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gives the information regarding the power semi conductor drives

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POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DRIVES

UNIT I

Control of DC motors by Single phase Converters: Introduction to Thyristor

controlled Drives, Single Phase semi and Fully controlled converters connected to d.c

separately excited and d.c series motors continuous current operation output voltage

and current waveforms Speed and Torque expressions Speed Torque

Characteristics- Problems on Converter fed d.c motors.

UNIT - II

Control of DC motors by Three phase Converters: Three phase semi and fully

controlled converters connected to d.c separately excited and d.c series motors output

voltage and current waveforms Speed and Torque expressions Speed Torque

characteristics Problems.

UNIT III

Four Quadrant operation of DC Drives: Introduction to Four quadrant operation

Motoring operations, Electric Braking Plugging, Dynamic and Regenerative Braking

operations. Four quadrant operation of D.C motors by dual converters Closed loop

operation of DC motor (Block Diagram Only).

UNIT-IV

Control of DC motors by Choppers: Single quadrant, Two quadrant and four quadrant

chopper fed dc separately excited and series excited motors Continuous current

operation Output voltage and current wave forms Speed torque expressions speed

torque characteristics Problems on Chopper fed d.c Motors Closed Loop operation (

Block Diagram Only).

UNIT V

Control of Induction Motor through Stator voltage: Variable voltage characteristics-

Control of Induction Motor by Ac Voltage Controllers Waveforms speed torque

characteristics.

UNIT VI

Control of Induction Motor through Stator Frequency: Variable frequency

characteristics-Variable frequency control of induction motor by Voltage source and

current source inverter and cyclo converters- PWM control Comparison of VSI and CSI

operations Speed torque characteristics numerical problems on induction motor drives

Closed loop operation of induction motor drives (Block Diagram Only).

UNIT VII

Control of Induction motor of Rotor side: Static rotor resistance control Slip power

recovery Static Scherbius drive Static Kramer Drive their performance and speed

torque characteristics advantages applications problems.

UNIT VIII

Control of Synchronous Motors: Separate control & self control of synchronous motors

Operation of self controlled synchronous motors by VSI and CSI cycloconverters. Load

commutated CSI fed Synchronous Motor Operation Waveforms speed torque

characteristics Applications Advantages and Numerical Problems Closed Loop

control operation of synchronous motor drives (Block Diagram Only), variable frequency

control, Cyclo converter, PWM, VFI, CSI.

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Fundamentals of Electric Drives by G K Dubey Narosa Publications

2. Power Electronics MD Singh and K B Khanchandani, Tata McGraw-Hill

Publishing

company,1998

REFERENCES:

1. Power Semiconductor Controlled Drives Gopal K Dubey PH International

Publications.

2. Power Semiconductor Drives - S B Dewan, G R Selmon, A Straughen

3. Power Electronic Control of AC drives B K Bose

4. Thyristor Control of Electric drives Vedam Subramanyam Tata McGraw Hill

Publilcations.

5. Electric Drives By N K de and P K Sen , Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

6. A First course on Electrical Drives S K Pillai New Age International(P) Ltd. 2nd

Editon

7. Analysis of Thyristor Power Conditioned Motors By S K Pillai, Unversity Press

(India) Ltd. Orient Longman Ltd. 1995.

8. Fundamental of Electric Drives by Mohd. AEL Sharkawi by VIKAS Publishing

House.

UNIT I

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

To introduce the thyristor controlled drives.

To study the operation of single phase semi and fully controlled converters

connected to DC separately excited motor with neat circuit diagram and

waveforms and also to derive the torque speed characteristics.

To study the operation of single-phase semi and fully controlled converters

connected to DC series motor with neat circuit diagram and waveforms and also

to derive the torque speed characteristics.

IMPORTANT POINTS AND DEFINITIOS:

A converter is a static device, which converts fixed AC voltage with fixed

frequency into variable DC voltage.

A firing angle may be defined, as the angle between the instant thyristor would

conduct if it were a diode and the instant it is triggered.

A semi (or half) controlled converter is one quadrant converter where as a full

converter is two-quadrant converter in which, voltage polarity can be reversible

but current polarity cannot be reversible because of the unidirectional properties

of the SCR.

The average value of DC output voltage of 1 - | half controlled bridge converter

can be calculated by,

(i) For R load:

V

O TH

= (V

m

/ H) (1 + Cos o)

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

Where V

O TH

is the theoretical average value of DC output voltage

V

m

is maximum value of AC input voltage and

o is the firing angle.

(ii) For RL load:

V

OTH

= (V

m

/ H) (Cos o - Cos |)

The value of Extinction angle | can be calculated by,

| = (H + |); Where | = tan

-1

(eL / R)

The average value of DC output voltage of 1 - | full controlled bridge converter

can be calculated by,

(i) For R load:

V

O TH

= (2 V

m

/ H) (Cos o)

Where V

O TH

is the theoretical average value of DC output voltage

V

m

is maximum value of AC input voltage and

o is the firing angle.

(ii) For RL load:

V

OTH

= (2 V

m

/ H ) (Cos o - Cos |)

The value of Extinction angle | can be calculated by,

| = (H + |); Where | = tan

-1

(eL / R)

In converters if the source inductance is considered the load current will not

transfer immediately from outgoing SCRs to incoming SCRs.

The period during which both outgoing SCRs and incoming SCRs are

conducting is known as overlap period.

