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Submitted in partial ulillment ! t"e re#uirement !r t"ree Year
Submitted T!& Submitted $'&
Mr( C"andra)"e*"ar Sin+" S",eta Sin+"
-%e.turer/0 SMS R!ll N!( & 112322
$$A 4

The course of BBA require one to undergo a research project with the end of
the 6
Semester, so as to get a practical knowledge and understanding the
practical aspects of all the theories read. It helps us to make the best use of our
skills and intelligence so as to make a better research report. It is really the
most important thing during the course of the study. The purpose of my research
project was to study impacts of advertisements on It was a continuous learning
eperience as customers and how it is being effective for marketing strategy.I got to
know different kinds of !dvertisements and how they are conducted and are
S",eta Sin+"
R!ll N!( & 112322
SMS, Varanasi
I feel a great pleasure in presenting this field research report in the hands
of Mr. Chandrasekhar Singh. It is reall a great opportunit gi!en "
him. #his research $ork is com"ined effort of m "rain and heart.

%irstl I $ould like to thank &od for "esto$ing upon me his kind
"lessing all throughout the pro'ect. I am e(tremel grateful to our
)irector Sir, *rof. *.+.,-A and to our BBA Co./rdinator Sir, Mr. Atish
0hadse for pro!iding me this opportunit to pro!e m skills in this
academic pro'ect.
I also e(tended m heartiest gratitude to m mentor for this research
$ork, Mr.Chandrasekhar Singh for his !alua"le support, guidance and
encouragement $ho pro!ided me e!er "it of rele!ant information and
guidance in making these pro'ects a success. It $as a great e(perience
$orking under his super!ision.
I speciall $ish to thank all m respondents and m parents as $ithout
their !alua"le support this report $ouldn1t ha!e "een possi"le.
S",eta Sin+"
R!ll N!( & 112322
SMS, Varanasi
I, Sh$eta Singh, student of BBA 6
Sem. declare that the
pro'ect report entitled 5STUDY IMPACTS OF
o$n efforts and is "ased on information collected.
%urthermore, the information presented in this report is correct
to the "est of m kno$ledge.
S",eta Sin+"
R!ll N!( & 112322
SMS, Varanasi

Im&ortance of t'e %td(
Sco&e of t'e %td(
)e%earc' *et'odolog(
Data Anal(%!% + Inter&retat!on
F!nd!ng% + )ecommendat!on%
Concl%!on + L!m!tat!on

It has "een $rongl assumed that the ad!ertising function is of
recent origin. 5!idences suggest that the 6omans practiced ad!ertising7
"ut the earliest indication of its use in this countr dates "ack to the
middle Ages, $hen the use of the surname indicated a man1s occupation.
#he ne(t stage in the e!olution of ad!ertising $as the use of signs as a
!isual e(pression of the tradesman1s function and a means of locating
the source of goods. #his method is still in common use. #he seller in
primiti!e times relied upon his loud !oice to attract attention and inform
consumers of the a!aila"ilit of his ser!ices. If there $ere man
competitors, he relied upon his o$n personal magnetism to attract
attention to his merchandise. /ften it "ecame necessar for him to resort
to persuasion to pinpoint the ad!antages of his products. #hus, the seller
$as doing the complete promotion 'o" himself.
)e!elopment of retail stores, made the traders to "e more
concerned a"out attracting "usiness. Informing customers of the
a!aila"ilit of supplies $as highl important. Some tpes of outside
promotion $ere necessar. Signs on stores and in prominent places
around the cit and notices in printed matters $ere sometimes used.
8hen customers $ere finall attracted to the store and
satisfied $ith the ser!ice at least once, the $ere still su"'ected
to competiti!e influences7 therefore, the merchant1s signs and
ad!ertisements reminded customers of the continuing
a!aila"ilit of his ser!ices. Sometimes traders $ould talk to
present and former customers in the streets, or 'oin social
organi9ations in order to ha!e continuing contacts $ith present
and potential customers.
As the markets gre$ larger and the num"er of customers
increased, the importance of attracting them also gre$.
Increasing reliance $as placed on ad!ertising methods of
informing a"out the a!aila"ilit of the products. #hese
ad!ertising methods $ere more economical in reaching large
num"ers of consumers. 8hile these ad!ertising methods $ere
useful for informing and reminding and reminding, the could
not do the $hole promotional 'o". #he $ere used onl to reach
each consumer personall. #he merchant still used personal
persuasion once the customers $ere attracted to his store.
#he in!ention of hand press increased the potentialities of
ad!ertising. B Shakespeare1s times, posters had made their
appearance, and assumed the function of fostering demand for
e(isting products. Another important e!ent $as the emergence
of the pamphlet as an ad!ertising medium. #he earl e(amples
of these pamphlets disclose their sponsorship " companies
$ant to generate good$ill for their acti!ities. #he lo$ cost of
posters and hand"ills encouraged a num"er of pu"lishers to
e(periment $ith other methods.
65S5AC- /B,5C#IV5S
#o stud tpes of ad!ertisements.
#o stud effecti!eness of ad!ertisements i.e. on sales,
#o stud the perception of consumers to$ards the
product due to ad!ertisement.
#o find the $as to make it more effecti!e.
Archaeologists ha!e found e!idence of ad!ertising dating "ack to the 2===s BC, among
the Ba"lonians. /ne of the first kno$n methods of ad!ertising $as the outdoor displa, usuall
an ee.catching sign painted on the $all of a "uilding. Archaeologists ha!e unco!ered man
such signs, nota"l in the ruins of ancient 6ome and *ompeii. An outdoor ad!ertisement
e(ca!ated in 6ome offers propert for rent, and one found painted on a $all in *ompeii calls the
attention of tra!elers to a ta!ern situated in another to$n.
In medie!al times $ord.of.mouth praise of products ga!e rise to a simple "ut effecti!e
form of ad!ertising, the use of so.called to$n criers. #he criers $ere citi9ens $ho read pu"lic
notices aloud and $ere also emploed " merchants to shout the praises of their $ares. >ater
the "ecame familiar figures on the streets of colonial American settlements. #he to$n criers
$ere forerunners of the modern announcer $ho deli!ers radio and tele!ision commercials.
Although graphic forms of ad!ertising appeared earl in histor, printed ad!ertising made
little head$a until the in!ention of the mo!a"le.tpe printing press " &erman printer ,ohannes
&uten"erg a"out 134=. #his in!ention made the mass distri"ution of posters and circulars
possi"le. #he first ad!ertisement in 5nglish appeared in 13:2 in the form of a hand"ill
announcing a praer "ook for sale. #$o hundred ears later, the first ne$spaper ad $as
pu"lished offering a re$ard for the return of 12 stolen horses. In the American colonies, the
Boston News-Letter, the first regularl pu"lished ne$spaper in America, "egan carring ads in
1:=3, and a"out 24 ears later Ben'amin %ranklin made ads more reada"le " using large
In the ?nited States, the ad!ertising profession "egan in *hiladelphia, *ennsl!ania, in
1;31 $hen Volne B. *almer set up shop as an ad!ertising agent, the forerunner of the
ad!ertising agenc. Agents contracted $ith ne$spapers for large amounts of ad!ertising space at
discount rates and then resold the space to ad!ertisers at a higher rate. #he ads themsel!es $ere
created " the ad!ertisers. In 1;6< %rancis Aer "ought out *almer and founded +. 8. Aer @
Son, an agenc that still e(ists toda. Aer transformed the standard agent practice " "illing
ad!ertisers e(actl $hat he paid to pu"lishers plus an agreed upon commission. Soon Aer $as
not onl selling space "ut $as also conducting market research and $riting the ad!ertising cop.
Ad!ertising agencies initiall focused on print. But the introduction of radio created a
ne$ opportunit and " the end of the 1<2=s, ad!ertising had esta"lished itself in radio to such
an e(tent that ad!ertisers $ere producing man of their o$n programs. #he earl 1<2=s ushered
in do9ens of radio dramatic series that $ere kno$n as soap operas "ecause the $ere sponsored
" soap companies.
#ele!ision had "een introduced in 1<3=, "ut "ecause of the high cost of #V sets and the
lack of programming, it $as not immediatel em"raced. As the American econom soared in the
1<4=s, so did the sale of #V sets and the ad!ertising that paid for the popular ne$ sho$s. Soon
#V far surpassed radio as an ad!ertising medium.
#he tone of the ad!ertising $as also changing. +o longer did ad!ertising simpl present
the product "enefit. Instead it "egan to create a product image. Bill Bern"ach, founder of )ole
)ane Bern"ach in +e$ Aork Cit7 >eo Burnett, founder of the >eo Burnett agenc in Chicago,
Illinois7 and )a!id /gil!, founder of /gil! @ Mather in +e$ Aork Cit, all came to
prominence in the late 1<4=s and 1<6=s and led $hat has "een called the Bcreati!e re!olution.B
Bern"achBs agenc captured the spirit of the ne$ age. Bern"ach "elie!ed that ad!ertising had to
"e creati!e and artistic or it $ould "ore people. -e also "elie!ed that good ad!ertising "egan
$ith respect for the pu"licBs intelligence. #he ads his agenc created $ere understated,
sophisticated, and $itt.
%or e(ample, $hen Bern"achBs agenc picked up the account for the -enr S. >e!
