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This Thesis is submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the

Requirement of the Degree of Bachelor of Science in

Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Course Code: EEE-!!
Study of Heating System and its efficient use as
Laboratory Hot Plate
Pre"ared B#:
$% Full &ame : 'd% (amru))aman *D +$$$-,-.-/$$
,% Full &ame : 'd% 0bdullah 0l 'omen *D + $$$-,.1-/$$
2% Full &ame : 'd% 3a4irul 5asan *D + $$$-,11-/$$
% Full &ame : 'd% Sa66ad 5ossain 'ridha *D + $$$-,7$-/$$
/% Full &ame : 3ula4a 04ter *D + $$$-,7-/$$
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Study of Heating System and its efficient use as
Laboratory Hot Plate
A Project report submitted to the department of EEE, Atish Dipanar !iggayan "
Projoti !isha#biddaloy for partial fulfillment of the Degree of !$Sc in Electrical
and Electronic Engineering$
Submitted B#:
$% Full &ame : 'd% (amru))aman *D +$$$-,-.-/$$
,% Full &ame : 'd% 0bdullah 0l 'omen *D + $$$-,.1-/$$
2% Full &ame : 'd% 3a4irul 5asan *D + $$$-,11-/$$
% Full &ame : 'd% Sa66ad 5ossain 'ridha *D + $$$-,7$-/$$
/% Full &ame : 3ula4a 04ter *D + $$$-,7-/$$
Su"er8ised B#: Signature:
'ar)ia 5oque Date:
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%t is here by declared that no part of this thesis bearers the copyright &iolation and
no plagiarism opted during the course of material preparation$ 'he entire #ors has
been planned and carried out under the thesis super&isor of the honorable faculty
member 'ar)ia 5oque department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Atish Dipanar !iggayan " Projoti !isha#biddaloy, Dhaa, !angladesh$
'he content of this thesis is submitted by the group 'd% (amru))aman *D &9 +
$$$-,-.-/$$: 'd% 0bdullah 0l 'omen *D &9 + $$$-,.1-/$$: 'd% 3a4irul
5asan *D &9 + $$$-,11-/$$: 'd% Sa66ad 5ossain 'ridha *D &9 + $$$-,7$-
/$$: 3ula4a 04ter *D &9 +$$$-,7-/$$%
"nly for the fulfillment of the course of Study of Heating System and its
efficient use as Laboratory Hot PlateAnd no part of this is used any#here for the
achie&ement of any academic Degree or (ertificate$
Degree or Certificate
'd% (amru))aman 'd% 0bdullah 0l 'omen
%D )" * $$$-,-.-/$$ %D )" * $$$-,.1-/$$
Department of EEE Department of EEE
'd% 3a4irul 5asan 'd% Sa66ad 5ossain 'ridha
%D )" * $$$-,11-/$$ %D )" * $$$-,7$-/$$
Department of EEE Department of EEE
3ula4a 04ter
%D )" * $$$-,7-/$$
Department of EEE
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'his is to certify that the !$Sc$ thesis entitled Stud# of 5eating S#stem
and its efficient use as ;<aborator# 5ot Plate=% submitted by this group 'd%
(amru))aman *D &9 + $$$-,-.-/$$: 'd% 0bdullah 0l 'omen *D &9 + $$$-
,.1-/$$: 'd% 3a4irul 5asan *D &9 + $$$-,11-/$$: 'd% Sa66ad 5ossain
'ridha *D &9 + $$$-,7$-/$$: 3ula4a 04ter *D &9 +$$$-,7-/$$%
'he thesis represents an independent and original #or on the part of the
candidates$ 'he research #or has not been pre&iously formed the basis for the
a#ard of any Degree, Diploma, +ello#ship or any other discipline$
'he #hole #or of this thesis has been planned and carried out by this group
under the super&ision and guidance of the faculty members of Atish Dipanar
!iggayan " Projoti !isha#biddaloy, !angladesh$

'ar)ia 5oque
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Atish Dipanar !iggayan " Projoti !isha#biddaloy
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+aculty of Engineering
Department of EEE
Atish Dipanar !iggayan " Projoti !isha#biddaloy
Dhaa, !angladesh$
Subject1 letter of transmittal$
Dear Sir,
2ith due respect, #e should lie to inform you that is a great pleasure for us to
submit the final project on Study of 5eating S#stem and its efficient use as
;<aborator# 5ot Plate= for Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
re3uirement bachelor degree4 program$ 'his project pro&ided us #ith a practical
e5posure to the o&erall #oring en&ironment and &ery good e5perience #hich is
pre&ailing in to professional life$ 2e came to no# about many things regarding
the current #orld on the concept of Electronic De&elopment$ 2e ha&e tried to our
best to put through effort for the preparation of this report$ Any short coming or
fault may arise as our unintentional mistae #e #ill #hole heartily #elcome for
any clarification and suggestion about any &ie# and conception disseminated
through this project$
2e hope and strongly belie&e that this project #ill meet the re3uirement as #ell as
satisfying your purpose$ 2e #ill a&ailable for any further classification in this
Sincerely 6ours,
%D* ---7/8,79--
%D* ---7/,:79--
%D* ---7/::79--
%D* ---7/;-79--
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%D* ---7/;079--
Atish Dipanar !iggayan " Projoti !isha#biddaloy
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
0PP9R0>0< S5EET
'his project 'itle is Study of 5eating S#stem and its efficient use as
;<aborator# 5ot Plate= has been submitted to the follo#ing respected members
of the !oard of E5aminers of the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering in partial fulfillment of the re3uirements of the degree of !achelor of
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering by the follo#ing students$
$% Full &ame : 'd% (amru))aman *D +$$$-,-.-/$$
,% Full &ame : 'd% 0bdullah 0l 'omen *D + $$$-,.1-/$$
2% Full &ame : 'd% 3a4irul 5asan *D + $$$-,11-/$$
% Full &ame : 'd% Sa66ad 5ossain 'ridha *D + $$$-,7$-/$$
/% Full &ame : 3ula4a 04ter *D + $$$-,7-/$$
0s the su"er8isor * ha8e a""ro8ed this "a"er for submission%
???????? ?????????
'ar)ia 5oque 'd%*mam 5ossain
Project Super&isor < Senior Lecturer < (oordinator
Lecturer Department of EEE
Department "f EEE Atish Dipanar !iggayan "
Atish Dipanar !iggayan " Projoti !isha#biddaloy
Projoti !isha#biddaloy
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At first #e #ould lie to than our Super&isor 'ar)ia 5aque =Lecturer
EEE, AD!"P!> for gi&ing us the opportunity to #or to under his super&ision, the
endless hours of help, Suggestions, Ad&ice and Support to eep us on trac during
the de&elopment of this thesis$
2e also #ant to e5press gratitude to 'r% 'd% *mam 5ossain for his support
during our #or on this thesis$
Last, but not the least, #e #ould lie to than our parents and family for maing it
possible for us to study and for their constant help and support$
.$ 'arch ,.$ The 0uthors
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'he #or #e present is a comparati&e study of different heating systems and a laboratory base
hot plate #as implemented to complete the study$
A proto type of heating system #as made$ 'hermostat s#itches, heating coil, transistors,
capacitors, resistors etc there part of this heating system$ 'his heating system can be used in the
laboratory mainly$ 'he temperature range of the prototype is bet#een 9,?c to /,,?c $A aluminum
#as chosen to be the base material of the hot plate$
Although e&ery care has been taen in preparing thesis$