(Commutation angle) is the angular period of overlap period.

The average value of DC output voltage of 1 - | full controlled bridge converter

by considering the source inductance for R load can be calculated by,

V

O TH

= (2 V

m

/ H) Cos (o+) + (eL

s

/ H) I

0

Where V

O TH

is the theoretical average value of DC output voltage

V

m

is maximum value of AC input voltage and

o is the firing angle.

is the commutation angle.

In DC series motors the torque is directly proportional to the square of armature

current where as in DC separately excited motors torque is directly proportional to

the armature current only.

In converter fed DC series motors the during the current zero period the output

voltage is equal to the back emf due to residual magnetism in the field, where as it

is equal to zero in DC separately excited drives.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. A single-phase half-wave controlled rectifier has 400 sin 314 t as the input

voltage and R as the load. For a firing angle of 60 for the SCR, the average output

voltage is

(a) 400/ (b) 300/

(c) 240/ (d) 200/

2. A single-phase one-pulse controlled- circuit has resistance and counter emf load

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

and 400 sin 314 t as the source voltage. For a load counter emf of 200 V, the range of

firing angle control is

(a) 30 to 150 (b) 30 to 180

(c) 60 to 120 (d) 60 to 180

3. In a single-phase half-wave circuit with RL load, and a freewheeling diode across

the load, extinction angle 13 is more than 1t. For a firing angle a, the BCR and

freewheeling diode would conduct, respectively, for

(a) -o, | (b) |-o,-o

(c) - o, | - (d) - o, - |

4. In a single-phase one-pulse circuit with RL load and a freewheeling diode,

extinction angle 13 is less than 1t. For a firing angle a, the BCR and freewheeling diode

would, respectively, conduct for

(a) | - o, 0 (b) - o, -|

(c) o, | - a (d) | - o, o

5. A single-phase full-wave mid point thyristor converter uses a 230/200 V

transformer with center tap on the secondary side. The P.I.V. per thyristor is

(a) 100 V (b) 141.4 V

(c) 200 V (d) 282.8 V

6. A single-phase two-pulse bridge converter has an average output voltage and

power output of 500 V and 10 kW respectively. The SCRs used in the two-pulse bridge

converter are now re-employed to form a single-phase two-pulse mid-point converter.

This new controlled converter would give, respectively, an average output voltage and

power output of

(a) 500 V, 10 kW (b) 250 V, 5 kW

(c) 250 V, 10 kW (d) 500 V, 5 kW

7. In a single-phase full converter, for continuous conduction, each pair of SCRs

conducts for

(a) -o (b)

(c) o (d) + o

8. In a single-phase full converter, for discontinuous load current and extinction

angle | > , each SCR conducts for

(a) o (b) | - o

(c) | (d) o +|

9. In a single-phase semi-converter, for continuous conduction, each SCR conducts

for

(a) o (b)

(c) o + (d) -o

10. In a single-phase semi converter, for discontinuous conduction and extinction angle

| > , each SCR conducts for

(a) -o (b) | - o

(c) o (d) |

11. In a single-phase semi converter, for discontinuous conduction and extinction angle |

< , each SCR conducts for

(a) - o (b) -o

o (d) |

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

12. In a single-phase semi converter, for continuous conduction, freewheeling diode con-

ducts for

(a) o (b) - o

(d) + o

13. In a single-phase semi converter, with discontinuous conduction and extinction angle

| > , freewheeling diode conducts for

(a) o (b) - o (c) + o (d) |

14. In a single-phase semi converter, with discontinuous conduction and extinction angle

| < |, freewheeling diode conducts for

(a) o (b) - | (c) | - (d) Zero degree

15. In a single-phase full converter, if o and | are firing and extinction angles respective-

ly, then the load current is

(a) discontinuous if (|-o) < (b) discontinuous if (| - o) >

(c) discontinuous if (| - o) = (d) continuous if (|-o) <

16. In a single-phase full converter with resistive load and for a firing angle o, the load

current is zero and non-zero, respectively, for

(a) o, - o (b) - o, o

(c) o, + o (d) o,

17. In a single-phase semi converter with resistive load and for a firing angle a, each SCR

and free wheeling diode conduct, respectively, for

(a) o, 0 (b) - o, o

(c) +o,o (d) -o, 0

18. In controlled rectifiers, the nature of load current, i.e. whether load current is

continuous or discontinuous.

a) does not depend on type of load and firing angle delay

b) depends both on the type of load and firing angle delay

c) depends only on the type of load

d) depends only on the firing angle delay

19. In a single-phase full converter, if output voltage has peak and average values of 325

V and 133 V respectively, then the firing angle is

(a) 40 (b) 140

(c) 50 (d) 130

20. In a single-phase semi converter, if output voltage has peak and average values of 325

and 133 V respectively, the firing angle is

(a) 40 (b) 140

(c) 73.40 (d) 80

21. For a single-phase phase-controlled rectifier, with a freewheeling diode across the

load,

a) the instantaneous output voltage V

0

is always positive

b) V

0

may be positive or zero

c) V

0

may be positive, zero or negative

d) V

0

is always zero or negative

22. In a single-phase full converter, if load current is 1 and ripple free, than average

thyristor current is

(a) 1 / 2 I (b) 1 / 3 I

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

(c) 1 / 4 I (d) I

23. In a single-phase full converter, the number of SCRs conducting during overlap is

(a) 1 (b) 2

(c) 3 (d) 4

24. In a single-phase full converter, the output voltage during overlap is equal to

a) zero

b) source voltage

c) source voltage minus the inductance drop

d) inductance drop

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the operation of a single-phase semi converter fed DC separately excited

motor in continuous current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and

also draw their speed torque characteristics.

