Chapter Goals
Explore the physical structure of bipolar transistor
Study terminal characteristics of BJ T.
Explore differences between npn and pnp transistors.
Develop the Transport Model for bipolar devices.
Define four operation regions of the BJ T.
Explore model simplifications for the forward active
region.
Understand the origin and modeling of the Early effect.
Present a PSPICE model for the bipolar transistor. Discuss
bipolar current sources and the current mirror.
Physical Structure
The BJ T consists of 3 alternating layers
of n and ptype semiconductor called
emitter (E), base (B) and collector (C).
The majority of current enters collector,
crosses the base region and exits through
the emitter. A small current also enters
the base terminal, crosses the base
emitter junction and exits through the
emitter.
Carrier transport in the active base
region directly beneath the heavily
doped (n
+
) emitter dominates the iv
characteristics of the BJ T.
Transport Model for the npn Transistor
The narrow width of the base
region causes a coupling between
the two back to back pn junctions.
The emitter injects electrons into
base region; almost all of them
travel across narrow base and are
removed by collector.
Baseemitter voltage v
BE
and
basecollector voltage v
BC
determine the currents in the
transistor and are said to be
positive when they forwardbias
their respective pn junctions.
The terminal currents are the
collector current(i
C
), the base
current (i
B
) and the emitter
current (i
E
).
The primary difference between
the BJ T and the FET is that i
B
is
significant, while i
G
=0.
npn Transistor: Forward Characteristics
Forward transport current is
I
S
is saturation current
(
(
(



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
BE
v
S
I
F
i
C
i
A
9
10 A
18
10
s s
S
I
V
T
=kT/q =0.025 V at room temperature
Base current is given by
(
(
(



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
BE
v
F
S
I
F
F
i
B
i
20s
F
s 500 is forward current gain
Emitter current is given by
(
(
(



.

\

= + = 1 exp
T
V
BE
v
F
S
I
B
i
C
i
E
i
0 . 1
1
95 . 0 s
+
= s
F
F
F



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
BC
v
S
I
E
i
R
i
(
(
(



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
BC
v
R
S
I
R
R
i
B
i
20 0 s s
R



.

\

= 1 exp
T
V
BC
v
R
S
I
C
i
95 . 0
1
0 s
+
= s
R
R
R
\

(
(
(



.

\




.

\



.

\

= 1 exp exp exp
T
V
BC
v
R
S
I
T
V
BC
v
T
V
BE
v
S
I
C
i





.

\

(
(
(



.

\




.

\



.

\

+ = 1 exp exp exp
T
V
BE
v
F
S
I
T
V
BC
v
T
V
BE
v
S
I
E
i





.

\

(
(
(



.

\



.

\

+ = 1 exp 1 exp
T
V
BC
v
R
S
I
T
V
BE
v
F
S
I
B
i
The first term in both the emitter and collector current expressions gives
the current transported completely across the base region.
Symmetry exists between baseemitter and basecollector voltages in
establishing the dominant current in the bipolar transistor.
pnp Transistor: Operation
The voltages v
EB
and v
CB
are positive when they forward bias
their respective pn junctions.
Collector current and base current exit the transistor terminals
and emitter current enters the device.
pnp Transistor: Forward Characteristics
Forward transport current is:
(
(
(



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
EB
v
S
I
F
i
C
i
Base current is given by:
(
(
(



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
EB
v
F
S
I
F
F
i
B
i
Emitter current is given by:
(
(
(



.

\






.

\

+ = + = 1 exp
1
1
T
V
EB
v
F
S
I
B
i
C
i
E
i



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
CB
v
S
I
E
i
R
i
Base current is given by:
(
(
(



.

\

= = 1 exp
T
V
CB
v
R
S
I
R
F
i
B
i
Emitter current is given by:
(
(
(



.

\






.

\

+ = 1 exp
1
1
T
V
CB
v
R
S
I
C
i
\

(
(
(



.

\




.

\



.

\

= 1 exp exp exp
T
V
CB
v
R
S
I
T
V
CB
v
T
V
EB
v
S
I
C
i





.

\

(
(
(



.

\




.

\



.

\

+ = 1 exp exp exp
T
V
EB
v
F
S
I
T
V
CB
v
T
V
EB
v
S
I
E
i





.

\

(
(
(



.

\



.

\

+ = 1 exp 1 exp
T
V
CB
v
R
S
I
T
V
EB
v
F
S
I
B
i
Circuit Representation for Transport
Models
In the npn transistor (expressions analogous for the pnp transistors), total
current traversing the base is modeled by a current source given by:
(
(
(



.

\




.