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Contents Page &o%
(o&er Page ,-
%nitial Page ,/
Declaration ,.
(ertificate ,0
Acno#ledgement ,8
Abstract ,;
'able of (ontents ,@
List of 'able --
List of +igure
C50PTER .$ *ntroduction Page &o
-$- %ntroduction -/
-$/ Heating "bject -/
-$. Ases Hot Plate -.
C50PTER ., Stud# of 5eating S#stem
/$- %ntroduction of Heating System -0
/$/ Heating, Bentilation ,Air7 conditioning System -0
/$/$- Cadiator Heating System -0
/$/$/ (entral Heating System -9
/$/$. !oiler Heating System -:
/$/$0 Solar Energy Heating System -;
/$. Passi&e Solar Heating System /-
C50PTER .2 <aborator# 5ot Plate
.$- %ntroduction
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.$/ Principal of "peration /0
.$. Description /9
C50PTER . <ist of Com"onent
0$- List of the heating element /:
0$-$- Heating (oil /:
0$-$/ 'hermostat S#itch /@
0$-$. -/B D( Adapter /@
0$-$0 Cesistor .,
0$-$9 (apacitor ./
0$-$8 LED =Light Emitting Diode> ..
0$-$: P(! =Printed (ircuit !oard> .9
0$-$; 'ransistor .8
C50PTER ./ Com"arison of 5eating S#stem
9$- Hot Plate .;
9$/ Laboratory hot plate .@
9$/$- 'hermo round top hot plate 0,
9$/$/ 'hermo scientific student hot plate 0/
9$/$. Digital hot plate 0.
9$. Single !urner Electric Hot Plate 00
9$0 Cadiant Heating 09
9$9 Solar Energy Heating System 08
9$8 Stream !oiler Heating System 0:
C50PTER .- Discussions and Conclusion
8$- Ad&antage 0@
8$/ Disad&antage 0@
8$. Suggestion of +uture 2or 0@
8$0 (onclusion 9-
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<*ST 9F T0B<E
'able1 ,- 6ear Solar +lu5es < Human Energy -@
'able1 ,/ Specification of Hot Plate /8
'able1 ,. List of 'he Heating Element /:
'able1 ,0 Specification of System Adapter .,
'able1 ,9 Specification of Hot Plate .@
'able1 ,8 Specification of 'hermo Scientific Hot Plate 0,
'able1 ,: Specification of 'hermo Cound top Hot Plate 0-
'able1 ,; Specification of 'hermo Student Hot Plate 0/
'able1 ,@ Specification of Electric Hot Plate 09
+ig1-$- 2oring Process Hot Plate -/
+ig1/$- Syl&esters 2arm Air Sto&e -8
+ig1/$/ Pot !oiler -:
+ig1/$. 2ater 'ube !oiler -;
+ig1/$0 About Half 'he %ncoming Solar Energy -@
+ig1/$9 Solar 2ater Heaters +acing the Sun Dain /,
+ig1/$8 'he Solar in Auro&ille, %ndia /-
+ig1/$: Schematic Diagram of Solar 2ater Heater //
+ig1.$- Hot Plate (oil /.
+ig1.$/ Heater (ircuit !loc Diagram /0
+ig1.$. Heater (ircuit Diagram /9
+ig1.$0 Heater (ircuit /8
+ig10$- Heating (oil /;
+ig10$/ 'hermostat S#itches /@
+ig10$. -/B Adapter .,
+ig10$0 Cesistor Symbol .-
+ig10$9 Bariable Cesistor Symbol .-
+ig10$8 Physical Symbol E .-
+ig10$: (apacitor Symbol ./
+ig10$; 'ypes of (apacitor ..
+ig10$@ LED .0
+ig10$-, P(! =Printed (ircuit !oard> .9
+ig10$-- 'ransistor Physical Symbol .8
+ig19$- De&ice of Hot Plate .;
+ig19$/ De&ice of Laboratory Hot Plate .@
+ig19$. De&ice of 'hermo Coundtop Hotplate 0,
+ig19$0 De&ice of 'hermo Scientific Hotplates 0/
+ig19$9 De&ice of Digital Hot Plate 0.
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+ig19$8 De&ice of electric hot plate 00
+ig19$: Cadiant Heating 08
+ig19$; (ircuit Diagram Solar Energy Heating 0:
+ig19$@ Schematic diagram of boiler heating 0;
+ig18$- Heater +an de&ice 9,
C50PTER .$
$%$ *ntroduction:
A hot plate is a portable self7contained tabletop small appliance that features one, t#o or
more gas burners or electric heating elements$ A hot plate can be used as a standalone appliance,
but is often used as a substitute for one of the burners from an o&en range or the coo top of a
sto&e$ Hot plates are often used for food preparation, generally in locations #here a full itchen
sto&e #ould not be con&enient or practical, as hot plates are easily mo&ed from one location to
$%, 5eating 9b6ects:
'he hot plate also becomes a tool #hen used to heat other objects that then perform a
function in the science class setting$ +or e5ample, if testing the ability of a hot object to perforate
a solid object, heat an item such as a nail, paper clip or ice pic on the hot plate before testing its
ability to perforate a plastic #ater bottle$
$%2 Function:
A hot plate produces heat by using electricity, instead of traditional means of producing
heat by using fire$ Ho# it does this is by running electricity through its heat coils$ 'he heat coils
ha&e a relati&ely high le&el of electrical resistance$ As electricity encounters resistance along its
course, the buildup changes from electrical energy, to heat energy, causing the heating coils to
emit heat$ So ho# does a hot plate produce heatF Cemember, it is the resistance as the electricity
mo&es through the coils$

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Fig: $%$ @or4ing "rocess a hot "late
$% Bses
Bse as laborator# equi"ment:
Hot plates pro&ide a con&enient, useful addition to science labs and instruction #hen other
sources of heat are not a&ailable or #hen additional sources are necessary$ 'hough still a&ailable
at ine5pensi&e prices, sophisticated &ersions also e5ist that ha&e upgrades made just for scientific
use$ Automatic magnetic stirrers and induction heating come in some models$ Ho#e&er, e5pect
to pay much more for these upgrades o&er #hat typical hot plates sell for in discount stores$
@ater Boiling:
Gany e5periments and demonstrations re3uire boiling #ater, such as those that use boiling
#ater and a container to illustrate condensation or e5panding gasses$ A hot plate pro&ides an
easy and efficient #ay to boil #ater$
2hen testing the melting temperature or melting times of &arious objects, a hot plate
pro&ides a heat source on #hich to place &arious containers to hold the objects$ Hot plates ha&e
&ariable heat, so the melting times at &arious temperatures can also be tested$
States of 'atter:
Ase a hot plate to demonstrate the changes in states of matter$ (hange an ice cube from a
solid to a li3uid to a gas right before studentHs eyes for an effecti&e elementary demonstration$
Pro8ides a >ariable:
Ase the hot plate to pro&ide a &ariable in an e5periment$ (onduct a chemical reaction
e5periment, such as &inegar and baing soda, but e5plain &ariables to the students and use heated
&inegar as #ell as cold and room temperature &inegar$