2. Explain the operation of a single phase semi converter fed DC series motor in

continuous current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and also draw

their speed torque characteristics.

3. Explain the operation of a single-phase full converter fed DC separately excited motor

in continuous current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and also

draw their speed torque characteristics.

4. Explain the operation of a single phase full converter fed DC series motor in

continuous current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and also draw

their speed torque characteristics.

5. A 220 V, 960rpm, 80Aseparately excited DC motor has an armature resistance of

0.06ohms. Under rated conditions, the motor is driving a load whose torque is constant

and independent of speed. The speeds below rated speed are obtained with armature

voltage control (with full field), and the speeds above rated speed are obtained by field

control (with rated armature voltage). Determine (i) The motor terminal voltage when the

speed is 620rpm. (ii) The value of flux as a percentage of rated flux if the motor speed is

1200 rpm. Neglect the motor rotational losses.

6. A separately excited motor of 220V, 960rpm, 80A with an armature resistance of

0.06ohms is coupled to an over hauling load with a toque of 100 Nm. Compute the speed

at which the motor can hold the load by regenerative braking. Source voltage is 220V.

Neglect the motor rotational losses.

7. A separately excited DC motor is fed from a 230V, 50Hz supply via a single-phase

half controlled bridge rectifier. Armature parameters are: inductance 0.06H, Resistance

0.3ohms. Motor voltage constant is K

a

= 0.9 V/A rad/s and the field resistance is R

f

104ohms. The field current is controlled by a semi converter and is set to max. possible

value. The load torque is 50Nm at 800 rpm. The inductances of armature and field circuit

are sufficient enough to make the armature and field currents continuous and ripple free.

Compute (i) The field current I

f

(ii) The firing angle of converter in armature circuit. (iii)

The input power factor of the armature circuit converter. Neglect the system losses.

8. The speed of 10HP, 210V, 1000 rpm, separately excited DC motor is controlled by a

single-phase full converter as shown in fig. The rated motor armature current is 30Amps

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

and the armature resistance is R

a

is 0.25 ohms. The AC supply volt is 230V. The motor

voltage constant is K 0.172 V/rpm. Assume that sufficing inductance is present in the

armature circuit to make the motor continuous and ripple free. (a) Rectifier operation

(Motoring action) for firing angle alpha = 45

0

and rated motor armature current,

Determine (i) Motor torque (ii) Speed of the motor (iii) the supply power factor (b)

Inverter operation. Reversing the field excitation reverses the motor back emf polarity.

Determine (i) The firing angle to keep the motor current at its rated value. (ii) The power

feed back to the supply

9. A 210V, 1200rpm, 10A separately exited motor is controlled by a single phase fully

controlled converter with an AC source voltage of 230V, 50Hz. Assume that sufficient

inductance is present in the armature circuit to make the motor current continuous and

ripple free for any torque greater than 25% of rated torque. R

a

= 1.5ohm.

10. What should be the value of the firing angle to get the rated torque at 800rpm?

Compute the firing angle for the rated braking torque at 1200rpm.

Calculate the motor speed at the rated torque and alpha =165

0

for the regenerative

braking in the second quadrant?

11. A small separately excited DC motor is supplied via a half controlled, single phase

bridge rectifier .The supply is 240Volts, the thyristors are triggered at 110

0

, and the

armature current continues for 50

0

beyond the voltage zero. Determine the motor speed at

a torque of 1.8 Nm, Given the motor torque characteristics 1.0 Nm/amps and its armature

resistance is 6ohms. Neglect the all converter losses.

12. The speed of 20HP, 210V, and 1000-rpm series motor is controlled by a single-phase

(a) semi converter (b) full converter. The combined field and armature circuit resistance

is 0.25ohms. Motor constants are K

af

= 0.03N-m.amp

2

, K

res

= 0.075V-sec/rad, the supply

voltage is 230V. Assume the continuous ripple free motor current, Determine the

following for firing angle alpha = 30

0

and speed N = 1000rpm; (i) motor torque (ii) motor

current (iii) supply power factor

PREVIOUS SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1) A dc series motor has R

a

= 3 O, R

f

= 3 O and M

af

= 0.15 H. A phase-controlled bridge

varies the motor speed. The firing angle is t/4 and the average speed of the motor is 1450

rpm. The applied ac voltage to the bridge is 330 Sin wt. Assuming continuous motor

current find the steady state average motor current and torque. Sketch the waveforms for

output voltage, current and gating signals.

2) (a) Explain how the speed of a dc series motor is controlled using converters.

(b) A series motor is supplied from a full converter whose o= 65

0

, 1 | supply of 230V

rms, 50HZ frequency. The armature and field resistance together equal 2 O. The torque

constant Maf is 0.23H and the load torque is 20Nm. Neglect damping and find the

average armature current and speed.

3) Two independent single-phase semi-converters are supplying the armature and field

circuits of the separately excited dc motor for controlling its speed. The firing angle of

the converter, supplying the field, adjusted such that maximum field current flows. The

machine parameters are: armature resistance of 0.25 O, field circuit resistance of 147 O,

motor voltage constant Kv=0.7032 V/A-rad/s. The load torque is T=45 N-m at 1000 rpm.