\

= =
T
V
BC
v
T
V
BE
v
S
I
R
i
F
i
T
i exp exp
(
(
(



.

\

(
(
(



.

\

+ = 1 exp 1 exp
T
V
BC
v
R
S
I
T
V
BE
v
F
S
I
B
i
Diode currents correspond directly to the 2 components of base current.
Operation Regions of the Bipolar
Transistor
Baseemitter junction Basecollector junction
Reverse Bias Forward Bias
Forward Bias Forward activeregion
(Normal activeregion)
(Good Amplifier)
Saturation region
(Not same as FET
saturationregion)
(Closed switch)
Reverse Bias Cutoff region
(Open switch)
Reverseactiveregion
(Inverse active region)
(Poor amplifier)
iv Characteristics Bipolar Transistor:
CommonEmitter Output Characteristics
For i
B
=0, the transistor is cutoff. If i
B
>0, i
C
also increases.
For v
CE
>v
BE
, the npn transistor is in the
forward active region, i
C
=
F
i
B
is independent
of v
CE.
.
For v
CE
<v
BE
, the transistor is in saturation.
For v
CE
<0, the roles of collector and emitter
are reversed.
iv Characteristics of Bipolar Transistor:
CommonEmitter Transfer Characteristic
This characteristic defines the relation
between collector current and baseemitter
voltage of the transistor.
It is almost identical to the transfer
characteristic of a pn junction diode.
Setting v
BC
=0 in the collectorcurrent
expression:
(
(
(



.

\

= 1 exp
T
V
BE
v
S
I
C
i
J unction Breakdown Voltages
If reverse voltage across either of the two pn junctions in the transistor
is too large, the corresponding diode will break down.
The emitter is the most heavily doped region, and the collector is the
most lightly doped region.
Due to these doping differences, the baseemitter diode has a relatively
low breakdown voltage (3 to 10 V). The collectorbase diode is
typically designed to break down at much larger voltages.
Transistors must therefore be selected in accordance with the possible
reverse voltages in circuit.
Simplified ForwardActive Region
Model
In the forwardactive region, the baseemitter junction is forwardbiased
and the basecollector junction is reversebiased. v
BE
>0, v
BC
<0
If we assume that
then the transport model terminal current equations simplify to:
V 1 . 0
4
= >
q
kT
BE
v V 1 . 0
4
= <
q
kT
BC
v
i
C
~ I
S
exp
v
BE
V
T

\

.



+
I
S
R
~ I
S
exp
v
BE
V
T

\

.



i
E
~
I
S
F
exp
v
BE
V
T

\

.



+
I
S
F
~
I
S
F
exp
v
BE
V
T

\

.



i
B
~
I
S
F
exp
v
BE
V
T

\

.



I
S
I
S
R
~
I
S
F
exp
v
BE
V
T

\

.



B
i
F E
i
B
i
F C
i
E
i
F C
i
) 1 ( + =
=
=
F
+1
=
1.02mA
51
=19.8A
I
C
=
F
I
B
= 0.990mA
V
CE
= (V
EE
)+ V
CC
V
R
V
CE
= 9+ 9 8.3= 9.7V
Note : V
R
= I
E
R here.
Biasing for BJ T
The goal of biasing is to establish a known Qpoint, which
in turn establishes the initial operating region of transistor.
In BJ T circuits, the Qpoint is represented by (V
CE
, I
C
) for
the npn transistor or (V
EC
, I
C
) for the pnp transistor.
In general, during circuit analysis, we use a simplified
mathematical relationships derived for the specified
operation region of the transistor.
The practical biasing circuits used with BJ Ts are:
The FourResistor Bias network
The TwoResistor Bias network
FourResistor Bias Network for BJ T
2 1
1
R R
R
CC
V
EQ
V
+
=
2 1
2 1
R R
R R
EQ
R
+
=
E
I
E
R
BE
V
B
I
EQ
R
EQ
V + + =
4=12,000I
B
+0.7+16,000(
F
+1)I
B
I
B
=
4V0.7V
1.2310
6
O
=2.68A
I
C
=
F
I
B
=201A
I
E
=(
F
+1)I
B
=204A
V
CE
= V
CC
R
C
I
C
R
E
I
E
= V
CC
R
C
+
R
E
F

\

.




I
C
= 4.32V
Qpoint is (4.32 V, 201 A)
F
= 75
BE Loop
CE Loop
FourResistor Bias Network for BJ T
(Check Analysis)
All calculated currents >0, V
BC
=V
BE
 V
CE
=0.7  4.32 = 3.62 V
Hence, the basecollector junction is reversebiased and the assumption
of forwardactive region operation is correct.
The loadline for the circuit is:
V
CE
= V
CC
R
C
+
R
F
F

\

.