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C50PTER .,
Stud# of 5eating S#stem
,%$ 5eating s#stem:
A heating system is a mechanism for maintaining temperatures at an acceptable le&elI by
using thermal energy #ithin a home, office, or other d#elling$ "ften part of an HBA( system$ A
heating system may be centraliJed or distributed$ A heating system eeps a building #arm #hen
the #eather outside is cold$ 'hey are also used to pro&ide artificial #armth for storage or to
create an artificial climate for animals and plants$ 'hey are used for homes, offices, factories and
#arehouses$ 'he term heating system implies there is more than one heat source or a means of
mo&ing heat around the building$
'he de&elopment of a heating system for any ind of building is a ne# phenomenon for most
areas of the #orld$ %n ancient times, homes #ere heated by a single fire no#n as a hearth$
Situated in the middle of the house, it #as also used for cooing$ Any additional #armth #as
pro&ided by thic clothing and good insulation$ Archaeologists and historians belie&e animals
#ere brought into the home to pro&ide e5tra body #armth in #inter$
'he first heating system #as de&eloped by the Comans$ (alled hypocaust, the system in&ol&ed
allo#ing hot smoe to circulate under the floor so #armth #ould naturally rise$ Hypocaust
#ored by raising the first floor off the ground and supporting it #ith stone columns$ 'he
Comans #ould then #aft smoe from a furnace$ 'he system #as used both in pri&ate homes of
#ealth and in public baths such as the one found at (hed#orth Coman Billa in England$
,%, 5>0C Control S#stem:
5>0C =stands for 5eating, >entilation and 0ir Conditioning> is a control system that
applies regulation to a heating and4or air conditioning system$ Asually a sensing de&ice is used to
compare the actual state =e$g$, temperature> #ith a target state$ 'hen the control system dra#s a
conclusion #hat action has to be taen =e$g$, start the blo#er>$
,%,%$ Radiator heating s#stem:
Cadiators are heat e5changers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another
for the purpose of cooling and heating$ 'he majority of radiators are constructed to function in
automobiles, buildings, and electronics$ 'he radiator is al#ays a source of heat to its
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en&ironment, although this may be for either the purpose of heating this en&ironment, or for
cooling the fluid or coolant supplied to it, as for engine cooling$ Despite the name, radiators
generally transfer the bul of their heat &ia con&ection, not by thermal radiation, though the term
Kcon&ectorK is used more narro#lyI see radiation and con&ection, belo#$
'he Coman hypocaust, a type of radiator for building space heating, #as described in -9 AD$
'he heating radiator #as in&ented by +ranJ San Dalli, a Polish7born Cussian businessman li&ing
in St$ Petersburg, bet#een -;99 and -;9:$
Radiator and Con8ection 5eating:
"ne might e5pect the term KradiatorK to apply to de&ices that transfer heat primarily by
thermal radiation =see1 infrared heating>, #hile a de&ice #hich relied primarily on natural or
forced con&ection #ould be called a Kcon&ectorK$ %n practice, the term KradiatorK refers to any of
a number of de&ices in #hich a li3uid circulates through e5posed pipes =often #ith fins or other
means of increasing surface area>, not#ithstanding that such de&ices tend to transfer heat mainly
by con&ection and might logically be called con&ectors$ 'he term Kcon&ectorK refers to a class of
de&ices in #hich the source of heat is not directly e5posed$
Cadiators are commonly used to heat buildings$ %n a central heating system, hot #ater or
sometimes steam is generated in a central boiler, and circulated by pumps through radiators
#ithin the building$ 'here are t#o types1 Single7pipe and double7pipe$ 'he single7pipe radiators
#or #ith steam, #hile the double7pipe radiators #or #ith steam or hot #ater$
,%,%, Central 5eating s#stem:

A central heating system pro&ides #armth to the #hole interior of a building =or portion of a
building> from one point to multiple rooms$ 2hen combined #ith other systems in order to
control the building climate, the #hole system may be an HBA( =heating, &entilation and air
conditioning> system$
(entral heating differs from local heating in that the heat generation occurs in one place, such as
a furnace room in a house or a mechanical room in a large building =though not necessarily at the
KcentralK geometric point>$ 'he most common method of heat generation in&ol&es the
combustion of fossil fuel in a furnace or boiler$ 'he resultant heat then gets distributed1 typically
by forced7air through duct#or, by #ater circulating through pipes, or by steam fed through
pipes$ %ncreasingly, buildings utiliJe solar7po#ered heat sources, in #hich case the distribution
system normally uses #ater circulation$
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5ot @ater heating:

Fig: ,%$ S#l8esterCs Darm-air sto8e: $7$!
2illiam Strutt designed a ne# mill building in Derby #ith a central hot air furnace in
-:@., although the idea had been already proposed by Lohn E&elyn almost a hundred years
earlier$ StruttHs design consisted of a large sto&e that heated air brought from the outside by a
large underground passage$ 'he air #as &entilated through the building by large central ducts$
%n -;,:, he collaborated #ith another eminent engineer, (harles Syl&ester, on the construction of
a ne# building to house DerbyHs Coyal %nfirmary$ Syl&ester #as instrumental in applying StruttHs
no&el heating system for the ne# hospital$ He published his ideas in The Philosophy of Domestic
Economy; as exemplified in the mode of Warming, Ventilating, Washing, Drying, & Cooking, ...
in the Deryshire !eneral "nfirmary in -;-@$ Syl&ester documented the ne# #ays of heating
hospitals that #ere included in the design, and the healthier features such as self7cleaning and
air7refreshing toilets$ 'he infirmaryHs no&el heating system allo#ed the patients to breathe fresh
heated air #hilst old air #as channeled up to a glass and iron dome at the centre$
Stream heating:
'homas 'redgold, a noted engineer and authority on central heating systems in the early
-@th century$'he English #riter Hugh Plat proposed a steam based central heating system for a
greenhouse in -9@0, although this #as an isolated occurrence and #as not follo#ed up until the
-;th century$ (olonel (oe de&ised a system of pipes that #ould carry steam around the house
from a central boiler, but it #as Lames 2att the Scottish in&entor #ho #as the first to build a
#oring system in his house$A central boiler supplied high7pressure steam that then distributed
the heat #ithin the building through a system of pipes embedded in the columns$ He
implemented the system on a much larger scale at a te5tile factory in Ganchester$ Cobertson
!uchanan #rote the definiti&e description of these installations in his treatises published in -;,:
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and -;-9$ 'homas 'redgoldHs #or Principles of Warming and Ventilating P#lic $#ildings
delineated the method of the application of hot steam heating to smaller, non7industrial
buildings$ 'his method had superseded
,%,%2 Boiler heating s#stem:
A boiler is a closed Mpressure &essel N&esselO in #hich #ater or other fluid is heated$ 'he
fluid does not necessarily boil$ =%n )orth America the term KfurnaceK is normally used if the
purpose is not actually to boil the fluid$> 'he heated or &aporiJed fluid e5its the boiler for use in
&arious processes or heating applications, including central heating, boiler7based po#er
generation, cooing, and sanitation$
Boilers can be classified into the folloDing configurations:
Pot Boiler1 a primiti&e KettleK #here a fire heats a partially filled #ater container from belo#$
-;th century Haycoc boilers generally produced and stored large &olumes of &ery lo#7pressure
steam, often hardly abo&e that of the atmosphere$ 'hese could burn #ood or most often, coal$
Efficiency #as &ery lo#$
Fire-tube boiler: Here, #ater partially fills a boiler barrel #ith a small &olume left abo&e to
accommodate the steam =steam space>$ 'his is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam
locomoti&es$ 'he heat source is inside a furnace or fireox that has to be ept permanently
surrounded by the #ater in order to maintain the temperature of the heating s#rface belo# the
boiling point$ 'he furnace can be situated at one end of a fire7tube #hich lengthens the path of
the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface #hich can be further increased by maing the
gases re&erse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes =t#o7pass or
return flue boiler>I alternati&ely the gases may be taen along the sides and then beneath the
boiler through flues =.7pass boiler>$ %n the case of a locomoti&e7type boiler, a boiler barrel
e5tends from the firebo5 and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel
#hich greatly increase the heating surface compared to a single tube and further impro&e heat
transfer$ +ire7tube boilers usually ha&e a comparati&ely lo# rate of steam$production, but high
steam storage capacity$ +ire7tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to
those of the li3uid or gas$