The converters are fed from a 208 V, 50 Hz ac supply. The friction and windage losses

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

are neglected. The inductance of the filed and armature circuits are sufficient enough to

make the armature and field currents continuous and ripple free. Determine

(a) the field current,

(b) the delay angle of the armature converter,

(c) input power factor of the armature circuit converter..

4) A single-phase fully controlled thyristor converter is supplying a dc separately excited

dc motor. Draw the neat waveform diagrams and explain various operating modes of the

drive both in motoring and regenerative braking for

(a) < ,

(b) > ,

Where : is the firing angle, : is the angle at which the source voltage equal to the motor

back emf. Assume the armature of the separately excited dc motor can be replaced by

simple R-L and back emf load.

5) (a) A DC shunt motor operating from a 1 half controlled bridge at a speed of 1450

rpm has an input voltage 330 Sin 314t and a back emf 75V. The SCRs are fired

symmetrically at = t/4 in every half cycle and the armature has a resistance of 5O.

Neglecting armature inductance, find the average armature current and the torque.

(b) Sketch the speed-torque characteristics for the above problem.

UNIT II

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

To study the operation of three phase semi and fully controlled converters

connected to DC separately excited motor with neat circuit diagram and

waveforms and also to derive the Torque - Speed characteristics.

To study the operation of three-phase semi and fully controlled converters

connected to DC series motor with neat circuit diagram and waveforms and also

to derive the Torque Speed characteristics.

To derive the Torque Speed expressions for the entire converter fed DC motor

drives.

IMPORTANT POINTS AND DEFINITIONS:

The average value of DC output voltage of 3 - | half controlled bridge converter

can be calculated by,

(i) For R load:

V

O TH

= (3 V

ml

/ 2 H) (Cos o)

Where V

O TH

is the theoretical average value of DC output voltage

V

ml

is maximum value of AC input line voltage and

o is the firing angle.

(ii) For RL load:

V

OTH

= (3 V

ml

/ 2 H) (Cos o - Cos |)

The value of Extinction angle | can be calculated by,

| = (H + |); Where | = tan

-1

(eL / R)

The average value of DC output voltage of 3 - | half controlled bridge converter

can be calculated by,

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

(i) For R load:

V

O TH

= (3 V

ml

/ H) (Cos o)

Where V

O TH

is the theoretical average value of DC output voltage

V

ml

is maximum value of AC input line voltage and

o is the firing angle.

(ii) For RL load:

V

OTH

= (3 V

ml

/ H) (Cos o - Cos |)

The value of Extinction angle | can be calculated by,

| = (H + |); Where | = tan

-1

(eL / R)

The average value of DC output voltage of 3 - | full controlled bridge converter

by considering the source inductance for R load can be calculated by,

V

0 TH

= (3 V

ml

/ H) Cos (o+) + (3 eL

s

/ H) I

0

Where V

0 TH

is the theoretical average value of DC output voltage

V

ml

is maximum value of AC input line voltage and

o is the firing angle.

is the commutation angle.

The three phase converter SCRs are triggered at a faster rate when compared

with single phase converter SCRs, causing the output current to be more

continuous in the three phase converters.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. Each diode of a 3-phase half-wave diode rectifier conducts for

(a) 60 (b) 120

(c) 180 (d) 90.

2. Each diode of a 3-phase, 6-pulse bridge diode rectifier conducts for

(a) 60 (b) 120

(c) 180 (d) 90.

3. In a 3-phase half-wave diode rectifier, if per phase input voltage is 200 V, then the

average output voltage is

(a) 233.91 V (b) 116.95 V

(c) 202.56 V (d) 101.28 V

4. In a 3-phase half-wave diode rectifier, the ratio of average output voltage to per-phase

maximum ac voltage is

(a) 0.955 (b) 0.827

(c) 1.654 (d) 1.169.

5. In a 3-phase half-wave rectifier, dc output voltage is 230 V. The peak inverse voltage

across each diode is

(a) 481.7 V (b) 460 V

(c) 345 V (d) 230 V.

6. In a 3-phase full-wave diode rectifier, the peak inverse voltage in terms of average

output voltage is

(a) 1.571 (b) 0.955

(c) 1.047 (d) 2.094

7. In a 3-phase half-wave diode rectifier, if V

m

is the maximum value of per phase

voltage, then each diode is subjected to a peak inverse voltage of

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10

(a) V

m

(b) (3) V

m

(c) 2V

m

(d) 3V

m

,

8. In a 3-phase full-wave diode rectifier, if Vm is the maximum value of line voltage, then

each diode is subjected to. a peak inverse voltage of

(a) V

m

(b) (3) V

m

(c) 2V

m

(d) 3V

m

9. In a 3-phase full-wave diode rectifier, if V is the per phase input voltage, then average

output voltage is given by

(a) 0.955 V (b) 1.35 V

(c) 2.34 V (d) 3 V

10. A converter which can operate in both 3-pulse and 6-pulse modes is a

(a) 1-phasefull converter (b) 3-phase half-wave converter

(c) 3-phase semi converter (d) 3-phase full converter.

