond formaLlon:
C-P - (3 x 414 k!/mol) = -1242 k!/mol
C-P - (2 x 460 k!/mol) = -920 k!/mol
Cverall:
(460 + 1636 - 1242 - 920) k!/mol = -46 kI/mo| = H
rxn
°