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Fig: ,%, Pot boiler
@ater-tube boiler: %n this type, tubes filled #ith #ater are arranged inside a furnace in a
number of possible configurations1 often the #ater tubes connect large drums, the lo#er ones
containing #ater and the upper ones, steam and #aterI in other cases, such as a monotube boiler,
#ater is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils$ 'his type generally gi&es high steam
production rates, but less storage capacity than the abo&e$ 2ater tube boilers can be designed to
e5ploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high pressure applications since the high
pressure #ater4steam is contained #ithin small diameter pipes #hich can #ithstand the pressure
#ith a thinner #all$
Fig: ,%2 Dater tube
,%,% Solar Energ# heating s#stem:
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the
sun, is harnessed using a range of e&er7e&ol&ing
technologies such as solar heating, solar
photo&oltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar
architecture and artificial photosynthesis$
Solar technologies are broadly characteriJed as either
passi&e solar or acti&e solar depending on the #ay
they capture, con&ert and distribute solar energy$
Acti&e solar techni3ues include the use of photo&oltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to
harness the energy$ Passi&e solar techni3ues include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting
materials #ith fa&orable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that
naturally circulate air$
Energ# from the Sun:
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Fig: ,% 0bout half the incoming solar energ# reaches the EarthCs surface%
'he Earth recei&es -:0 peta#atts =P2> of incoming solar radiation =insolation> at the upper
atmosphere$Appro5imately .,P is reflected bac to space #hile the rest is absorbed by clouds,
oceans and land masses$ 'he spectrum of solar light at the EarthHs surface is mostly spread across
the &isible and near7infrared ranges #ith a small part in the near7ultra&iolet$
EarthHs land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises their
temperature$ 2arm air containing e&aporated #ater from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric
circulation or con&ection$ 2hen the air reaches a high altitude, #here the temperature is lo#,
#ater &apor condenses into clouds, #hich rain onto the EarthHs surface, completing the #ater
cycle$ 'he latent heat of #ater condensation amplifies con&ection, producing atmospheric
phenomena such as #ind, cyclones and anti7cyclones$ Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land
masses eeps the surface at an a&erage temperature of -0 Q($ !y photosynthesis green plants
con&ert solar energy into chemical energy, #hich produces food, #ood and the biomass from
#hich fossil fuels are deri&ed$
Table:.$Eear solar fluFes & human energ# consum"tion:
'he total solar energy absorbed by EarthHs atmosphere, oceans and land masses is appro5imately
.,;9,,,,, e5ajoules =EL> per year$ %n /,,/, this #as more energy in one hour than the #orld used
in one year$ Photosynthesis captures appro5imately .,,,, EL per year in biomass$ 'he technical
potential a&ailable from biomass is from -,,R.,, EL4year$ 'he amount of solar energy reaching
the surface of the planet is so &ast that in one year it is about t#ice as much as #ill e&er be
obtained from all of the EarthHs non7rene#able resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined
uranium combined,
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Solar .,;9,,,,, EL
2ind /,/9, EL
!iomass potential -,,7.,, EL
Primary energy 9.@ EL
Solar energy can be harnessed at different le&els around the #orld, mostly depending on distance
from the e3uator$
@ater 5eating:
Gain articles1 Solar hot #ater and Solar combisystem
Fig: ,%/ solar Dater heaters facing the Sun to maFimi)e gain%
Solar hot #ater systems use sunlight to heat #ater$ %n lo# geographical latitudes =belo#
0, degrees> from 8, to :,P of the domestic hot #ater use #ith temperatures up to 8, Q( can be
pro&ided by solar heating systems$ 'he most common types of solar #ater heaters are e&acuated
tube collectors =00P> and glaJed flat plate collectors =.0P> generally used for domestic hot
#aterI and unglaJed plastic collectors =/-P> used mainly to heat s#imming pools$
(hina As of /,,:, the total installed capacity of solar hot #ater systems is appro5imately
-90 D2$ is the #orld leader in their deployment #ith :, D2 installed as of /,,8 and a long
term goal of /-, D2 by /,/,$ %srael and (yprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar hot
#ater systems #ith o&er @,P of homes using them$ %n the Anited States, (anada and Australia
heating s#imming pools is the dominant application of solar hot #ater #ith an installed capacity
of -; D2 as of /,,9$
20 | P a g e
Gain article1 Solar cooer
Fig: ,%- The Solar BoDl in 0uro8ille: *ndia: concentrates sunlight on a mo8able
recei8er to "roduce steam for coo4ing
Solar cooers use sunlight for cooing, drying and pasteuriJation$ 'hey can be grouped into
three broad categories1 bo5 cooers, panel cooers and reflector cooers$ 'he simplest solar
cooer is the bo5 cooer first built by Horace de Saussure in -:8:$ A basic bo5 cooer consists
of an insulated container #ith a transparent lid$ %t can be used effecti&ely #ith partially o&ercast
sies and #ill typically reach temperatures of @,R-9, Q($ Panel cooers use a reflecti&e panel to
direct sunlight onto an insulated container and reach temperatures comparable to bo5 cooers$
Ceflector cooers use &arious concentrating geometries =dish, trough, +resnel mirrors> to focus
light on a cooing container$ 'hese cooers reach temperatures of .-9 Q( and abo&e but re3uire
direct light to function properly and must be repositioned to trac the Sun$
,%2 Passi8e Solar 5eating S#stem:
A solar #ater heater uses the sunSs energy to pre7heat household #ater before it enters the
con&entional gas =or electric> #ater heater$ !ecause Southern (alifornia is blessed #ith such
sunny #eather, a solar #ater heater could generate up to @,P of your annual #ater heating
needs$Solar hot #ater systems are en&ironmentally friendly and can no# be installed on your
roof to blend #ith the architecture of your house$ Gore than -$9 million homes and businesses in
the Anited States ha&e in&ested in solar heating systems, and sur&eys indicate that o&er @0P of
these customers consider the systems a good in&estment$
Solar #ater heating =S2H> or solar hot #ater =SH2> systems comprise se&eral inno&ations and
many mature rene#able energy technologies that ha&e been #ell established for many years$
Passi&e systems rely on heat7dri&en con&ection or heat pipes to circulate #ater or heating fluid in
the system$ Passi&e solar #ater heating systems cost less and ha&e e5tremely lo# or no
maintenance, but the efficiency of a passi&e system is significantly lo#er than that of an acti&e
system, and o&erheating and freeJing are major concerns$
21 | P a g e