11. In a 3-phase semi-converter, for firing angle less than or equal to 60, each thyristor

an diode conduct, respectively, for

(a) 60, 60 (b) 90, 30

(c) 120, 120 (d) 180, 180

12. In a 3-phase semiconverter, for firing angle less than or equal to 60, freewheeling

diode conducts for

(a) 30 (b) 60

(c) 90 (d) zero degree

13. In a 3-phase semiconverter, for a firing angle equal to 90 and for continuous conduc-

tion, each SCR and diode conduct, respectively, for

(a) 30, 60 (b) 60, 30

(c) 60, 60 (d) 30, 30

14. In a 3-phase semi converter, for a firing angle equal to 90 and for continuous

conduction, free wheeling diode conducts for

(a) 30 (b) 60

(c) 90 (d) 0

15. In a 3-phase semiconverter, for firing angle equal to 120 and extinction angle equal

to 110, each SCR and diode conduct, respectively, for

(a) 30, 60 (b) 60, 60

(c) 90, 30 (d) 110, 30

16. In a 3-phase semiconverter, for firing angle equal to 120 and extinction angle equal

to 110, freewheeling diode conducts for

(a) 10

0

(b) 20

0

(c) 50 (d) 110

17. In a 3-phase semiconverter, for firing angle equal to 120 and extinction angle equal

to 100, none of the bridge elements conduct for

(a) 10

0

(b) 20

0

(c) 30 (d) 60

18. A 3-phase semi converter can work as

converter for o = 0 to 180 (b) converter for o = 0 to 90

(c) inverter for o =90 to 180 (d) inverter for o = 0 to 90.

19. In a 3-phase semiconverter, the three SCRs are triggered at an interval of

(a) 60

0

(b) 90

0

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11

(c) 120 (d) 180

20. In a 3-phase full converter, the six SCRs are fired at an interval of

(a) 30 (b) 60

(c) 90 (d) 120

21. In a 3-phase full converter, three SCRs pertaining to one group are fired at an interval

(a) 30 (b) 60

(c) 90 (d) 120

22. The frequency of the ripple in the output voltage of a 3-phase semiconverter depends

upon

a) firing angle and load resistance

b) firing angle and load inductance

c) the load circuit parameters

d) firing angle and the supply frequency

23. In a 3-phase full converter, if load current is 1 and ripple free, then average thyristor

current is

(a) 1/ 2 I (b) 1 / 3 I

(c) 1 / 4 I (d) I

24. The effect of source inductance on the performance of single-phase and three-phase

full converters is to

a) reduce the ripples in the load current

b) make discontinuous current as continuous

c) reduce the output voltage

d) increase the load voltage

25. In a 3-phase full converter, the output voltage during overlap is equal to

a) zero

b) source voltage

c) source voltage minus the inductance drop

d) average value of the conducting-phase voltages.

26. The total number of SCRs conducting simultaneously in 3-phaseftill converter with

overlap considered has the sequence of

(a) 3, 3, 2, 2 (b) 3, 3, 3, 2

(c) 3,2,3,2 (d) 2,2,2,3.

27. A 3-phase full converter has an average output voltage of 200 V for 0 firing angle

and for resistive load. For a firing angle of 900, the output voltage would be

(a) zero (b) 50 V

(c) 100 V (d) 26.8 V

28. In a 3-phase full converter, the output voltage pulsates at a frequency equal to

(a) supply frequency, f (b) 2 f

(c) 3 (d) 6f

29. The three-phase ac to dc converter, which requires neutral point connection, is

(a) 3-phase semi converter (b) 3-phase full converter

(c) 3-phase half-wave converter (d) 3-phase full converter with diodes

30. A 3-phase full converter can function as

a) converter for o = 0

0

to 180

0

b) converter for o == 0

0

to 90

0

c) inverter for o = 90

0

to 180

0

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12

d) inverter for o = 0

0

to 90

0

31. In a 3-phase full converter, the number of SCRs working during overlap is

a) 1 from positive group, 1 from negative group

b) 2 from positive group, 1 from negative group

c) 1 from positive group, 2 from negative group

d) 2 from positive group, 2 from negative group

32. In a 3-phase semiconverter, frequency of the ripple in the output voltage may be

a) 3 times the supply frequency/for firing angle o < 600

b) 3 f for o > 600

c) 6 f for o < 600

d) 6 f for o > 600

33. The peak inverse voltage in ac to de converter systems is highest in

a) single-phase full wave mid-point converter

b) single-phase full converter

c) 3-phase bridge converter

d) 3-phase half-wave converter

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the operation of a three-phase semi converter fed DC separately excited motor

in continuous current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and also

draw their speed torque characteristics.

2. Explain the operation of a three phase semi converter fed DC series motor in

continuous current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and also draw

their speed torque characteristics.

3. Explain the operation of a three phase full converter fed DC separately excited motor

in continuous current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and also

draw their speed torque characteristics.

4. Explain the operation of a three phase full converter fed DC series motor in continuous

current mode and derive the equation relating speed and torque and also draw their speed

torque characteristics.

5. A 80KW, 440V, 800rpm, DC motor is operating at 600rpm and developing 75% rated

torque is controlled by 3-phase, 6-pulse thyristor converter. If the back emf at the rated

speed is 410V, determine the triggering angle of converter. The input converter is 3-

phase, 415V, 50Hz,AC supply?