Baker in Brookln, a "orough of +e$ Aork Cit, the agenc created an ad that entertained +e$
Aorkers and pro!ided fodder for man con!ersations. #he ad sho$ed a +ati!e American eating a
slice of the "akerBs re "read $ith the headline, BAou donBt ha!e to "e ,e$ish to lo!e >e!Bs.B
But it $as the ad!ertising for Volks$agen that made the agencBs reputation. At a time $hen
American cars $ere getting "igger and "igger and the ad!ertising for them trumpeted that "igger
$as "etter, )ole )ane Bern"ach created a maga9ine ad that sho$ed a small picture of the
Volks$agen Beetle surrounded " a sea of $hite space $ith the headline, Bthink small.B An
eCuall uncon!entional ad carried the headline BlemonB "eneath a photo of an apparentl fla$ed
Volks$agen. #he adBs cop e(plained that Bthis Volks$agen missed the "oat. #he chrome strip
on the glo!e compartment is "lemished and must "e replacedD8e pluck the lemons7 ou get the
plums.B In an era of hpe and "om"ast, the Volks$agen ads stood out "ecause the admitted
failure in a $itt $a and ga!e facts in a "elie!a"le manner that underlined the carBs strengths.
#his $it together $ith a con!ersational and "elie!a"le stle $as a hallmark of the ad!ertising
created " )ole )ane Bern"ach and that stle "ecame highl influential.
#he creati!e foundation esta"lished " Bern"ach and others has "een critical to the
success of contemporar ad!ertising. #he introduction of the #V remote control and access to
hundreds of ca"le channels mean that toda ad!ertising must interest and entertain consumers or
else the $ill simpl use the remote to change the channel. +e$ digital de!ices e!en threaten to
make it possi"le to edit out commercials. #he de!elopment of interacti!e tele!ision, com"ining
the functions of a computer $ith access to high.speed transmission o!er ca"le lines or optical
fi"ers, $ill likel ena"le consumers to select from a !ast !ideo li"rar. Consumers $ill "e a"le to
determine not onl $hen the $atch something, "ut also, to a greater e(tent than e!er "efore,
$hat the $ill $atch. Some industr o"ser!ers "elie!e that as consumers gain greater control
o!er their !ie$ing acti!ities, the $ill find it easier to a!oid ad!ertising.
#he $ord ad!ertising originates from a >atin $ord ad!ertise, $hich means to turn to. #he
dictionar meaning of the term is Eto gi!e pu"lic notice or to announce pu"liclF.
Ad!ertising ma "e defined as the process of "uing sponsor.identified media space or
time in order to promote a product or an idea.
#he American Marketing Association, Chicago, has defined ad!ertising as Ean form of
non.personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or ser!ices, " an identified sponsor.F
8"at Ad9erti)ement I):
Ad!ertisement is a mass communicating of information intended to persuade "uers to "
products $ith a !ie$ to ma(imi9ing a compan1s profits.
#he elements of ad!ertising areG
HiI It is a mass communication reaching a large group of consumers.
HiiI It makes mass production possi"le.
HiiiI It is non.personal communication, for it is not deli!ered " an actual person, nor is it
addressed to a specific person.
Hi!I It is a commercial communication "ecause it is used to help assure the ad!ertiser of a long
"usiness life $ith profita"le sales.
H!I Ad!ertising can "e economical, for it reaches large groups of people. #his keeps the cost per
message lo$.
H!iI #he communication is speed, permitting an ad!ertiser to speak to millions of "uers in a
matter of a fe$ hours.
H!iiI Ad!ertising is identified communication. #he ad!ertiser signs his name to his ad!ertisement
for the purpose of pu"lici9ing his identit.
8"at i) In.luded in Ad9erti)in+:
HiI #he information in an ad!ertisement should "enefit the "uers. It should gi!e them a more
satisfactor e(penditure of their rupees.
HiiI It should suggest "etter solutions to their pro"lems.
HiiiI #he content of the ad!ertisement is $ithin the control of the ad!ertiser, not the medium.
Hi!I Ad!ertising $ithout persuasion is ineffecti!e. #he ad!ertisement that fails to influence
anone, either immediatel or in the future, is a $aste of mone.
H!I #he function of ad!ertising is to increase the profita"le sales !olume. #hat is, ad!ertising
e(penses should not increase disproportionatel.
Ad9erti)in+ in.lude) t"e !ll!,in+ !rm) ! me))a+e)G #he messages carried in.
+e$spapers and maga9ines7
/n radio and tele!ision "roadcasts7
Circular of all kinds, H$hether distri"uted " mail, " person, thorough tradesmen, or "
inserts in packagesI7
)ealer help materials,
8indo$ displa and counter J displa materials and efforts7
Store signs, motion pictures used for ad!ertising,
+o!elties "earing ad!ertising messages and Signature of the ad!ertiser,
>a"el stags and other literature accompaning the merchandise.
8"at i) e;.luded r!m Ad9erti)in+:
Ad!ertising is not an e(act science. An ad!ertiser1s circumstances are ne!er identical $ith those
of another7 he cannot predict $ith accurac $hat results his future ad!ertising efforts $ill
HiI Ad!ertising is not a game, "ecause if ad!ertising is done properl, "oth the "uer and the
seller "enefit from it.
HiiI Ad!ertising is not a to. Ad!ertiser cannot afford to pla $ith ad!ertising. Ad!ertising funds
come from sales re!enue and must "e used to increase sales re!enue.
HiiiI Ad!ertisements are not designed to decei!e. #he desire and hope for repeat sales insures a
high degree of honest in ad!ertising.
T"e a.ti9itie) e;.luded r!m ad9erti)in+ are&
#he offering of premiums to stimulate the sale of products7
#he use of e(hi"itions and demonstrations at fairs, sho$ and con!entions7
#he use of samples and acti!ities, in!ol!ing ne$s releases and the acti!ities of personal
selling forces7
#he pament of ad!ertising allo$ances $hich are not used for ad!ertising7
#he entertainment of customers
Ad9erti)in+ Ob<e.ti9e)
5ach ad!ertisement is a specific communication that must "e effecti!e, not 'ust for one
customer, "ut for man target "uers. #his means that specific o"'ecti!es should "e set for each
particular ad!ertisement campaign. Ad!ertising is a form of promotion and like a promotion7 the
o"'ecti!es of ad!ertising should "e specific. #his reCuires that the target consumers should "e
specificall identified and that the effect $hich ad!ertising is intended to ha!e upon the
consumer should "e clearl indicated. #he o"'ecti!es of ad!ertising $ere traditionall stated in
terms of direct sales. +o$, it is to !ie$ ad!ertising as ha!ing communication o"'ecti!es that seek
to inform persuade and remind potential customers of the $orth of the product. Ad!ertising
seeks to condition the consumer so that heKshe ma ha!e a fa!oura"le reaction to the promotional
message. Ad!ertising o"'ecti!es ser!e as guidelines for the planning and implementation of the
entire ad!ertising programme.
T"e ba)i. !b<e.ti9e) ! an ad9erti)in+ pr!+ramme ma' be li)ted a) bel!,&
HiI #o stimulate sales amongst present, former and future consumers. It in!ol!es a decision
regarding the media, e.g., #V rather than print 7
HiiI #o communicate $ith consumers. #his in!ol!es decision regarding cop 7
HiiiI #o retain the loalt of present and former consumers. Ad!ertising ma "e used to reassure
"uers that the ha!e made the "est purchase, thus "uilding loalt to the "rand name or the
Hi!I #o increase support. Ad!ertising impliedl "olsters the morale of the sales force and of
distri"utors, $holesalers, and retailers, 7 it thus contri"utes to enthusiasts and confidence attitude
in the organi9ational. G
H!I #o pro'ect an image. Ad!ertising is used to promote an o!erall image of respect and trust for
an organi9ation. #his message is aimed not onl at consumers, "ut also at the go!ernment,
shareholders, and the general pu"lic.
Imp!rtan.e ! Ad9erti)in+
&enerall, ad!ertising is a relati!el lo$.cost method of con!eing selling messages to
numerous prospecti!e customers. It can secure leads for salesmen and middlemen " con!incing
readers to reCuest more information and " identifing outlets handling the product. It can force
middlemen to stock the product " "uilding consumer interest. It can help train dealers salesmen
in product uses and applications. It can "uild dealer and consumer confidence in the compan
and its products " "uilding familiarit. Ad9erti)in+ i) t! )timulate mar*et demand. 8hile
sometimes ad!ertising alone ma succeed in achie!ing "uer acceptance, preference, or e!en
demand for the product, it is seldom solel relied upon. Ad!ertising is efficientl used $ith at
least one other sales method, such as personal selling or point.of.purchase displa, to directl
mo!e customers to "uing action.
Ad!ertising has "ecome increasingl important to "usiness enterprises J"oth large and
small. /utla on ad!ertising certainl is the !oucher. +on."usiness enterprises ha!e also
recogni9ed the importance of ad!ertising. #he attempt " arm recruitment is "ases on a
su"stantial ad!ertising campaign, stressing the ad!antages of a militar career. #he health
department populari9es famil planning through ad!ertising >a"our organi9ations ha!e also used
ad!ertising to make their !ie$points kno$n to the pu"lic at large. Ad!ertising assumes real
economic importance too. Ad!ertising strategies that increase the num"er of units sold stimulate
economies in the production process. #he production cost per unit of output is lo$ered. It in turn
leads to lo$er prices. >o$er consumer prices then allo$ these products to "ecome a!aila"le to
more people. Similarl, the price of ne$spapers, professional sports, radio and #V programmes,
and the like might "e prohi"iti!e $ithout ad!ertising. In short, ad!ertising pas for man of the
entertainment and educational aspects of contemporar life. Ad!ertising has "ecome an
important factor in the campaigns to achie!e such societal.oriented o"'ecti!es such as the
discontinuance of smoking, famil planning, phsical fitness, and the elimination of drug a"use.