Fig: ,%1 Schematic diagram of solar Dater heater

22 | P a g e
C50PTER .2
*m"lement of the Protot#"e
<aborator# G base 5ot Plate
2%$ *ntroduction:
A control instrument is used for the manually continuously adjustable supply of electric
po#er to electric hot plates in the form of indi&idual po#er pulses$ 'he control instrument
contains a s#itch, operated by a bimetallic member, #hose heater is controlled by an electronic
circuit and supplies current to the heating means in indi&idual half7#a&es$ An automatic initial
cooing de&ice #ith an electronic timing member is pro&ided #hich, during the initial cooing
phase, reduces the po#er supply to heater in a predetermined ratio and conse3uently
correspondingly increases the po#er supplied to the electric hot plate$ 'he automatic initial
cooing de&ice is automatically s#itched on by the control instrument nob$ !y rotating the
control nob beyond a median po#er limit the automatic initial cooing de&ice is s#itched off$

23 | P a g e
Fig: 2%$ 5ot "late coil
2%, Princi"le of 9"eration:
'he simplified circuit diagram of designed hot plate is sho#n $'he //,B A( supply is applied to
the input adapter #hich this po#er con&erts that A( to D($
Hot plate D( adapter -/ &oltage con&erting to the A( &oltage //,B , 9,HJ$ 'he adapter supply
to the po#er heating circuit this con&erts -/ B 9amp$
'his po#er operates the heating circuit and heat the heating coil$
Bloc4 diagram:
$,> 9HP 5eat

Fig: 2%, 5ot "late bloc4 diagram

24 | P a g e
or Anit
2%2 Descri"tion:
Here is a simple heater circuit that can be operated from a -/B adapter4 dc source$ 'he first
part of the circuit is an astable multi&ibrator build around the t#o transistors T- and T/ $'he ")
time of transistor T/ is set to ,$9 S$ 'he ") time of transistor T- can be &aried by using the
P"' C/$'he output pulses at the collector of T/ is used to dri&e the Darlington po#er transistor
T.='%P-//>$'he transistor T. dri&es the heating elements L- to L.$'he net heat produced can
be &aried by selecting the desired combination of heating elements at the output circuit sing
s#itches S- and S/$'he net heat can be also &aried by &arying the duty cycle of the triggering
pulse using P"' C/$
Circuit Diagram:
25 | P a g e
Fig: 2%2 0da"ter 9"erated 5eater Circuit%
Com"onent Details:
'he circuit can be assembled on a general purpose P(!$
'he transistor T. must be fitted #ith a heat sin$
'he elements L- to L. can be -,2 heating coils$
'he s#itches S- and S/ must be able to #ithstand at least 9A$
'he circuit can be po#ered from a -/B battery$
'he LED D- gi&es a &isual indication of the duty cycle of the circuit$

Fig: 2% 5eater circuit

Table:., S"ecification of hot "late
S< &o% Features S"ecification
26 | P a g e
,- Gain &oltage //,B, 9, HJ
,/ Lo# &oltage adapter po#er supply -/ B D(
,. 'emperature range ,7-,, Deg$+
,0 "utput po#er -9, #att
,9 %nput currant 9 amp$
<ist of Com"onent
%$ <ist of 5eating Element:
Table: .2 <ist of the heating element
27 | P a g e
S%&o <ist of com"onent
,- Heating coils
,/ 'hermostat s#itches
,. -/B adapter
,0 Cesistors
,9 (apacitors
,8 LED =Light Emitting Diode>
,: P(!=Printed (ircuit !oard>
,; 'ransistors
%$%$ 5eating Coil:
Heat coils, also no#n as protectors, #gs or carons ser&e as a surge protector bet#een
the telephone e5change and outside plant$ 'hey are commonly the last point of appearance for a
telephone circuit before it lea&es the office, for e5ample on the outside plant side of the main
distribution frame$ "n some competiti&e local e5change carrier circuits there are t#o heat coils,
the e5tra one being at the point of interface bet#een their circuit and #here the incumbent local
e5change carrier or Cegional !ell "perating (ompany recei&es it$ 'heir primary purpose is to
protect central office e3uipment from surges of high &oltage$
%f a surge comes do#n the line it #ill melt the connection bet#een the central office and outside
plant sides, as in a fuse, thereby protecting the e3uipment$ Some heat coils ha&e springs in them,
so that #hen a surge breas the circuit their tension is released and the plastic co&er pops off as a
&isual indicator that the line is someho# defecti&e$
5eating Element:
A heating element con&erts electricity into heat through the process of resisti&e or Loule
heating$ Electric current passing through the element encounters resistance, resulting in heating
of the element$ Anlie the Peltier Effect this process is independent of the direction of current
&ichrome: Gost heating elements use )ichrome ;,4/, =;,P nicel, /,P chromium> #ire,
ribbon, or strip$ )ichrome ;,4/, is an ideal material, because it has relati&ely high resistance and
forms an adherent layer of chromium o5ide #hen it is heated for the first time$ Gaterial beneath
this layer #ill not o5idiJe, pre&enting the #ire from breaing or burning out$
Resistance Dire: Getallic resistance heating elements may be #ire or ribbon, straight or coiled$
'hey are used in common heating de&ices lie toasters and hair dryers, furnaces for industrial
heating, floor heating, roof heating, path#ay heating to melt sno#, dryers, etc$ 'he most
common classes of materials used include1
Uanthal =+e(rAl> #ires
)ichrome ;,4/, #ire and strip
(upronicel =(u)i> alloys for lo# temperature heating
28 | P a g e
Etched foil: Etched foil elements are generally made from the same alloys as resistance #ire
elements, but are produced #ith a subtracti&e photo7etching process that starts #ith a continuous
sheet of metal foil and ends #ith a comple5 resistance pattern$ 'hese elements are commonly
found in precision heating applications lie medical diagnostics and aerospace$
Radiati8e heating elements Iheat lam"sJ: A high7po#ered incandescent lamp usually run at
less than ma5imum po#er to radiate mostly infrared instead of &isible light$ 'hese are usually
found in radiant space heaters and food #armers, taing either a long, tubular form or an %&'
reflector7lamp form$ 'he reflector lamp style is often tinted red to minimiJe the &isible light
producedI the tubular form is al#ays clear$
Fig: %$ heating coil
%$%, Thermostat sDitches:
'he 'hermostat is a contact type electro7mechanical temperature sensor or s#itch, that
basically consists of t#o different metals such as nicel, copper, tungsten or aluminium etc, that
are bonded together to form a Bi-metallic stri"$ 'he different linear e5pansion rates of the t#o
dissimilar metals produces a mechanical bending mo&ement #hen the strip is subjected to heat$
'he bi7metallic strip is used as a s#itch in the thermostat and are used e5tensi&ely to control hot
#ater heating elements in boilers, furnaces, hot #ater storage tans as #ell as in &ehicle radiator
cooling systems$
29 | P a g e
Fig: %, Thermostat sDitches
4.1.3 $,> dc ada"ter:
'he -/B dc adapter has the input terminal for A( supply source$ 'he supply &oltage
//,B,9,HJ A( supply$ So, the adapter input must be applied //,B,9,HJ, A( supply$ "ne of the
input terminal can install a fuse to protect the high &oltage A( supply and o&erroad$ "ne of the
input terminal has installed the s#itch to turn on and turn off of the adapter$