6. A 3-phase full converter controls the speed of 150HP, 650V, 1750rpm, separately

excited DC motor. The converter is operating from a 3-phase 460V, 50Hz supply. The

rated armature current of the motor is 170Amps. The motor parameters are R

a

= 0.099

ohms, L

a

= 0.73mH and K

a

= 0.33 v/rpm. Neglect the losses in the converter system.

Determine (a) No load speed of firing angle alpha = 0

0

, 30

0

. Assume that at no load the

armature current is 10% of rated current and it is continuous. (b) The firing angle to

obtain rated speed of 1750 rpm at rated motor current and also computes the supply

power factor. (c) The speed regulation for the firing angle obtained in part.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13

UNIT III

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

To study the different types of braking methods used for DC motors.

To study the operation of dual converter fed DC series motor in both circulating

non circulating current modes.

To study the operation of dual converter fed DC separately excited motor in both

circulating non circulating current modes.

To introduce the four quadrants operation of DC motors, i.e., motoring operations.

To study the block diagram of closed loop operation of converter fed DC motors.

IMPORTANT POINTS AND DEFINITIONS:

The main basic procedure for braking of DC motors is to make the current flow in

reverse direction during the braking period i.e., from armature to source.

The current flow direction can be reversible by making the back emf of the motor

greater than terminal voltage.

In all the three methods of braking DC motors, regenerative braking is advantages

since the power developed during the braking period is usefully employed to the

other loads, which are connected to the source.

Dual converter is a four-quadrant converter, in which two full converters will be

connected in anti parallel and are controlled in such a way that the sum of two

firing angles should be 180

0

.

The condition (o

1

+ o

2

) = 180

0

, implies that if one converter is operating in

conversion mode the other one in inversion mode.

In practical dual converter with out circulating current, only one convert is in

operation at a time where as in, dual converter with circulating current two

converters are in operation at a time.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. A four-quadrant operation requires

a) two full converters in series

b) two full converters connected back to back

c) two full converters connected in parallel

d) two semi converters connected back to back

2. In circulating-current type of dual converter, the nature of voltage across reactor is

(a) alternating (b) pulsating

(c) direct (d) triangular

3. In a dual converter, converters 1 and 2 work as under:

a) 1 as rectifier, 2 as inverter

b) l as inverter,2 as rectifier

c) both as rectifiers

d) both as inverters

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. a) Describe the operation of ideal dual converter.

b) Describe the operation of dual converter in non-circulating current mode with neat

circuit diagram and waveforms.

2. Describe the operation of dual converter in circulating current mode with neat circuit

diagram and waveforms and derive the expression for peak value circulating current.

(a). Explain the need of commutation in thyristor circuits. What are the different

commutation schemes? Explain class A commutation with neat diagrams.

(b). A circuit employing parallel resonance turn off (class B commutation) circuit has C =

50 F, L = 20 H, V= 200 V and initial voltage across the capacitor is 200 V. Determine

the circuit turn off time for main thyristor for load R = 1.5 .

3. (a) Distinguish clearly between voltage commutation and current commutation in

thyristor circuits.

(b) Discuss how the voltage across a commutating capacitance is reversed in a

commutating circuit.

(c) A circuit employing resonance pulse commutation has C= 20F and L= 3H the

initial capacitor voltage = source voltage, V

s

= 230 V DC. Determine conduction time for

auxiliary thyristor and circuit turn off time for main thyristor in case constant load current

is 300 A.

4. Explain the operation of dual converter fed DC separately excited motor in both

circulating current and non-circulating modes and also draw their speed torque

characteristics.

5. Explain the operation of dual converter fed DC series motor in both circulating current

and non circulating modes and also draw their speed torque characteristics.

6. Explain the operation of single quadrant chopper fed DC series and separately excited

motor in both circulating current and non-circulating modes and also draw their speed

torque characteristics.

7. Explain the operation of two-quadrant chopper fed DC series and separately excited

motor in both circulating current and non-circulating modes and also draw their speed

torque characteristics.

8. Explain the operation of four-quadrant chopper fed DC series and separately excited

motor in both circulating current and non-circulating modes and also draw their speed

torque characteristics.

9. Explain the regenerative braking method used for DC series and separately excited

motors with neat circuit diagrams.

10. Explain the dynamic braking method used for DC series and separately excited

motors with neat circuit diagrams.

11. Explain the plugging method used for DC series and separately excited motors with

neat circuit diagrams.

12. A DC chopper is used to control the speed of DC shunt motor. The supply voltage to

the chopper is 220V. The on time and the off time of the chopper are 10 ms and 12ms,

respectively. Assuming continuous conduction of the motor current, and neglecting the

armature inductance, determine the average load current when the motor runs at a speed

of 146.60 rad/ sec and has a voltage constant K

a

of 0.495 V/ A rad/sec.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15

PREVIOUS SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1) (a) Explain how four-quadrant operation is achieved by dual converters each of 3 | full

wave configuration for d.c. separately excited motor.

(b) Distinguish between circulating current and non-circulating current mode of operation

2) a) What is a dual converter? Explain the principle of operation of a dual converter in

circulating current mode. How the same is used for speed control of dc drive.

b) A 230v separately excited dc motor takes 50A at a speed of 800rpm. It has armature

resistance of 0.4 O. A chopper with an input voltage of 230v controls this motor and

frequency of 500Hz. Assuming continuous condition throughout, calculate and plot

speed-torque characteristics for:

Motoring operation at duty ratios of 0.3 and 0.6.

Regenerative braking operation at duty ratios of 0.7 and 0.4.