#hough in India, ad!ertising $as accepted as a potent and recogni9ed means of promotion onl
24 ears ago, its gro$ing producti!e capacit and output necessitates the finding of consumers
and ad!ertising plas an important role in this process. Ad!ertising helps to increase mass
marketing $hile helping the consumer to choose from amongst the !ariet of products offered
for his selection. In India, ad!ertising as a profession is in its infanc. Because of this fact, there
is a tremendous scope for de!elopment so that it ma "e producti!el used for the "enefit of
producers, traders, consumers, and the countr1s econom.
1( Pr!du.t = Related Ad9erti)in+
A( Pi!neerin+ Ad9erti)in+
$( C!mpetiti9e Ad9erti)in+
C( Retenti9e Ad9erti)in+
>( Publi. Ser9i.e Ad9erti)in+
?( Fun.ti!nal Cla))ii.ati!n
A( Ad9erti)in+ $a)ed !n Demand Inluen.e %e9el(
A( Primar' Demand -Stimulati!n/
$( Sele.ti9e Demand -Stimulati!n/
$( In)tituti!nal Ad9erti)in+
C( Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+
A( In!rmati9e Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+
B. Per)ua)i9e Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+
C( Reminder@Oriented Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+
2( Ad9erti)in+ ba)ed !n Pr!du.t %ie C'.le
A( C!n)umer Ad9erti)in+
$( Indu)trial Ad9erti)in+
A( Trade Ad9erti)in+
A( Retail Ad9erti)in+
$( 8"!le)ale Ad9erti)in+
4( Ad9erti)in+ $a)ed !n Area ! !perati!n
A( Nati!nal ad9erti)in+
$( %!.al ad9erti)in+
C( Re+i!nal ad9erti)in+
3( Ad9erti)in+ A..!rdin+ t! Medium UtiliBed
1( Pr!du.t = Related Ad9erti)in+
It is concerned $ith con!eing information a"out and selling a product or ser!ice. *roduct
ad!ertising is of three tpes, !i9.,
A. *ioneering Ad!ertising
B. Competiti!e Ad!ertising
C. 6etenti!e Ad!ertising
A( Pi!neerin+ Ad9erti)in+G
#his tpe of ad!ertising is used in the introductor stages in the life ccle of a product. It
is concerned $ith de!eloping a EprimarF demand. It con!es information a"out, and selling a
product categor rather than a specific "rand. %or e(ample, the initial ad!ertisement for "lack J
and J $hite tele!ision and color tele!ision. Such ad!ertisements appeal to the consumer1s
emotions and rational moti!es.
$( C!mpetiti9e Ad9erti)in+G
It is useful $hen the product has reached the market.gro$th and especiall the market.
maturit stage. It stimulates Eselecti!eF demand. It seeks to sell a specific "rand rather than a
general product categor. It is of t$o tpesG
A. )irect #peG It seeks to stimulate immediate "uing action.
B. Indirect #peG It attempts to pinpoint the !irtues of the product in the e(pectation that the
consumer1s action $ill "e affected " it $hen he is read to "u.
E;ample& Airline ad!ertising.
Air India attempts to "id for the consumer1s patronage either immediatel . direct action.
in $hich case, it pro!ides prices, time ta"les and phone num"ers on $hich the customer ma call
for reser!ations7 or e!entuall J indirect action J $hen it suggests that ou mention Air India1s
name $hen talking to our tra!el agent.
C( Retenti9e Ad9erti)in+&
#his ma "e useful $hen the product has achie!ed a fa!ora"le status in the market J that
is, maturit or declining stage. &enerall in such times, the ad!ertiser $ants to keep his product1s
name "efore the pu"lic. A much softer selling approach is used, or onl the name ma "e
mentioned in EreminderF tpe ad!ertising.
>( Publi. Ser9i.e Ad9erti)in+
#his is directed at the social $elfare of a communit or a nation. #he effecti!eness of
product ser!ice ad!ertisements ma "e measured in terms of the good$ill the generate in fa!our
of the sponsoring organi9ation. Ad!ertisements on not mi(ing drinking and dri!ing are a good
e(ample of pu"lic ser!ice ad!ertising. In this tpe of ad!ertising, the o"'ecti!e is to put across a
message intended to change attitudes or "eha!iour and "enefit the pu"lic at large.
?( Fun.ti!nal Cla))ii.ati!n
Ad!ertising ma "e classified according to the functions $hich it is intended to fulfil.
HiI Ad!ertising ma "e used to stimulate either the primar demand or the selecti!e demand.
HiiI It ma promote either the "rand or the firm selling that "rand.
HiiiI It ma tr to cause indirect action or direct action.
i( Ad9erti)in+ $a)ed !n Demand Inluen.e %e9el(
A( Primar' Demand Stimulati!n
*rimar demand is demand for the product or ser!ice rather than for a particular "rand. It
is intended to affect the demand for a tpe of product, and not the "rand of that product. Some
ad!ertise to stimulate primar demand. 8hen a product is ne$, primar demand stimulation is
appropriate. At this time, the marketer must inform consumers of the e(istence of the ne$ item
and con!ince them of the "enefits flo$ing from its use. 8hen primar demand has "een
stimulated and competitors ha!e entered the market, the ad!ertising strateg ma "e to stimulate
the selecti!e demand.
$( Sele.ti9e Demand Stimulati!n
#his demand is for a particular "rand such as Charminar cigarettes, Surf detergent
po$der, or Vimal fa"rics. #o esta"lish a differential ad!antage and to acCuire an accepta"le sort
of market, selecti!e demand ad!ertising is attempted. It is not to stimulate the demand for the
product or ser!ice. #he ad!ertiser attempts to differentiate his "rand and to increase the total
amount of consumption of that product. Competiti!e ad!ertising stimulates selecti!e demand. It
ma "e of either the direct or the indirect tpe.
ii( In)tituti!nal Ad9erti)in+
Institutional Ad!ertising ma "e formati!e, persuasi!e or reminder oriented in character.
Institutional ad!ertising is used e(tensi!el during periods of product shortages in order to keep
the name of the compan "efore the pu"lic. It aims at "uilding for a firm a *ositi!e pu"lic image
in the ees of shareholders, emploees, suppliers, legislators, or the general pu"lic. #his sells
onl the name and prestige of the compan. #his tpe of ad!ertising is used freCuentl " large
companies $hose products are $ell kno$n. -M# or )CM, for e(ample, does considera"le
institutional ad!ertising of its name, emphasi9ing the Cualit and research "ehind its products.
Institutional ad!ertisements are at consumers or focus them upon other groups, such as
!oters, go!ernment officials, suppliers, financial institutions, etc. If it is effecti!e, the target
groups $ill respond $ith good$ill to$ards, and confidence in the sponsor. It is also a useful
method or introducing sales persons and ne$ product to consumers. It does not attempt to sell a
particular product7 it "enefits the organi9ation as a $hole.
It notifies the consumers that the compan is a responsi"le "usiness entit and is
patriotic7 that its management takes ecologicall responsi"le action, is an affair. moti!e action
emploer, supports the socialistic pattern of societ or pro!ides emploment opportunities in the
communit. 8hen Indian /il ad!ertisements descri"e the compan1s general acti!ities, such as
pu"lic ser!ice $ork, this ma "e referred to as institutional ad!ertising "ecause it is intended to
"uild an o!erall fa!ora"le attitude to$ards the compan and its famil of products. -M# once
told the stor of the small.scale industries
suppling it $ith component parts, thus indicating ho$ it aided the de!elopment of ancillar
iii( Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+
Most ad!ertising is product ad!ertising, designed to promote the sale or reputation of a
particular product or ser!ice that the organi9ation sells. Indane1s Cooking &as is a case in point.
#he marketer ma use such promotion to generate e(posure attention, comprehension, attitude
change or action for an offering. It deals $ith the non.personal selling of a particular good or
ser!ice. It is of three tpes as follo$sG.
A. Informati!e *roduct Ad!ertising
B. *ersuasi!e *roduct Ad!ertising
C. 6eminder./riented *roduct Ad!ertising
A( In!rmati9e Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+G
#his form of ad!ertising tends to characteri9e the promotion of an ne$ tpe of product
to de!elop an initial demand. It is usuall done in the introductor stages of the product life
ccle. It $as the original approach to ad!ertising.
$( Per)ua)i9e Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+&
*ersuasi!e product ad!ertising is to de!elop demand for a particular product or "rand. It
is a tpe of promotion used in the gro$th period and, to some e(tent, in the maturit period of
the product life ccle.
C( Reminder@Oriented Pr!du.t Ad9erti)in+G
#he goal of this tpe of ad!ertising is to reinforce pre!ious promotional acti!it "
keeping the "rand name in front of the pu"lic. It is used in the maturit period as $ell as
throughout the declining phase of the product life ccle.
2( Ad9erti)in+ ba)ed !n Pr!du.t %ie C'.le
A( C!n)umer Ad9erti)in+
$( Indu)trial Ad9erti)in+
A( C!n)umer Ad9erti)in+
Most of the consumer goods producers engage in consumer product ad!ertising.
Marketers of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, scooters, detergents and soaps, cigarettes and alcoholic
"e!erages are e(amples. Baring a fe$, all these products are all package goods that the consumer
$ill often "u during the ear. #here is a hea! competition among the ad!ertisers to esta"lish
an ad!antage for their particular "rand.