Fig: %2 $,> dc ada"ter
Table:. S"ecification of s#stem ada"ter
30 | P a g e
%$% Resistor:
Cesistors are considered to be the most used and the most important component of all the
electronic circuits$ 'ae a loo at the #oring, types and also use of resistors in the field of
2e no# that the basic idea of any electronic circuit is the flo# of electricity$ 'his also is further
categoriJed into t#o R conductors and insulators$ (onductors allo# the flo# of electrons, #hile
insulators do not$ !ut the amount of electricity that #e #ant to pass through them depends on the
resistors$ %f a high &oltage is passed through a conductor such as a metal, the #hole &oltage
passes through it$ %f resistors are introduced, the amount of &oltage and current can be controlled$
Fig: % Resistor s#mbol Fig: %/ >ariable resistor s#mbol

31 | P a g e
S%&o Feature
,- %nput A( -,,7/0,B
,/ "utput D( -/B
,. (urrent 9 Amp
,0 +re3uency 9,48, HJ
Fig: %- Ph#sical S#mbol IResistorJ
"hmSs la# , 'herefore, B V % W C And, CV B4%
%$%/ Ca"acitor:
(apacitors #hich store the energy #ithin the electro7chemical double7layer at the electrode
electrolyte interface are no#n under &arious names #hich are trade mars or established
collo3uial names such as double layer capacitorsH, super capacitorsH,X ultra capacitorsH,
po#er capacitorsH, gold capacitorsH or po#er cacheS$ Electro7chemical double7layer capacitorH is
the name that describes the fundamental charge storage principle of such capacitors$ Ho#e&er,
due to the fact that there are in general additional contributions to the capacitance other than
32 | P a g e
double layer effects, #e #ill call the se7capacitors electrochemical capacitors=E(> through out
this paper$ Electrochemical capacitors ha&e been no#n since many years$ +irst patents date
bac to -@9: #here a capacitor based on high surface area carbon #as de7scribed by !ecer M-O$
Later in -@8@ E rst attempts to maret such de&ices #ere undertaen by S"H%" M/O$

Fig: %1 Ca"acitor S#mbol
Fig: %7 Different T#"es of Ca"acitors

%$%- <ED I<ight Emitting DiodeJ:
A light7emitting diode =LED> is a semiconductor light source$ LEDs are used as indicator
lamps in many de&ices and are increasingly used for general lighting$ Appearing as practical
electronic components in -@8/, early LEDs emitted lo#7intensity red light, but modern &ersions
are a&ailable across the &isible, ultra&iolet, and infrared #a&elengths, #ith &ery high brightness$
Light7emitting diodes are used in applications as di&erse as a&iation lighting, automoti&e
lighting, ad&ertising, general lighting and traffic signals$ LEDs ha&e allo#ed ne# te5t, &ideo
33 | P a g e
displays, and sensors to be de&eloped, #hile their high s#itching rates are also useful in
ad&anced communications technology$ %nfrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of
many commercial products including tele&isions, DBD players and other domestic appliances$
LEDs are used to create a ne# form of #ireless internet access called Li7+i, or light fidelity$
LEDs are also used in se&en7segment display$

Fig: %! <ight Emitting Diode
34 | P a g e
Table: . S"ecification of <ED

Electronic s#mbol:
%$%1 PCB IPrinted Circuit BoardJ:
A printed circuit board =P(!> mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic
components using conducti&e tracs, pads and other features etched from copper sheets
laminated onto a non7conducti&e substrate$ P(!Hs can be single sided =one copper layer>, do#le
sided =t#o copper layers> or m#lti(layer$ (onductor on different layers are connected #ith
plated7through holes called &ias$ Ad&anced P(!Hs may contain components 7 capacitors, resistors
or acti&e de&ices 7 embedded in the substrate$
Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products$ Alternati&es to P(!s
include #ire #rap and point7to7point construction$ P(!s are more costly to design but allo#
automated manufacturing and assembly$ Products are then faster and cheaper to manufacture,
and potentially more reliable$Guch of the electronics industryHs P(! design, assembly, and
35 | P a g e
S%&o 0node and Cathode
,- Passi&e, optoelectronic
,/ Electroluminescence
"leg Lose& =-@/:>
Lames C$ !iard =-@8->
)ic Holonya =-@8/>
3uality control follo#s standards published by the %P( organiJation$2hen the board has only
copper connections and no embedded components it is more correctly called a printed )iring
oard =PW$> or etched )iring oard$ Although more accurate, the term printed #iring board has
fallen into disuse$ A P(! populated #ith electronic components is called a printed circ#it
assemly =PC*>, printed circ#it oard assemly or PC$ assemly =PC$*>$ 'he %P( preferred
term for assembled boards is circ#it card assemly =CC*>, for assembled bacplanes it is
ackplane assemlies$ 'he term P(! is used informally both for bare and assembled boards$

%$%7 Transistor:
36 | P a g e

Fig: %$. PCB IPrinted Circuit BoardJ

A 'ransistor is an semiconductor #hich is a fundamental component in almost all
electronic de&ices$ 'ransistors are often said to be the most significant in&ention of the /,th
(entury$ 'ransistors ha&e many uses including s#itching, &oltage4current regulation, and
amplification R all of #hich are useful in rene#able energy applications$
A transistor controls a large electrical output signal #ith changes to a small input signal$
Fig: %$$ Ph#sical S#mbol of Transistor
@or4ing "rocess:
'ransistor is an electronic de&ice that can be used as an amplifier or as a s#itch$'ransistor
is the ne5t &ersion to diode$Diode can simply pass through current in uni direction and can act as
s#itch,but transistor can also amplify$'hey can control a large current flo#ing through / regions
of semiconductor lie si to a small current applied to a middle region$'here are many inds of
transistors typical is bipolar transistor$ 'ransistor has . layers$ 'ransistor is designed by
appending another region on diode=P)7diode> either left or right,so the transistor configurations
are P)P,)P) $ 'he layers are Emitter,(ollector and !ase$%n transistor current flo# from Emitter
to (ollector and that flo# is controlled by current applied to middle terminal called !ase$

37 | P a g e
Fig: %$, Dor4ing "rocess transistor
A bipolar junction transistor has three terminals 7 Base, Collector, and Emitter corresponding to
the three semi7conductor layers of the transistor$ 'he #ea input current is applied to the inner
=base> layer$ 2hen there is a small change in the current or &oltage at the inner semiconductor
layer =base>, a rapid and far larger change in current taes place throughout the #hole transistor$
Fig: %$2 S#mbol Transistors
Pictured abo&e is a schematic diagram of the more common )P) transistor$ !elo# is an
illustration of the same transistor using #ater rather than electricity to illustrate the #ay it