3) a) Deduce the mathematical expression for minimum and maximum currents for a

class A chopper operated dc motor with back emf.

b) A 220v, 24A, 1000rpm separately excited dc motor having an armature resistance of

2O is controlled by a chopper. The chopping frequency is 500Hz and the input voltage is

230v. Calculate the duty ratio for a motor torque of 1.2 times rated torque at 500rpm.

4) (a) Draw the circuit diagram and explain the operation of closed-loop speed control

with inner-current loop and field weakening.

(b) A single-phase fully controlled double bridge converter is operated from 120v, 60Hz

supply and the load resistance is 10 ohms. The circulating inductance is 40mH. Firing

delay angle for converter I and II are 60

0

and 120

0

respectively. Calculate the peak

circulating current and the current through converters.

5) Describe the relative merits and demerits of the following types of braking for dc

motors: mechanical braking, dynamic braking and regenerative braking with neat

diagram.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16

UNIT IV

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

To study the operation of single quadrant chopper fed DC separately excited

motor and DC series motor.

To study the operation of two-quadrant chopper fed DC separately excited motor

and DC series motor.

To study the operation of four-quadrant chopper fed DC separately excited motor

and DC series motor.

To study the speed torque characteristics of chopper fed DC motors.

To study the block diagram of closed loop operation of chopper fed DC motors.

IMPORTANT POINTS AND DEFINITIONS:

The function of a chopper is to convert Fixed DC voltage in to Variable DC

voltage.

In a chopper output voltage can be controlled by two strategies:

(i) TRC (Time Ratio Control)

(ii) CLC (Current Limit Control)

In TRC schemes PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) scheme is advantageous than

frequency modulation scheme.

The output voltage of a step down chopper is given by

V

O DC

= o (V

I DC

)

Where V

O DC

is the average value of the DC output voltage,

o is the duty cycle and

V

I DC

is the average value of the DC input voltage

Duty cycle, o is the ratio of ON time of the chopper to the TOTAL time of the

chopper.

The output voltage of a step up chopper is given by

V

O DC

= (1/(1 - o)) (V

I DC

)

Where V

O DC

is the average value of the DC output voltage,

o is the duty cycle and

V

I DC

is the average value of the DC input voltage

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. In dc choppers, if T

on

is the on period and f is the chopping frequency, then output

voltage in terms of input voltage Vs is given by

(a) V

s

. T

on

l f (b) V

s

.f / T

on

(c) V / f. T

on

(d) V

s.

f. T

on

2. In dc choppers, the waveforms for input and output voltages are respectively

(a) discontinuous, continuous (b) both continuous

(c) both discontinuous (d) continuous, discontinuous

3. In PWM method of controlling the average output voltage in a chopper, the on time

is (varied / kept constant) but the chopping frequency is (varied / kept constant).

4. In FM method of controlling the average output voltage in a chopper, chopping

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17

period is (varied / kept constant) but on time is (varied / kept constant) or off time is

(varied / kept constant).

5. For type-A chopper, V

s

is the source voltage, R is the load resistance and o is the

duty cycle. The average output voltage and current for this chopper are respectively

(a) oV

s

, o. (V

s

/ R) (b) (1-o) V

s

, (1- o) V

s

/ R

(c) V

s

/ Vo, V

s

/ oR (d) V

s

/ (1 -o), V

s

/(1 - o) R

6. A chopper has Vs as the source voltage, R as the load resistance and o as the duty

cycle. For this chopper, RMS value of output voltage is

(a) oV

s

(b) (o)

1/2

.V

s

(c) V

s

/ (o)

(d) (1-o)

1/2

Vs

7. For a chopper, V

s

is the source voltage, R is the load resistance and a is the duty'

cycle. RMS and average values of thyristor currents for this chopper are

(a) o.V

s

/ R, (o)V

s

/ R (b) (o).V

s

/ R , (o) .V

s

/ R

(c) (o) V

s

/ R, oV

s

/ R (d) (1-o)

1/2

.V

s

/ R, (1-o)

1/2

V

s

/ R.

8. In dc choppers, per unit ripple is maximum when duty cycle a is

(a) 0.2 (b) 0.5

(c) 0.7 (d) 0.9.

9. A voltage-commutated chopper has the following parameters:

Vs = 200 V, Load circuit parameter: 1, 2 mH, 50 V

Commutation circuit parameters, L = 25 H, C = 50F

T

on

= 500 s, T = 2000 s

For a constant load current of 100 A, the effective on period and peak current

through the main thyristor are respectively

(a) 1000 s, 200 A (b) 700 s, 382.8 A

(c) 700 s, 282.8 A (d) 1000 s, 382.8 A.

10. For the voltage-commutated chopper of Prob. 10, the turn-off times for main and

auxiliary thyristors are, respectively,

(a) 120 s, 60 s (b) 100 s, 0.5 s

(c) 120 s, 55 s (d) 100 s, 55.54s.

11. A load commutated chopper, fed from 200 V dc source, has a constant load current

of50 A. For a duty cycle of 0.4 and a chopping frequency of 2 kHz, the value of

commutating capacitor and the turn-off time for one thyristor pair are respectively

(a) 25 F, 50 s (b) 50 F, 50 s

(c) 25 F, 25 s (d) 50 F, 25 s

12. A dc battery is charged from a constant dc source of 200 V through a chopper. The

dc battery is to be charged from its internal emf of 90 to 120 V. The battery has

internal resistance of 1 . For a constant charging current of 10 A, the range of duty

cycle is.. to......