I
C
=12 38,200I
C
The two points needed to plot the load
line are (0, 12 V) and (314 A, 0). The
resulting load line is plotted on the
commonemitter output characteristics
for I
B
=2.7 A.
The intersection of the corresponding
characteristic with the load line
determines the Qpoint.
FourResistor Bias Network for BJ T:
Design Objectives
From the BE loop analysis, we know that
This will imply that I
B
<<I
2
so that I
1
=I
2
to good approximation in
the base voltage divider. Then the base current doesnt disturb the
voltage divider action, and the Qpoint will be approximately
independent of base voltage divider current.
Also, V
EQ
is designed to be large enough that small variations in the
assumed value of V
BE
wont have a significant effect on I
B
.
Base voltage divider current is limited by choosing
This ensures that power dissipation in base bias resistors is <17 % of
the total quiescent power consumed by the circuit, while I
2
>>I
B
.
I
B
=
V
EQ
V
BE
R
EQ
+ (
F
+1)R
E
~
V
EQ
V
BE
(
F
+1)R
E
R
EQ
<< (
F
+1)R
E
for
5 /
2 C
I I s
FourResistor Bias Network for BJ T:
Design Guidelines
Choose I
2
= I
C
/5. This means that (R
1
+R
2
) =5V
CC
/I
C
.
Let I
C
R
C
=I
E
R
E
= (V
CC
 V
CE
)/2. Then R
C
= (V
CC
 V
CE
)/2I
C
; R
E
=
F
R
C
If R
EQ
<<(
F
+1)R
E
, then I
E
R
E
= V
EQ
 V
BE
.
Then (V
CC
 V
CE
)/2 = V
EQ
 V
BE
, or V
EQ
= (V
CC
 V
CE
+ V
BE
)/2.
Since V
EQ
= V
CC
R
1
/(R
1
+R
2
) and (R
1
+R
2
) =5V
CC
/I
C
,
Then R
2
=5V
CC
/I
C
 R
1
.
Check that R
EQ
<<(
F
+1)R
E
. If not, adjust bullets 1 and 2 above.
Note: In the LabVIEW bias circuit design VI (NPNBias.vi), bullet 1
is called the Base Margin and bullet 2 is called the CE V(oltage)
Drops.
R
1
=
V
CC
V
CE
+ 2V
BE
2V
CC

\

.

5V
CC
I
C

\

.

= 5
V
CC
V
CE
+ 2V
BE
2I
C

\

.

Problem 5.87 4R Bias Circuit Design
TwoResistor Bias Network for BJ T:
Example
Problem: Find the Qpoint for the pnp transistor in the 2resistor bias
circuit shown below.
Given data:
F
= 50, V
CC
=9 V
Assumptions: Forwardactive region operation with V
EB
=0.7 V
Analysis:
9= V
EB
+18,000I
B
+1000 (I
C
+ I
B
)
9= V
EB
+18,000I
B
+1000 (51)I
B
I
B
=
9V 0.7V
69,000O
=120A
I
C
= 50I
B
= 6.01mA
V
EC
= 91000 (I
C
+ I
B
)= 2.87V
Qpoint is : (6.01 mA, 2.87 V)
PNP Transistor Switch Circuit Design
Emitter Current for PNP Switch Design
BJ T PSPICE Model
Besides the capacitances which are
associated with the physical structure,
additional model components are: diode
current i
S
, capacitance C
JS
, related to the
large area pn junction that isolates the
collector from the substrate and one
transistor from the next.
R
B
is the resistance between external
base contact and intrinsic base region.
Collector current must pass through R
C
on its way to the active region of the
collectorbase junction.
R
E
models any extrinsic emitter
resistance in the device.
BJ T PSPICE Model  Typical Values
Saturation Current =3 e17 A
Forward current gain =100
Reverse current gain =0.5
Forward Early voltage =75 V
Base resistance =250 O
Collector Resistance =50 O
Emitter Resistance =1 O
Forward transit time =0.15 ns
Reverse transit time =15 ns
Minority Carrier Transport in Base
Region
With a narrow base region, minority carrier density decreases linearly
across the base, and the Saturation Current (NPN) is:
where
N
AB
= the doping concentration in the base
n
i
2
= the intrinsic carrier concentration (10
10
/cm
3
)
n
bo
=n
i
2
/ N
AB
D
n
= the diffusivity =(kT/q)
n
Saturation current for the PNP transistor is:
Due to the higher mobility () of electrons compared to holes, the npn
transistor conducts higher current than the pnp for equivalent doping
and applied voltages.
B
W
AB
N
i
n
n
qAD
B
W
bo
n
n
qAD
S
I
2
= =
B
W
DB
N
i
n
p
qAD
B
W
bo
p
p
qAD
S
I
2
= =
Diffusion Capacitance
For v
BE
and hence i
C
to change, charge stored in the base region must
also change.
Diffusion capacitance in parallel with the forwardbiased baseemitter
diode produces a good model for the change in charge with v
BE
.
Since transport current normally represents collector current in the
forwardactive region,
F
T
V
T
I
T
V
BE
v
B
W
bo
qAn
T
V
po Q
BE
dv
dQ
D
C = =
=



.