C50PTER ./
38 | P a g e
Com"arison of 5eating S#stem
/%$ Protot#"e 5ot Plate:
'his hot plate made by steel iron and #ood$ 'he heating chamber made the aluminum
steel and used the heat protected silicon beside the heating chamber$ 'hen outside adjust the
po#er s#itch and LED, heat control regulator$ Adjust the heating coil in the heating chamber$
'he heating circuit and po#er supply adjust in the inside of hot plate$
Fig: /%$ Protot#"e 5ot Plate
Table:./ S"ecification of hot "late
39 | P a g e

/%, <aborator# 5ot Plate:
/%,%$ Thermo Scientific EF"losion-Proof S0FE-T 5P- 5ot"lates are for use in Class
*HArou" D atmos"heres:
+or haJardous applications, hotplates feature o&ertemperature safety monitors, precise
thermostatic controls and sealed aluminum housing$
Y 'hermostatic safety is set at /0.Q( =08@$0Q+> for added protection
Y Gaintains temperature #ithin Z9$9Q( =@$@Q+>
Y Sealed aluminum housing contains and protects controls
Y (ast aluminum top plate ma5imiJes heat transfer and uniformity =Z8$9Q( or --$:Q+>
Y (orrosion7resistant steel case for easy cleaning and maintenance
Y Accommodates up to /9 lb$ =--$. g> loads and metal &essels4containers

Fig: /%, Commercial a8ailable <aborator#-based 5ot Plate

40 | P a g e
S"ecification 5ot Plate
'emperature range -, to -,, (
Heating surface area 9$9 5 -,$9 (G
Electrical -/B, 9,HJ,9A

Table: .- S"ecifications of Thermo Scientific 5ot Plate
/%,%, Thermo Roundto" 5ot"late1
(e# Features:
Y +eature an integral temperature display, redundant user7defined controls and a Hot Surface
Alert system$
Y Bariable temperature control in /Q( increments up to -9,Q(I 9Q( increments abo&e -9,Q( up
to ma5imum
%nno&ati&e temperature control pre&ents runa#ay temperature conditions #ith user7defined
o&ertemperature setpoint
Y %ntegral temperature display and controller eliminates need for buly remote controller
Y +le5ible remote temperature probe allo#s application &ersatility
Y Aluminum top plate heating surface cleans easily
41 | P a g e
S"ecifications 5P$$/$/B
Tem"erature Range .;Q to //Q(
-,,Q to 0/;Q+
5eating Surface 0rea -9$8 5 -9$8 cm
8$-. 5 8$-.K
Electrical -/,B, 9,48, HJ, 9A, 8,,#

Fig: /%2 Thermo Roundto" 5ot Plate
Designed for Stabilit# and Safet#
H"' '"P 2arning System eliminates accidental burns #ith prominent display #hen heating
surface e5ceeds 9,Q( =-//Q+>
Cugged, lo#7profile, cast7aluminum base #ith si5 nonsid feet for increased stability on benches
and lab jacs
+le5ible remote temperature probe included in each unit pro&ides &ersitility needed for e&ery
application$ %deal for use in fume hoods
(ord retention bracet pre&ents loose po#er cord connections that can cause electrical arcing
Protection (lass %P0/
*ncludes: Detachable po#er cord and 8 in$ =-9$/cm> P'+E7coated temperature probe
Table: .1 S"ecifications of Thermo Roundto" 5ot "late
42 | P a g e

43 | P a g e
S"ecifications 5P$2!!,/K 5P$2!!,.-22K
)o$ of Heating Places -
'emperature Cange 0Q to .9,Q(
Heating Surface Diameter -.$9cm =9$. in$>
"&erall L 5 2 5 H /;$0 5 -8$9 5 @$@cm =--$/ 5 8$9 5 .$@
Shipping 2eight .$0g =:$8 lb$>
Heating Surface Area -.$9cm =9$. in$>
Gaterial =Surface> Aluminum
Load (apacity 0L
"&erall L 5 2 5 H /;$0 5 -8$9 5 @$@cm
Electrical Ce3uirements -/,B 9,48,HJ //,4/0,B 9,48,HJ
/%,%2 Thermo Scientific Student 5ot"lates:
Small diameter heating surfaces, #hich pro&ide high heat in a small footprint, ideal for
3uic sample testing
Perforated stainless steel case allo#s air to circulate to protect controls and countertop
from e5cess heat
'hermostatic temperature control pro&ides e5cellent stability of the top plate temperature
and the sample
Hot plate reaches /8,Q( =9,,Q+> in just 0$9 minutes
Cecommended for use #ith glass &essels
Fig: /% Thermo Scientific Student 5ot "lates
Table: .7 S"ecification of Thermo Scientific Student 5ot "lates:
44 | P a g e
/%,% Digital 5ot Plate
'hermo Scientific (imarec Digital Stirring Hotplates offer ad&anced stirring controls,
e5ceptional safety and superior temperature performance for general heating applications$
%deal for repetiti&e procedures demanding precision and safety$ Stir'rac technology optimiJes
stirring speeds and uni3ue H"' '"P alert pro&ides added protection$
45 | P a g e
S"ecifications HP/.,9!T 5P,2$.BK
Ga5imum 'emperature .:-Q( =:,,Q+>
Electrical -/,B 9,48, HJ
./92, /$: A
/0,B 9,48,HJ, ./9#,
Fig: /%/ digital hot "late
Performance Features:
Y Gicroprocessor7controlled feedbac technology maintains consistent, repeatable temperature
settings from 9Q( up to ma5imum
Y Digital display and large control nob enable precise temperature control
Y +lat top and high7#attage heating elements pro&ide superior heat transfer and fast time7to7boil
Y Barious siJes offered to handle different sample &olumes
Y Cugged cast aluminum body is stable and durable
Y Stir'rac technology allo#s smooth lo#7speed stirring, consistent speed control and stronger
magnetic coupling
Y Stir'rac braing brings stir bar to immediate stop for 3uic flash remo&al
Y %ntegrated ring stand holder to accommodate -$.cm =,$9 in$> diameter support rod
Safet# Features
Y Hot surface alert protects from accidental burnsI light acti&ates #hen heating surface is abo&e
9,Q =-//Q+>
Y Anit displays H"' "++ until unit reaches 9,Q( =-//Q+> or belo#, e&en #hen heat control is
turned off
Y (ast7aluminum base di&erts spills from internal electronics
Y Lo#7profile design and stable, rugged base pre&ents tipping and spillage
/%2 /.. @ mini electric sto8e: householdHeF"erimentHci8ilHindustrial furnace: electric hot
"late: electric coo4er: single burner:
Single7burner hotplate is the perfect specialty appliance #hen guests are coming$ Perfect
cootop for the office, small apartments, dorm rooms and more$ Aroma electric burners gi&e
your itchen added$
46 | P a g e

Fig: /%- electric single burner
Table: .! S"ecification of electric single burner:
Hot Plate Surface1 (oil Hot plate
Housing1 Getal
%nstallation1 (ountertop
Po#er =2>1 9,,
Boltage =B>1 //,