$( Indu)trial Ad9erti)in+
Industrial e(ecuti!es ha!e little confidence in ad!ertising. #he rel on this form of
promotion merel out of fear that their competitors ma "enefit if the stop their ad!ertising
efforts. #he task of the industrial ad!ertiser is complicated " the multiple "uing influence
characteristics like, the deri!ed demand, etc. #he o"'ecti!es !ar according to the firm and the
situation. #he areG
#o inform,
#o "ring in orders,
#o induce inCuiries,
#o get the ad!ertiser1s name on the "uer1s list of sources,
#o pro!ide support for the salesman,
#o reduce selling costs,
#o help get items in the ne$s column of a pu"lication,
#o esta"lish recognition for the firm or its product,
#o moti!ate distri"utors,
#o recognition for the firm or its products,
#o moti!ate distri"utors, to create or change a compan1s image,
#o create or change a "uer1s attitude, and
#he "asic appeals tend to increase the rupee profits of the "uer or help in achie!ing his
non.monetar o"'ecti!es. #rade 'ournals are the media most generall used follo$ed "
catalogues, direct mail communication, e(hi"its, and general management pu"lications.
Ad!ertising agencies are much less useful in industrial ad!ertising.
A( Trade Ad9erti)in+
A( Retail Ad9erti)in+
$( 8"!le)ale Ad9erti)in+
A( Retail Ad9erti)in+
#his ma "e defined as Eco!ering all ad!ertising " the stores that sell goods directl to
the consuming pu"lic. It includes, also ad!ertising " esta"lishments that sell ser!ices to the
pu"lic, such as "eaut shops, petrol pumps and "anks.F Ad!ertising agencies are rarel used. #he
store personnel are usuall gi!en this responsi"ilit as an added task to "e performed, together
$ith their normal functions. #he result is that ad!ertising is often relegated to a secondar
position in a retail store. /ne aspect of retail ad!ertising is co.operati!e ad!ertising. It refers to
ad!ertising costs "et$een retailers and manufacturers. %rom the retailer1s point of !ie$, co.
operati!e ad!ertising permits a store to secure additional ad!ertising that $ould not other$ise
ha!e "een a!aila"le.
$( 8"!le)ale Ad9erti)in+
8holesalers are, generall, not ad!ertising minded, either for themsel!es or for their
suppliers. #he $ould "enefit from adopting some of the image.making techniCues used "
retailers J the need for de!eloping an o!erall promotional strateg. #he also need to make a
greater use of supplier promotion materials and programs in a $a ad!antageous to them.
4( Ad9erti)in+ ba)ed !n Area ! Operati!n
It is classified as follo$G
A. +ational Ad!ertising
B. 6egional Ad!ertising
C. >ocal Ad!ertising
A( Nati!nal ad9erti)in+
It is practiced " man firms in our countr. It encourages the consumer to "u their
product $here!er the are sold. Most national ad!ertisements concentrate on the o!erall image
and desira"ilit of the product. #he famous national ad!ertisers areG
-industan >e!ers
,a 5ngineering
$( Re+i!nal ad9erti)in+
It is geographical alternati!e for organi9ations. %or e(ample, Amrit Vanaspati "ased in
6a'pura claims to "e the leading hdrogenated oil producer in the *un'a". But, until recentl, it
mainl confined itself to one of the !egeta"le oil "rands distri"ution to Maliha"ad district Hin
?.*. near >uckno$I.
C( %!.al ad9erti)in+
It is generall done " retailers rather than manufacturers. #hese ad!ertisements sa!e the
customer time and mone " passing along specific information a"out products, prices, location,
and so on. 6etailer ad!ertisements usuall pro!ide specific goods sales during $eekends in
!arious sectors.
3( Ad9erti)in+ A..!rdin+ t! Medium
#he most common classification of ad!ertising is " the medium used. %or e(ampleG #V,
radio, maga9ine, outdoor, "usiness periodical, ne$spaper and direct mail ad!ertising. #his
classification is so common in use that it is mentioned here onl for the sake of completeness.
Mea)urin+ Ad9erti)in+ Ee.ti9ene))
All ad!ertising efforts are directed mainl to$ards the achie!ement of "usiness,
marketing and ad!ertising o"'ecti!es i.e., to increase the sales turno!er and thus to market the
ma(imum profit. #he ad!ertiser spends lakhs of rupees in to this ad!ertising acti!it. In the
"ackground of all these efforts, is an attempt to attract the customer to$ards the product through
ad!ertising. As soon as the ad!ertising campaign is o!er, a need is generall arisen to measure
the effecti!eness of the campaign. 8hether, it has achie!ed the desired results i.e. desired sales
profita"ilit or results in terms the change in customer1 "eha!iour in fa!our of the compan1s
product $hich $ill naturall, affect the future sale of the product.
In order to measure the effecti!eness of ad!ertising cop, t$o tpes of tests pre tests and
post tests. can "e undertaken. *re tests are generall conducted in the "eginning of the creation
process or at the end of creation process or production stage. #here are se!eral pre and post tests
techniCues to measure the effecti!eness of the ad!ertising cop.
#he effecti!eness of ad!ertising in a particular media ma also "e measured
in an of the follo$ing $as J
HaI B gi!ing different addresses to different media,
H"I )ifferent ne$spapers ma "e selected for ad!ertisements of different departments,
HcI Coupon "lank etc. Ma "e pro!ided $ith the ad!ertisement or
HdI 5nCuir from consumers should mention the name of the source of information.
#he techniCue is kno$n as keing the ad!ertising. #hus in measuring the effecti!eness of
ad!ertising $e include measuring of the effecti!eness of ad!ertising campaign, ad!ertising cop
and the effecti!eness of indi!idual media. #his chapter deals these three pro"lems.
Imp!rtan.e ! mea)urin+ t"e Ee.ti9ene)) ! Ad9erti)in+
-1/ It a.t) a) a Saet' mea)ure
#esting effecti!eness of ad!ertising helps in finding out ineffecti!e ad!ertisement and
ad!ertising campaigns. It facilitates timel ad'ustments in ad!ertising to make ad!ertising
consumer oriented and result oriented. #hus $aste of mone in fault ad!ertising can "e a!oided.
->/ Pr!9ide) eedba.* !r remedial mea)ure)
#esting effecti!eness of ad!ertising pro!ides useful information to the ad!ertisers to take
remedial steps against ineffecti!e ad!ertisements.
-?/ A9!id) p!))ible ailure
Ad!ertisers are not sure of results of ad!ertising from a particular ad!ertising campaign.
5!aluating ad!ertising effecti!es helps in estimating the results in order to a!oid complete loss.
-2/ T! <u)ti' t"e In9e)tment in Ad9erti)in+
#he e(penditure on ad!ertisement is considered to "e an in!estment. #he in!estment in
ad!ertising is a marketing in!estment and its o"'ecti!es should "e spelt out clearl indicating the
results e(pected from the campaign. #he rate and si9e of return should "e determined in ad!ance.
If the e(pected rate of return is achie!ed in terms of additional profits, the ad!ertisement can "e
considered as effecti!e one.
-A/ T! *n!, t"e .!mmuni.ati!n Ee.t
#he effecti!eness of the ad!ertisement can "e measured in terms of their communication
effects on the target consumers or audience. #he main purpose of ad!ertising is communicated
the general pu"lic, and e(isting and prospecti!e consumers, !arious information a"out the
product and the compan. It is therefore desira"le to seek post measurements of ad!ertising in
order to determine $hether ad!ertisement ha!e "een seen or heard or in other $ords $hether
the ha!e communicated the theme, message or appeal of the ad!ertising.
-4/ C!mpare t,! mar*et)
?nder this procedure, ad!ertising is pu"lished in test markets and results are contrasted
$ith other. Markets J so called control markets J $hich ha!e had the regular ad!ertising
program. #he measurements made to determine results ma "e measurements of change in sales,
change in consumer attitudes, changes in dealer displa and so on depending upon the o"'ecti!es
sought " the ad!ertiser.
Ad!ertising is aimed at impro!ing the sales !olume of a concern so its effecti!eness can
"e e!aluated " its impact on sales. Most of the managers "elie!e that the ad!ertisement directl
affects the sales !olume and hence the e!aluate the effecti!eness of the ad!ertising campaign "
the increase in the sales !olume.
#here ma "e t$o tpes measures
HiI )irect measuresG and
HiiI Indirect measuresG.
-1/ Dire.t Mea)ure) ! Ad9erti)in+ Ee.ti9ene))
?nder direct measures, a relationship "et$een ad!ertising and sales is esta"lished. A
comparison of sales of t$o periods or t$o periods or t$o markets ma "e done and the
corresponding changes ma "e noted. #he follo$ing are some of the methods that are generall
used in measuring that ad!ertising effects.