\

exp
2
1
int
F
T
V
C
I
D
C =
Early Effect and Early Voltage
As reversebias across the collectorbase junction increases, the width of
the collectorbase depletion layer increases and the effective width of base
decreases. This is called basewidth modulation.
In a practical BJ T, the output characteristics have a positive slope in the
forwardactive region, so that collector current is not independent of v
CE
.
Early effect: When the output characteristics are extrapolated back to
where the i
C
curves intersect at common point, v
CE
=V
A
(Early voltage),
which lies between 15 V and 150 V.
Simplified F.A.R. equations, which include the Early effect, are:
i
C
= I
S
exp
v
BE
V
T

\

.


(
(
(
(
(
(
1+
v
CE
V
A
(
(
(
(
(
=
F
I
B
(
(
(
(
+ =
A
V
CE
v
FO F
1
(
(
(
(
(


.

\

=
T
V
BE
v
FO
S
I
B
i exp
BJ T Current Mirror
The collector terminal of a BJ T in the
forwardactive region mimics the
behavior of a current source.
Output current is independent of V
CC
as
long as V
CC
0.8 V. This puts the BJT
in the forwardactive region, since V
BC
 0.1 V.
Q
1
and Q
2
are assumed to be a
matched pair with identical I
S,
FO,
and
V
A,
.
2 1 1 B
I
B
I
C
I
R
BE
V
BB
V
REF
I + + =
=
BJ T Current Mirror (continued)
With an infinite
FO
and V
A
(ideal device), the mirror ratio is unity. Finite
current gain and Early voltage introduce a mismatch between the output
and reference currents of the mirror.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(


.

\

+ +


.

\

=
T
V
BE
V
FO
S
I
A
V
CE
V
T
V
BE
V
S
I
REF
I exp 2
1
1 exp
FO A
V
BE
V
A
V
CE
V
REF
I
A
V
CE
V
T
V
BE
V
S
I
C
I
2
1
2
1
2
1 exp
2
+ +
+
= +


.

\

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
MR =
I
O
I
REF
=
1+
V
CE 2
V
A
1+
V
BE
V
A
+
2
FO
is the " Mirror Ratio" .
BJ T Current Mirror: Example
Problem: Find output current for given current mirror
Given data:
FO
= 75, V
A
=50 V
Assumptions: Forwardactive operation region, V
BE
=0.7 V
Analysis:
I
REF
=
V
BB
V
BE
R
=
12V 0.7V
56kO
= 202A
I
O
= MR I
REF
= (202A)
1+
12
75
1+
0.7
75
+
2
50
= 223A
VBE =
6.7333e01
IC2 =
5.3317e04
IC21 =
5.3317e04
BJ T Current Mirror: Altering the Mirror Ratio
The Mirror Ratio of a BJ T current mirror can be changed by simply
changing the relative sizes of the emitters in the transistors. For the
ideal case, the Mirror Ratio is determined only by the ratio of the
two emitter areas.
A
E
A
SO
I
S
I =
where I
SO
is the saturation current of a BJ T
with one unit of emitter area: A
E
=1(A). The
actual dimensions of A are technology
dependent.
FO A
V
BE
V
A
V
CE
V
REF
I n
O
I
2
1
2
1
.
+ +
+
=
1
2
E
A
E
A
n =
BJ T Current Mirror: Output Resistance
A current source using BJ Ts doesnt have an output current that is
completely independent of the terminal voltage across it, due to the
finite value of Early voltage. The current source seems to have a
resistive component in series with it.
R
o
is defined as the small signal output resistance of the current
mirror.
R
o
ci
o
cv
o
Q pt

\

.





1
=
I
C2
V
A
+V
CE
(
(
(
(
(
1
~
V
A
I
O
i
O
=i
C2
= I
REF
1+
V
CE2
+ v
ce2
V
A
1+
V
BE
V
A
+
2
FO
= I
REF
1+
V
CE
+v
o
V
A
1+
V
BE
V
A
+
2
FO
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