/% Radiant 5eating:
Cadiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the #all or ceiling
of a house$ 'he systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer 77 the deli&ery of heat directly
from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room &ia infrared radiation$ Cadiant heating
is the effect you feel #hen you can feel the #armth of a hot sto&etop element from across the
47 | P a g e
PoDer /..@ 7..@ $...@ $,..@ $/..@ ,...@ ,/..@ 2...@
Plate Diameter
$%/ $-%/ $1 $1%/ $7 $! ,. ,$
Height =(G> ! $.%/ $.%/ $.%/ $.%/ $$ $$ $$
room$ 2hen radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or
simply floorheating$
Cadiant heating has a number of ad&antages$ %t is more efficient than baseboard heating and
usually more efficient than forced7air heating because it eliminates duct losses$ People #ith
allergies often prefer radiant heat because it doesnSt distribute allergens lie forced air systems
can$ Hydronic =li3uid7based> systems use little electricity, a benefit for homes off the po#er grid
or in areas #ith high electricity prices$ Hydronic systems can use a #ide &ariety of energy
sources to heat the li3uid, including standard gas7 or oil7fired boilers, #ood7fired boilers, solar
#ater heaters, or a combination of these sources$ +or more on the different types of energy
sources and heat distribution systems for home heating$
Fig: /%1 *n-Dall radiant heating in a house under construction near Den8er
/%/ Solar Energ# 5eating S#stem:
48 | P a g e
Solar po#er is produced by con&erting collected sunlight into electricity, heat and light$ Solar
panels con&ert the sunlight into electricity and solar thermal collectors absorb sunlight to heat
Ad&antages of solar energy1
Sun light is a free and unlimited source of energy
Solar po#er is natural, non7polluting and has no harmful #aste
Solar po#er can be used for generation in remote locations, or other places #ith no grid po#er
Systems run by solar energy re3uire little maintenance
Gultiple applications of solar energy from small solar calculators to solar po#ered street lights,
to large grid connected solar farms pro&iding electricity for homes and buildings
Applications of solar energy1
Solar 'hermal
o Solar thermal installations can be used for heating #ater in home or commercial buildings as
#ell as space heating and cooling$
o Solar #ater heaters use different types of collections systems to use solar energy to heat #ater,
i$e circulating #ater in pipes behind solar thermal collection panels$
Fig: /%7 Circuit diagram of solar energ#
/%- Steam Boiler 5eating S#stem:
49 | P a g e
!oiler heating systems are normally seen in older properties$ Hot #ater is circulated
through the #hole building from a large boiler inside basement &ia numerous pipes$ 2ater is
typically employed to cool the compressors$ !oilers can heat air in addition to #ater and truly
use #ater to distribute it$ 2ater ser&es as one particular medium for heat transfer as opposed to
air$ !oilers are a &ery clean and effecti&e approach to heat your home$
!oiler heating systems are normally seen in older properties$ Hot #ater is circulated through the
#hole building from a large boiler inside basement &ia numerous pipes$ 2ater is typically
employed to cool the compressors$ !oilers can heat air in addition to #ater and truly use #ater to
distribute it$ 2ater ser&es as one particular medium for heat transfer as opposed to air$ !oilers
are a &ery clean and effecti&e approach to heat your home$

Fig: /%! Circuit diagram of boiler heating
A boiler heating method is really a unit that utiliJes the boiler heating po#er$ 'he boiler is a
tightly sealed container #hich heats the #ater operating by #ay of it turning it into steam and
after that pushes the generated steam through the heating system$ !ecause the steam cools, it
turns bac into #ater and settles in to the boiler system and the particular heating radiators in
each and e&ery space$

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C50PTER .-
-%$ 0d8antages: A hot plate can be used through electricity and there is no danger of any gas
leaage, #hich means that it is a much safer e3uipment to use$ Another ad&antage of a hot plate
is that it can heat li3uids &ery easily in a pan or bo#l and the solution can be mi5ed easily #hile
placed on top of the hot plate$ %n addition, a hot plate has a turning nob in #hich a scientist can
set the e5act temperature he4she #ants it to be heated at$ 'he temperature that it #ill heat at #ill
be accurate because the person #ho is doing the e5periment #ill no# #hat he4she #ants the
outcome to be$ Additionally, a hot plate is &ery hea&y so it is harder to brea or to fall on the
ground$ %t can stay in one place for a long time and #ill not mo&e too much, #hich also helps to
focus on the procedure$
-%, Disad8antages: A hot plate has a disad&antage of doing the job at a slo# pace$ %t is not ideal
for people #ho are in a rush and #ant to get there e5periment done before they run out of time$
A hot plate taes time to boil or heat something and can e&en tae longer than -9 minutes$ 'his
could #aste a scientistHs time because they may not be able to do anything else #hile #atching
their e5periment$ Another disad&antage of a hot plate is that #hoe&er is using it needs to be
careful of the type of e3uipment being placed on it and if it is flammable because if plastic is
placed to heat, the plastic #ill easily melt$ 'he best material to place on it is glass$
-%2 Suggestions for future Dor4:
%ts plate circuit also can be used a heating fan$ 'his circuit heating coil emission4creates the heat
behind the fan and adjusts a heat sin behind the fan$ A heat sin generates heat and #arms up to
room$ 'he heating coil adjusts on the heat sin$ Electric fan heaters #or by running a current
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through a resisti&e heating coil$ #hich con&erts electric energy into heat energy$ Air is then
dra#n in o&er this resisti&e heating coil using a fan #here itHs rapidly #armed and propelled out
into the room$
'hese types of heaters are commonly tae one of t#o different shapes R tall and slender, and
short and flat$ %f youHre choosing bet#een the t#o, the tall and slender &ersion is normally better,
because it circulates more air faster$
Sho#n one e5ample belo# figure$

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Fig:-%$ De8ice of 5eating Fan
-% Conclusion:
'he prototype hot plate is a portable appliance for heating or cooing or eeping food
#arm by using different type of energy such as electric$ 'he most common electric hot plate are
#idely used in home, laboratory as #ell as industries because they are &ary simply to handle and
lo# cost$ 'his hot plate is a electrical plate that #e can stic our dishes on to eep our food hot,
many restaurants use hot plates to eep food #arm #hile they are cooing$
'hrough this project #e ha&e learned many important things about hot plate and their practical
operation s$ 2e ha&e faced some difficulties especially for implementation$ 'he mentioned
problem that #e ha&e faced is'o mae design it had to calculate se&eral time$
2e ha&e got the full co7operation of the project super&isor of the accomplishment the project$
2e ha&e come to no# about ho# to mae a hot plate < ho# it can be #or$ %t #ill be helpful in
our ser&ice life as #ell as family life$ A //,B, 9, HJ, -9, #att, ,7-,, Degree + ranged
prototype hot plate has been fabricated, designed and tested$ 'he e5perimental result illustrate
the impro&ement of efficiency and po#er o&er different type of hot plate$
%n this 'hesis program, #e can also understand the contraction of hot plate and no# ho# it can
#or$ 2e also understand its &arious components$ Lies transistor, resistor, capacitor, thermal
s#itch, heating coil etc$
2e should tae care in the period of maing and using of this project$
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