-a/ Hi)t! Sale) Met"!d
Some insights into the effecti!eness of past ad!ertising ma "e o"tained " measuring
the relationship "et$een the ad!ertising e(penditure and the total sales of the product. A multiple
regression analsis of ad!ertising e(penditure and sales o!er se!eral time periods ma "e
calculated. It $ould sho$ ho$ the changes in ad!ertising e(penditure ha!e corresponding
changes in sales !olume. #his techniCue estimates the contri"ution that ad!ertising has made to
e(plaining in a co relational manner rather than a casual sales, the !ariation in sales o!er the time
periods co!ered in the stud
-b/ E;perimental C!ntr!l
#he other measure of ad!ertising effecti!eness is the method of e(perimental control
$here a casual relationship "et$een ad!ertising and sales is esta"lished. #his method is Cuite
e(pensi!e $hen related to other ad!ertising effecti!eness measures et it is possi"le to isolate
ad!ertising contri"ution to sales. Moreo!er this can "e done as a pre.test to aid ad!ertising in
choosing "et$een alternati!e creati!e designs. Media schedules e(penditure le!els or some
com"ination of these ad!ertising decision areas. /ne e(perimental approach to measuring the
sales effecti!eness of ad!ertising is test marketing.
-i/ $e!re@ater ,it" C!ntr!l 7r!up De)i+n
#his classic design uses se!eral test and control cities in this design t$o tpes of cities are
selected. Cities in $hich ad!ertising campaigns are affected ma "e named as test cities and
other cities ma "e called central cities. %irst of all, the normal sales le!el is calculated for "oth
tpe of cities prior to ad!ertising campaign, and then the ad!ertising campaign is presented to the
test cities and not the central cities. #he effect of ad!ertising campaign, can then, "e measured "
su"tracting the amount of post campaign figure of sale from the pre campaign sale figures in test
-ii/ Multi9ariable E;perimental De)i+n)
8hile the e(perimental design discussed a"o!e ields a reasona"l accurate estimate of
the effects of the ad!ertising on sales, it is not successful in e(plaining the success or failure of
the campaign itself. Multi!aria"le designs *roduce these e(planations and are, therefore used "
some !er large firm "ecause of their diagnostic !alue.#he po$er of this multi!aria"le factorial
design is e(plained " &.-.Bro$n, former %ords )irector of Marketing 6esearch. %or an single
medium, eight possi"le geographic areas ha!e "een e(posed and eight ha!e not "een e(posed.
#hus, in this e(perimental model it is possi"le to e!aluate ho$ each indi!idual medium "eha!es
alone and in all possi"le to e!aluate ho$ each indi!idual medium "eha!es alone and in all
possi"le com"inations $ith other media.
->/ Indire.t Mea)ure)
As it is !er difficult to measure the direct effect of ad!ertising on compan1s profits or
sales, most firms rel hea!il on indirect measures. #hese measures do not e!aluate the effects of
ad!ertisements directing on sales or profits "ut all other factors such as customer a$areness or
attitude or customer recall of ad!ertising message affect the sales or profits or goals of the
"usiness indirectl. )espite the uncertainties a"out the relationship "et$een the intermediate
effects of ad!ertising and the ultimate results, there is no other alternati!e "ut to use indirect
measures. #he most commonl used measures are J
-i/ E;p!)ure t! Ad9erti)ement
In order to "e effecti!e, the ad!ertisement must gain e(posure. #he management is
concerned a"out the num"er of target audiences $ho see or hear the organi9ation message set in
the ad!ertisement. 8ithout e(posure, ad!ertisement is "ound to failure. Marketers or ad!ertisers
ma o"tain an idea of e(posure generated " the medium " e(amining its circulation or
audience data $hich re!eal the num"er of copies of the maga9ine, ne$spaper or 'ournal sold the
num"er of persons passing the "ill"oards or riding in transit facilities, or the num"er of persons
li!ing in the tele!ie$ing or radio listening area, and the num"er of persons s$itching on their
#.V. and radio sets at !arious points of time. #his num"er can "e estimated " inter!ie$ing the
num"ers of the audience for different media.
-ii/ Attenti!n !r Re.all ! Ad9erti)in+ Me))a+e C!ntent
#his is one of the $idel used measures of ad!ertising results. ?nder this measure, a
recall of the message content among a specified group or groups or prospecti!e customers is
measured $ithin 23 hours of the e(posure of the ad!ertisement.
Attention !alue is the chief Cualit of the ad!ertising cop the ad!ertisements cannot "e
said to "e effecti!e unless the attract the attention of the target consumers. #here are t$o
methods for e!aluating the attention getting !alue of the ad!ertisements. /ne is pre.test and the
other is post.test. In a pre.test e!aluation, the consumers are asked to indicate the e(tent to $hich
the recognise or recall the ad!ertisement, the ha!e alread seen. #his test is conducted in the
la"orator setting. -ere consumers read, hear or listen to the ad!ertisement and then researchers
ask Cuestion regarding the ad!ertisement 'ust to test the recall and then e!aluate it. In post.test
method, the consumers are asked Cuestions a"out the indication of recognition or recall after the
ad!ertisement has "een run. #hese measures assume that customers can recall or recogni9e $hat
the ha!e !ie$ed or listened to. Various mechanical de!ices are "eing used in the $estern
countries $hich pro!ide indices of attention such as etc.
-iii/ $rand A,arene))
#he marketers $ho rel hea!il on ad!ertising often appraise its effecti!eness "
measuring the customer1s a$areness a"out the particular product or "rand. #he assumption of
this tpe of measure is that there is a direct relationship "et$een the ad!ertisements and the
a$areness. #his tpe of measure is also su"'ect to the same criticisms as is applica"le to direct
measures of effecti!eness Hsales measures "ecause a$areness is also not the direct result of the
ad!ertisements. It is also affected " man other factors. But, for ne$ products, changes in
a$areness can often "e attri"uted to the influence of ad!ertising.
-i9/ C!mpre"en)i!n
Consumers generall use ad!ertisements as a means of o"taining information a"out the
product, "rand or the manufacturer. #he cannot "e informed unless the comprehend the
message Hgrasp the message mentall and understand it fullI. Various tests for !aluating
comprehension are a!aila"le J
/ne is recall tests J an indicator of comprehension "ecause it is e!ident that consumers
recall $hat the comprehend. Another measure of the !aria"le is to ask Cuestions a"out su"'ects
ho$ much the ha!e comprehended a message the ha!e recentl heard or seen. /ne ma
emplo some$hat imprecise test of the comprehension of a ne$spaper and radio ad!ertisement.
/ne ma ask tpical target consumers from time to time such Cuestions like L$hat did ou think
of our ne$ commercialM1 and L)id it get the message across1M #he ans$ers of these Cuestions
$ill pro!ide sufficient insight into ad!ertising decision making.
-9/ Attitude C"an+e
Since ad!ertising is considered to "e one $a of influencing the state of the mind of the
audience to$ards a product, ser!ice or organi9ation, the results are !er often measured in terms
of attitudes among groups e(posed to ad!ertising communication. Se!eral measures are used
ranging from asking the Cuestions a"out $illingness to "u the likelihood of "uing to the
measurement of the e(tent to $hich specific attri"utes Hsuch as modern or ne$I are associated
$ith a product.
-9i/ A.ti!n
/ne o"'ecti!e of ad!ertisement ma "e assumed to "e to stimulate action or "eha!ior.
#he action or intention to take an action ma "e measured on the intention to "u measuring
instrument. ?nder this tpe of measure, consumers are asked to respond $h the are interested
in purchasing the product or "rand. /ne tpe of action that ad!ertisers attempt to induce is
"uing "eha!ior. #he assumption is that if an increase in sales follo$s a decrease in ad!ertising
e(penditure, the change in sales le!els are good indicators of the effecti!eness of ad!ertising.
>ogic suggests that measurement of sales is prefera"le to other measurements.
#hus, these a"o!e measures Hdirect or indirectI are used to e!aluate the effecti!eness of
ad!ertisements. It seems from the analsis of the a"o!e methods of measuring effecti!eness that
directl or indirectl changes in sales or profits are taken as the measuring rod of the
effecti!eness of the ad!ertising.
#he management should attempt to e!aluate the effecti!eness of the ad!ertising
campaign if the firm1s ad!ertising goals are to "e achie!ed and the ad effecti!eness is to "e
increased. B regular e!aluation of the effecti!eness, the short comings and the plus points
$ould "e re!ealed and the management $ould "e a"le to impro!e the campaign " negating the
shortcomings and retaining the fa!ora"le point. %or this purpose, it is !er necessar to kno$
ho$ ad!ertising affects the "uer1s "eha!iors. But this is !er difficult task "ecause
measurements are imperfect and imprecise.
#he effecti!eness of ad!ertising can "e measured " the e(tent, it to $hich it achie!es the
o"'ecti!es set for it. If it succeeds in attaining the o"'ecti!es. Ad!ertising can "e said to "e
effecti!e other$ise it $ill "e a $aste of mone and time. In this sense, ad!ertising can "e
recogni9ed as a "usiness acti!it like other acti!ities.
In a !er real sense the integrit of promotional acti!ities rests on ho$ $ell those
acti!ities $ork. An ad!ertising "udget that is spent on some poorl defined task or on undefined
tasks ma "e regarded as an economic $aste as compared to that spent to achie!e the $ell
defined o"'ecti!es for $hich the results can "e measured. An social institution upon $hich a
significant portion of our total producti!e efforts is e(panded should "e a"le to point to its
specific accomplishment. Indeed, it is a source of discomfort that specific results of ad!ertising
acti!ities ha!e not al$as "een su"'ect to precise measurement. Both practitioners and critics
feel that promotional acti!ities should onl "e accepted as socio J economic J institution $ith
full right and pri!ileges E$hen the means
e(ist to pro!e that ad!ertising super are producti!e rupees1 It is undou"tedl a source of
em"arrassment that $e cannot e(actl measure the effecti!eness of ad!ertising in definiti!e
#he e(act result of ad!ertisement e(penditure is !er difficult to predict "ecause..
HaI #he reaction of consumer J "uers to the ad!ertising efforts cannot "e kno$n in ad!ance.
H"I #he reaction of competitors in the field cannot "e guessed in anticipation and
HcI #he une(pected e!ents Hsuch as change in social and economic en!ironment and the
go!ernment policies etc.I cannot "e accuratel anticipated. Such e!ents ma influence the results
of the ad!ertising efforts. If $e take a hpothetical case of a retailer $ho contract to spent
6s.4=== on ad!ertisement $ith a local ne$spaper for a special sales e!en. #he ad!ertisement is
seen and the response is much greater than it is anticipated. 8hat caused the success of saleM
#he message theme colors etc., of the ad!ertisement or the lo$ prices Cuoted during the sale of
the superior Cualit of the product or a"sence of competition in the market on the da or the
fa!ora"le. 8eather conditions or the good$ill of the firm etc. #he o!er$helming success of the
sale is the 'oint result of all the a"o!e !aria"les and it is Cuite impossi"le to isolate the role of an
one !aria"le. It is so "ecause the cause and effect J relationship cannot "e esta"lished in ad!ance
$hen a multitude of !aria"le impinge upon a particular e!ent. It is entirel possi"le that a poor
ad!ertising support ma push up the sale "ecause e!erthing else falls into its proper place or the
re!erse ma "e possi"le. But it does not mean that that $e cannot measure the effects of
particulars ad!ertising effort. #he ad!ertising e(ecuti!es are much concerned a"out the
assessment of the effecti!eness of the ad!ertising efforts. %or this purpose, the management
needs ans$ers to such Cuestions asG $as the ad!ertising campaign reall successful in attaining
the ad!ertising goalsM 8ere our #.V. commercials as good as those of our competitorsM 8ill the
print ad!ertisement, $hich $e ha!e designed, make consumers a$are of our ne$ productM #o
get ans$ers of these Cuestions, !arious tests of effecti!eness H*re. tests and post J tests I are
deeded to determine $hether proposed ad!ertisement should "e used, and if the are not
satisfactor ho$ the might "e impro!ed, and $hether on going campaign should "e stopped
continued or changed. *re. tests are conducted "efore e(posing target consumers to the
ad!ertisements and post tests after consumers ha!e "een e(posed to them.
As indicated earlier, the ad!ertisers are interested in kno$ing $hat the are getting for
their ad!ertising rupees, So the test the proposed ad!ertisement $ith pre test and measure the
actual results $ith a post test. In the past, protesting $as done " the ad!ertising agencies "ut
no$ the ad!ertisers ha!e "een taking an increasingl acti!e role in protesting process. *re test
ma "e done either "efore an ad!ertisement has "een designed or e(ecuted after it is read for
pu"lic distri"ution or at "oth points.
)uring protesting there is often research on three !ital CuestionsG.
HiI )o consumers feel that the ad!ertisement communicates something desira"le a"out the
HiiI )oes the message ha!e an e(clusi!e appeal that differentiates the product from that of the
HiiiI Is the ad!ertisement "elie!a"leM
Although a lot of mone is spent on protesting et the ad!ertisers like to confirm the
results " post testing of their promotional campaigns due to the follo$ing reasonsG.
HiI #here is a need produce more effecti!e ad!ertising " retaining the good and remo!ing the
HiiI #he ad!ertising e(ecuti!es can pro!e to the satisfaction of the management that a higher
ad!ertising "udget $ill "enefit the firm.
HiiiI #here is a need for measuring the results to determine the le!el of e(penditure that is most
Most research focuses on the communication effect rather than sales effect "ecause it is a
long run process. In the short run, ho$e!er sales ma "e slight and important "ut in the long run
its effects o" "rands and companies ma "e of great importance. Indirectl it $ill affect the sales
in the long run, " changing the consumer a$areness and attitude. #he ad!ertisers are therefore,
concerned $ith their impact on consumer a$areness and attitude.
#he communication effect on sales ma "e presented in the follo$ing figureG.
Communication 5ffect on Sales




*urchases or repurchase
A$areness "uilds a fa!ora"le or at least a curious attitude to$ards the product $hich
leads to e(perimentation. If consumer is satisfied $ith the trial he ma decide to purchase the
product. #here are man critical and unresol!ed issues in determining ho$ to test the
communication effects of ad!ertising. Among these areG.
H1I 5(posure Conditions J Should ad!ertising "e tested under realistic conditions or under more
controlled la"orator conditionsM
H2I 5(ecution J *rotesting a finished ad!ertisement as an e(pensi!e and time consuming. )oes
protesting a preliminar e(ecution produce accurate and useful dataM
H2I Nualit Vs. Nuantit )ata. Nuantitati!e data are the easiest and the almost precise
measurement. But Cualitati!e data collected through inter!ie$s ma pro!ide information that
short ans$er Cuestions ne!er can.
Man tpes of ad!ertising tests are conducted Hdifferent methods of pre tests and post J
test are gi!en in Cuestion num"erI In #.V. commercials are tested " in!iting a group of people
to the studio to !ie$ a program. #he audience is then sur!eed a"out the commercials. *rint
ad!ertisements are tested through dumm maga9ine portfolio tests.
C!mpun.ti!n Ee.ti9ene)) V) Sale) Ee.ti9ene))
It is easier to assess the communication effect of ad!ertising than the sales effect. Man
firms tr to measure the effecti!eness of ad!ertising in terms of sales results "ut this practice is
al$as misleading. Since, the effect is the result of so man !aria"les, a distinct effect of
ad!ertising on sales cannot "e correctl measured, Although there ma "e some e(ceptions. %or
e(ample direct mail ad!ertising can effecti!el "e measured " the inCuiries recei!ed. But in
man situations the e(act relationship "et$een ad!ertising acti!it and sales cannot "e
esta"lished satisfactoril.
8e can correctl assume that some sales $ill occur e!en though there is no ad!ertising or
little ad!ertising or con!ersel there $ill "e no increase in sales after the point of saturation is
reached or it ma "e that sales $ill sho$ a decreasing trend at this point in spite of large amount
of e(penditure on ad!ertising is done. It is so "ecause ad!ertising is no the onl !aria"le that
effect the sales.
#hus, $e ma conduct that sales effect of ad!ertising is difficult to measure "ecause a
num"er of !aria"les affect the Cuantum of tales and the contri"ution of ad!ertisement cannot "e
measured separatel unless all other !aria"les are presumed to "e constant. #his situation is Cuite
hpothetical and almost none(istent. Added to this is the fact that ad!ertisement itself is made of
a !ariet of !aria"les such as media, messages, colours, page or time of the da, locations, the
si9e of the headline and the appeals used. #hus e!en if the ad!ertising !aria"le is separated this
$ould still not ans$er the Cuestion a"out the effecti!eness of the indi!idual components of the
ad!ertising campaign. So ad!ertisers tr to measure the communication effect of the ad!ertising.
In small "usiness firms $here the marketing research resources are limited ad!ertising
managers ma decide on less e(pensi!e and less rele!ant measures. #he "ig "usiness house,
$hich has more access to research, ma decide on the more rele!ant and e(pensi!e measures.
Fa.t!r) Ae.tin+ Ad9erti)in+
#he final e(ternal factor in the planning frame$ork concerns en!ironmental factor social,
legal, and glo"al. >a$ for"ids decepti!e ad!ertising. /ne solution is to create "rand ad!ertising
that is !ague and contains little specific information. -o$e!er, such an approach can result not
onl in ineffecti!e ad!ertising7 " it can lessen the social !alue of ad!ertising " reducing the
amount for useful information that it pro!ides to societ. #hus, and ad!ertiser $ho attempts to
pro!ide specific, rele!ant information must "e $ell a$are of ad!ertising regulation.
5!en more difficult consideration for people in!ol!ed in the ad!ertising effort is "road
social and economic issues. Another concern is that ad!ertising, especiall $hen it is more
irritating than entertaining, is an intrusion into an alread e(cessi!el polluted en!ironment. A
$hole set of rules is emerging to co!er ad!ertising directed at children, and ad!ertising for
products such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the use of en!ironmental and health claims in
#hus ad!ertising has a tremendous impact on international marketing and the t$o
concepts therefore go hand in hand and are dependent on each other.
Ad!ertising has an important effect on a countr1s econom, societ, culture, and
political sstem. #his is especiall true in the ?nited States $here the ad!ertising industr plas
such a prominent role.
1( E.!n!mi. Impa.t
Most economists "elie!e that ad!ertising has a positi!e impact on the econom
"ecause it stimulates demand for products and ser!ices, strengthening the econom "
promoting the sale of goods and ser!ices. Manufacturers kno$ that ad!ertising can help
sell a ne$ product Cuickl, ena"ling them to recoup the costs of de!eloping ne$
products. B stimulating the de!elopment of ne$ products, ad!ertising helps increase
competition. Man economists "elie!e that increased competition leads to lo$er prices,
there" "enefiting consumers and the econom as a $hole. #hese economists also argue
that " interesting consumers in purchasing goods, ad!ertising ena"les manufacturers and
others to sell their products in larger Cuantities. #he increased !olume of sales ena"les
companies to produce indi!idual units at lo$er costs and therefore, sell them at a lo$er
price. Ad!ertising thus "enefits consumers " helping lo$er prices.
/ther economists, ho$e!er, "elie!e that ad!ertising is $asteful. #he argue that
the cost of ad!ertising adds to the cost of goods and that most ad!ertising simpl
encourages consumers to "u one "rand rather than another. According to this !ie$,
ad!ertising simpl mo!es sales from one compan to another, rather than increasing sales
o!erall and there" "enefiting the econom as a $hole.
>( S!.ial Impa.t
Ad!ertising can ha!e $ide.ranging repercussions on a societ. Some critics
suggest that ad!ertising promotes a materialistic $a of life " leading people to "elie!e
that happiness is achie!ed " purchasing products. #he argue that ad!ertising creates a
consumer culture in $hich "uing e(citing ne$ products "ecomes the foundation of the
societBs !alues, pleasures, and goals.
/ther critics e(press concern o!er the $a ad!ertising has affected $omen and
racial minorit groups. Ads in the 1<4=s depicted $omen primaril as decoration or se(
o"'ects. Although millions of $omen $orked outside the home in the 1<6=s, ads
continued to focus on their role as homemakers. 8hether o$ing to the feminist
mo!ement or to $omenBs increasing economic po$er, after the 1<6=s it "ecame more
common to see $omen depicted in professional roles. -o$e!er, man ads toda still
emphasi9e a $oman1s se(ualit.
#he $a ad!ertising has depicted racial minorities has also "een harmful. *rior to
1<6=, African Americans $ere usuall sho$n in a su"ordinate position. )ue to the
influence of the ci!il rights mo!ement, ho$e!er, ad!ertisers " the 1<;=s had "egun to
depict African Americans as students, professionals, or "usiness people. -o$e!er, man
African American organi9ations and communit acti!ists continue to o"'ect to the $a
that alcohol and to"acco companies ha!e seemingl targeted lo$.income minorit
communities $ith a hea! preponderance of outdoor ad!ertising for their products.
As ads ha!e "egun to more full reflect the li!es of $omen and African
Americans in the ?nited States, increasing attention has "een paid to the $a in $hich
ad!ertising sho$s other ethnic groups, including -ispanics, Asians, +ati!e Americans,
and 5astern 5uropeans. #here is still considera"le de"ate o!er ho$ ad!ertising influences
pu"lic perception of gender and of particular ethnic groups.
Ad!ertising has a ma'or social impact " helping sustain mass communications
media and making them relati!el ine(pensi!e, if not free, to the pu"lic. +e$spapers,
maga9ines, radio, and "roadcast tele!ision all recei!e their primar income from
ad!ertising. 8ithout ad!ertising, man of these forms of mass communication might not
e(ist to the e(tent that the do toda, or the might "e considera"l more e(pensi!e, offer
less !ariet, or e!en "e su"'ect to go!ernment control through su"sidies. In.depth ne$s
programs, a di!ersit of maga9ines, and free entertainment might no longer "e $idel
At the same time, ho$e!er, some critics $arn that "ecause ad!ertising plas such
a ma'or economic role, it ma e(ercise undue influence on the ne$s media and there"
curtail the free flo$ of information in a free societ. 6eporters and editors, for e(ample,
ma "e hesitant to de!elop a ne$s stor that critici9es a ma'or ad!ertiser. As a result,
societ might not "e alerted to harmful or potentiall harmful conduct " the ad!ertiser.
Most mem"ers of the ne$s media den that pressure from an ad!ertiser pre!ents them
from pursuing ne$s stories in!ol!ing that ad!ertiser, "ut some mem"ers of the media
ackno$ledge that the might not "e inclined to in!estigate an issue aggressi!el if it
threatened to offend a ma'or ad!ertiser.
Ad!ertisers ma affect media programming in other $as, too, critics charge. %or
e(ample, companies that sponsor #V programs prefer relati!el $holesome,
noncontro!ersial programming to a!oid offending a mass audience. #his preference
causes #V net$orks to emphasi9e this tpe of programming. #he result is that societ
ma "e denied the "enefits of "eing a"le to !ie$ challenging or highl original
entertainment programs or ne$s programs on contro!ersial issues. Because ad!ertisers
are especiall interested in attracting the 1; to 23 ear olds $ho account for most
consumer spending, tele!ision sho$s are often de!eloped $ith this audience in mind. If
the ratings sho$ that a program is not attracting large audiences, particularl among 1; to
23 ear olds, ad!ertisers often $ithdra$ support, $hich causes a program to "e canceled.
As a result, sho$s that are more likel to interest and to "e of !alue to older audiences are
not produced.
#he impact of tele!ision on oung children has recei!ed much attention. 6esearch
suggests that children see tele!ision ad!ertising as 'ust another form of programming and
react uncriticall to its messages, $hich makes them especiall !ulnera"le to ad!ertising.
#here is also concern a"out the $a in $hich adolescent girls respond to ad!ertising that
features "eautiful, thin models. 6esearch indicates that man adolescent girls are undul
influenced " this standard of "eaut, "ecome dissatisfied $ith their o$n "odies, and
ma de!elop eating disorders in pursuit of a thin figure. +e$ research suggests that
adolescent "os are also "eing influenced " ad!ertising images of "ulked.up, "uffed
"odies. As a result, man "ecome dissatisfied $ith their o$n "od image, de!ote large
amounts of time to $eightlifting, and ma e!en take drugs that ha!e harmful side effects
in order to de!elop more muscle. #hose o!er the age of 6= are thought to "e less
influenced " ad!ertising, "ut some elderl people no longer process messages as easil
as ounger people, making them more suscepti"le to Cuestiona"le ad!ertising claims.
?( P! Impa.t
Ad!ertising is no$ a ma'or component of political campaigns and therefore has a
"ig influence on the democratic process itself. In 1<<; more than O36: million $as spent
on election campaigns in the ?nited States. #hat amount of spending placed political
ad!ertising in the ranks of the countr1s 2= leading ad!ertisers that ear. *olitical
ad!ertising is a relati!el ne$ de!elopment in ?.S. histor. Ad!ertising professionals did
not "ecome in!ol!ed in electoral campaigns until the 1<4=s. But since then, political
ad!ertising has gro$n in sophistication and comple(it.
*olitical ad!ertising ena"les candidates to con!e their positions on important
issues and to acCuaint !oters $ith their accomplishments and personalities. #ele!ision
ad!ertising is especiall effecti!e for candidates running for national or state$ide office
"ecause it can reach so man people at once. Candidates can also use ad!ertising to
respond effecti!el to the charges of their opponents.
Various campaign finance reform proposals, ho$e!er, ha!e tried to address the
impact of tele!ision ad!ertising on political campaigning. Because of the high cost of
tele!ision ads, the costs of political campaigns ha!e skrocketed, making it necessar for
candidates to raise mone continuall, e!en after the ha!e "een elected to office. Critics
sa this factor 'eopardi9es the democratic process " making elected officials "eholden to
$ealth contri"utors and " making it more likel that onl the $ealth $ill run for
office. Some reform proposals ha!e called for free airtime, "ut tele!ision and radio
net$orks ha!e resisted this idea.
Critics of political ad!ertising also charge that the 2=.second tele!ision spot has
"ecome more important to a political campaign than a thorough discussion of the issues.
As a result, !oters are "om"arded $ith image ad!ertising rather than "eing acCuainted
$ith the candidate1s positions. #he contend that this practice is harmful to good
go!ernment. Issues are simplified, and candidates are Epackaged and soldF much like a
consumer product, there" distorting the political process.
2( Cultural Impa.t
Ad!ertising can affect cultural !alues. Some ad!ertising messages, for e(ample,
encourage aggressi!e indi!idualism, $hich ma clash $ith the traditional cultural !alues
of a countr $here the collecti!e or group is emphasi9ed o!er the indi!idual or humilit
or modest is preferred to aggressi!eness. 8ith the glo"ali9ation of the $orld econom,
multinational corporations often use the same ad!ertising to sell to consumers around the
$orld. Some critics argue that ad!ertising messages are thus helping to "reak do$n
distinct cultural differences and traditional !alues, causing the $orld to "ecome
increasingl homogeneous.
Man ad!ertising campaigns, ho$e!er, ha!e uni!ersal appeal, o!erriding cultural
differences, or the contri"ute to culture in a positi!e $a. -umor in ad!ertising has
made man ad campaigns $idel popular, in some cases achie!ing the status of folklore
or taking on ne$ life in another arena. %or e(ample, a popular ad campaign for a fast.
food chain $ith the slogan E8here1s the "eefMF "ecame part of the 1<;= )emocratic
presidential primar campaign "et$een &ar -art and 8alter Mondale. #he ad ridiculed
a competitor " depicting a small ham"urger patt d$arfed " a huge "un. )uring a
primar de"ate one of the candidates used the ad slogan to suggest that his opponent1s
campaign lacked su"stance.
Re)ear." De)i+n G )escripti!e
Data S!ur.e G *rimar data
G Secondar data
Re)ear." In)trument G Nuestionnaire
Sample de)i+n G Simple random design
Sample )iBe G 1==
Sample l!.ati!n
G !aranasi
Sample element G Students
G Business class
G -ouse hold
G Ser!ice class
Sampling ?nit is the total num"er of samples differed in different localit.
Sl( N!( Cla))e) N!( ! Cla))e)
1. Students 24
2. Business class 24
2. -ousehold 24
3. Ser!ice class 24
T!tal 1CC
)ata ha!e "een collected through the sur!e method $hile sur!es ha!e "een conducted in one
HiI !aranasi
#he data collected $as "oth from the primar and secondar source. #he primar data $as
collected through Cuestionnaires and $as collected personall.
#he secondar data $as collected through "ooks, maga9ines, compan $e"site and other
$e"sites. All the area had segmented according the population of this area. I ha!e considered
1== as sample si9e.
HC& T"e dieren.e am!n+ t"e parameter ,"i." inluen.e) t"e per.epti!n ! .!n)umer)
t!,ard) t"e pr!du.t i) )i+nii.ant(
H1& T"e dieren.e am!n+ t"e parameter ,"i." inluen.e) t"e per.epti!n ! .!n)umer
t!,ard) t"e pr!du.t i) in)i+nii.ant(
MOVING IMAGE 22 17 17 16
INFORMATION 22 22 24 19
LANGUAGE 5 19 18 21
CELEBRITY 19 14 19 17
INTENSITY 16 12 11 13
SOCIAL ISSUE 5 17 18 19
NATIONAL ADS 23 23 16 14
LOCAL ADS 2 2 9 11
S!ur.e !
Sum !
De+ree !
F@Rati! AD F@%imit
-r!m F@table/
C!lumn 21.; 2 :.2< =.1:< %H2,26I P 2.;2;:
R!,) 1343.:: 26 3=.31
T!tal 13:6.4: 2<
@TA$%E VA%UE at -C(CA/ le9el ! ) ! -?0?4/ E >(F?F3
-ere in this case %
statistics Q %
ta"le !alue.
-ence the null hpothesis is accepted.
Since $hen the statistical !alue is less than ta"le !alue then the null hpothesis is accepted and
hence $e can sa that the difference among the determinants and parameters is insignificant.
1( Fr!m ,"ere d! '!u +et in!rmati!n ab!ut t"e ne, pr!du.t:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Tele9i)i!n 32
Ne,)paper) 26
Ma+aBine) 11
Internet 6
Peer) -Famil' G Friend)/ 14
A large si9e of population is influenced " #ele!ision and +e$spapers.
>( 8"i." !rm ! ad9erti)ement d! '!u li*e m!re:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Still ima+e 2;
M!9in+ ima+e :2
*eople are more affected " ad!ertisement $ith mo!ing image.
?( F!r '!u ad9erti)ement i) a )!ur.e ! &
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Information 62
5ntertainment 2;
More num"er of people consider ad!ertisement as a source of information rather than a
source of entertainment.
2( D!e) entertainin+ ad9erti)ement ae.t '!ur !pini!n ab!ut t"e pr!du.t:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Aes 26
+o :3
5ntertaining ad!ertisement does not affect the opinion of customer a"out the product
A( D!e) in!rmati!n pr!9ided in ad9erti)ement ae.t) '!ur !pini!n ab!ut
t"e pr!du.t:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Ye) ;:
N! 12
Information pro!ided in the ad!ertisement affect !er much on the opinion of consumers
a"out the product.
4( D!e) lan+ua+e u)ed in ad9erti)ement ae.t) '!ur !pini!n ab!ut t"e
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Ye) 4?
N! ?3
>anguage used in the ad!ertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers a"out the
3( D!e) pre)en.e ! an' .elebrit' in t"e ad9erti)ement ae.t) '!ur !pini!n
ab!ut t"e pr!du.t:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Ye) 6<
N! 21
*resence of an cele"rit affects on the opinion of consumers a"out the product.
F( D!e) inten)it' ! t"e ad9erti)ement ae.t) '!ur !pini!n ab!ut t"e
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Ye) 42
N! 3;
#he effect of intensit is !er po$erful on the opinion of consumers a"out the product.
H( D!e) pre)en.e ! )!.ial i))ue) in t"e ad9erti)ement ae.t) '!ur !pini!n
ab!ut t"e pr!du.t:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Ye) 4<
N! 31
*resence of social issues in ad!ertisements affects !er much on the opinion of
consumers a"out the product.
1C(D! '!u t"in* ad9erti)ement "elp) in in.rea)in+ )ale) ! an' pr!du.t:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Ye) ;:
N! 12
Ad!ertisement helps !er much in increasing the sales of an product.
11(8"i." t'pe ! ad9erti)ement inluen.e) '!u m!re:
An),er) N!( ! re)p!ndent)
Nati!nal ad9erti)ement :6
%!.al ad9erti)ement 23
+ational ad!ertisements affect people1s opinion more than the local ad!ertisements.
Ad!ertisements $ith mo!ing image are more effecti!e than ad!ertisement $ith still
Information pro!ided in the ad!ertisement has more influence on consumer1s perception
a"out the product.
>anguage used in the ad!ertisement also plas important role in increasing effecti!eness
of an ad!ertisement.
Intensit of ad!ertisement affects the perception of consumers to$ards the product and
leads them for its purchase.
Social issues included in ad!ertisement affects the perception of high age group people.
+ational ad!ertisement has more influence on consumer1s perception a"out the product
instead of local ad!ertisement.
Ad!ertisement increases the sales of an product.
#he marketing researcher has to face certain difficulties $hile he carries out
the research $ork. -e kno$s the limitation "eforehand, uncontrolla"le and others are
controlla"le. Some important limitations, $hich are faced " researchers as follo$sG .
Sample si9e restricted to 1== onl $hich $as !er less according total population.
#he responses gi!en " respondents $ere not al$as accurate "ecause the
respondents ga!e the response according to their understanding.
Sur!e is a time consuming process "ut the time to collect the data for research
$as !er less.
Sometimes the respondents are not $illing to fill the Cuestionnaire and hence
the resultant ma not "e correct.
Marketing researchers studies the "eha!ior that is rational. Ver often, the do not
e(press their feeling correctl $hat the think. In such cases their ha"itual,
practice, preferences cannot "e assessed correctl.
A+/VA re!eals that all the determinants are not internall eCual the
are significantl different from one another. Similarl, all the parameters are not internall eCual
the are significantl different from one another.
In order to measure the effecti!eness of ad!ertising, $hich approach Hcommunication
effecti!eness or sales effecti!enessI, is more suita"leM #$o factors are to "e considered in
deciding the approach. #he are
1( Rele9an.e ! ad9erti)in+ !b<e.ti9e) !n t"e !9erall per!rman.e !b<e.ti9e)&
&enerall ad!ertising managers $ould like to kno$ the role of ad!ertisements on the
o!erall performance of the "usiness firm i.e., return on in!estment and on profita"ilit. A sale is
a determining factor of compan performance.
>( Dii.ult' and .!)t ! !btainin+ data needed t! e9aluate ee.ti9ene))&
&enerall communication measures are eas to follo$ than sales effecti!eness measures.
If the measures of ad!ertising are more rele!ant the $ill "e difficult and costl. If it is less
difficult and cheap the measures $ill not "e more rele!ant. #herefore, the ad!ertising manager
has to make a "alance "et$een these t$o approaches.
Ad!ertisement should "e made $ith keeping the determinants of effecti!eness in mind.
Ad!ertisement should "e according to the product and its suita"ilit $ith different age
#o make ad!ertisement more effecti!e all the determinants of effecti!eness should "e
taken care of.
In!estment in ad!ertisement should "e made $ith great care of media of ad!ertisement
and tpe of ad!ertisement.
Ad!ertisers should de!elop ne$ and more effecti!e $as of ad!ertisement.
1. Ad!ertising Management J concepts and cases Mahendra Mohan.
2. Marketing Management J *hilip 0otler
2. Branding J &eoffre 6andoll
3. Strategic Brand Management J 0apferer
4. Ad!ertising and Sales *romotion Management J S.>.&upta, V.V.6atra
6. Ad!ertising and Salesmanship J *.Sara!ana!el.
1. $$$."
2. $$$.scri"
2. $$$.paul"
3. $$$
I am S-85#A SI+&- perursuing 6th Semester of Bachelor of Business Administration
from . I am doing m research report on E A Stud on 5ffect of Ad!ertisement on ConsumersF as
a part of m course curriculum. %or this I reCuire ou to please fill this Cuestionnaire.
+ameG DDDDDDDDDDDD.................................
Se(G a. Male R S ". %emale R S
a. Belo$ 2= R S
". 2= to 2= R S
c. 2= to 3= R S
d. A"o!e 3= R S
a. Student R S
". Business class R S
c. -ouse hold R S
d. Ser!ice class R S
1. %rom $here do ou get information a"out the ne$ productM
a. #ele!ision R S
". +e$spapers R S
c. Maga9ines R S
d. Internet R S
e. *eers HfriendsKfamilI R S
2. 8hich form of ad!ertisement do ou like moreM
a. Still image HMaga9ines K +e$spapersI R S
". Mo!ing image H#ele!ision K InternetI R S
2. %or ou ad!ertisement is a source of
a. Information R S
". 5ntertainment R S
3. )oes an entertaining ad!ertisement influences our opinioSn a"out the productM
a. Aes R S
". +o R S
4. )oes information pro!ided in ad!ertisement affects our opinion a"out the productM
a. Aes R S
". +o R S
6. )oes language used in ad!ertisement affects our opinion a"out the productM
a. Aes R S
". +o R S
:. )oes presence of an cele"rit in the ad!ertisement affects our opinion a"out the
a. Aes R S
". +o R S
;. )oes intensit of the ad!ertisement affects our opinion a"out the productM
a. Aes R S
". +o R S
<. )oes presence of social issues in the ad!ertisement affects our opinion a"out the
a. Aes R S
". +o R S
1=. )o ou think ad!ertisement helps in increasing sales of an productM
a. Aes R S
". +o R S
11. 8hich tpe of ad!ertisement influences ou moreM
a. +ational ad!ertisement R S
". >ocal ad!ertisement R S