13. For type-A chopper; V

s

, R, I

o

and a are respectively the dc source voltage, load

resistance, constant load current and duty cycle. For this chopper, average and RMS

values of freewheeling diode currents are

(a) o I

o,

(o) Io (b) (1 - o) I

o

, (1-o)

1/2

I

o

(c) o V

s

/ R, (o) V

s

/ R (d) (1 - o) I

o

, (o) Io

14. A step-up chopper has Vs as the source voltage and a as the duty cycle. The output

voltage for this chopper is given by

(a)V

s

(1+ o) (b) V

s

/ (l - o)

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18

(c) V

s

(1 - o) (d) V

s

/ (l + o).

15. A dc chopper is fed from 100 V dc. Its load voltage consists of rectangular pulses

of duration 1 m sec in an overall cycle time of 3 m sec. The average output voltage

and ripple factor for this chopper are respectively

(a) 25 V, 1 (b) 50 V, 1 (c) 33.33 V, (2) (d) 33.33 V, 1

16. When a series LC circuit is connected to a dc supply of V volts through a thyristor,

then the peak current through thyristor is

(a) V. LC (b) V / CL

(c) V. (C / L) (d) V. (L / C)

17. In dc choppers, if T is the chopping period, then output voltage can be controlled by

PWM by varying

(a) T keeping Ton constant (b) T

on

keeping T constant

(c) T

off

keeping T constant (d) T keeping T

off

constant.

18. In dc choppers, for chopping period T, the output voltage can be controlled by FM

by varying

(a) T keeping T

on

constant (b) T keeping T

off

constant

(c) T

on

keeping T constant (d) T

off

keeping T constant

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. (a) What is time ratio control of chopper? Explain the operation.

(b) A battery is charged from a constant DC source of 220 V through a chopper.

The DC battery is to be charged from its internal emf of 90 V to 122 V. The battery

has internal resistance of 1. For a constant current charging of 10 A, compute the

range of duty cycle.

2. (a) Explain class C type of commutation used for thyristors with appropriate current

and voltage waveforms.

(b)Explain the merits and demerits of self-commutation of SCR and its other

methods of commutation.

3. (a) Describe the principle of operation of a step down chopper. Derive an

expression for the average output voltage in terms of input voltage and duty cycle.

(b) A chopper circuit is operating on TRC principle at a frequency 1 KHz on a 220

V DC supply. If the load voltage is 180 V, calculate the conducting and blocking

period of thyristor in each cycle

PREVIOUS SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1) (a) Explain the principle of speed control of a dc motor and show how it can be

achieved by a chopper.

(b) A 230v, 1200rpm, 15A separately excited motor has an armature resistance of 1.2O.

Motor is operated under dynamic braking with chopper control. Braking resistance has a

value of 20O.

i. Calculate duty ratio of chopper for motor speed of 1000rpm and braking torque equal to

1.5 times rated motor torque.

ii. What will be the motor speed for duty ratio of 0.5 and motor torque equal to its rated

torque.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19

2) (a) Explain with neat circuit diagram the basic principle of operation of a class A type

of chopper. The chopper is connected to R-L-E load. Analyze the same for continuous

current mode of operation.

(b) A dc supply of 200v supplied power to separately excited dc motor via a class A

thyristors chopper. The motor has an armature circuit resistance of 0.33O and inductance

of 11mH. The chopper is fully on at the rated motor speed 1200rpm when the armature

current is 20A. If the speed is to be reduced to 800rpm with the load torque constant,

calculate the necessary duty cycle. If the chopper frequency is 500Hz, is the current

continuous?

3) (a) Discuss with the suitable diagrams I quadrant and II quadrant choppers.

(b) A constant frequency TRC system is used for the speed control of dc series traction

motor from 220v dc supply. The motor is having armature and series field resistance of

0.025O and 0.015O respectively. The average current in the circuit is 125A and the

chopper frequency is 200Hz. Calculate the pulse width if the average value of back emf is

60 volts.

4) (a) List the advantages offered by dc chopper drives over line-commutated converter

controlled dc drives.

(b) A dc chopper controls the speed of dc series motor. The armature resistance Ra =

0.04O, field circuit resistance Rf = 0.06O, and back emf constant Kv = 35 mV/rad/s. The

dc input voltage of the chopper Vs=600v. If it is required to maintain a constant

developed torque of Td = 547N-m, plot the motor speed against the duty cycle K of the

chopper.

5) A class-A chopper, operating in time-ratio control, is supplying the armature of the

separately excited dc motor. Show that the motor speed-torque relationship is m =

(o.V/K)-(R

a

.T

a

/K

2

) , Where V - chopper input voltage, Ra - Armature resistance, Ta -

motor torque, K- torque constant.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20

UNIT V

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR FROM STATOR SIDE

To study the operation of stator voltage control method of induction motor by AC

voltage controllers both for star and delta connected stator windings. And their

speed torque characteristics.

AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS:

The function of AC voltage controller is to convert the fixed AC voltage into

variable AC voltage with out changing the frequency.

Varying the firing angle can control the output voltage.

The harmonics in the output voltage are minimized by using more and more number

of AC voltage controller units in Synchronous tap changer.

The voltage is calculated by using the formula

(i) For R load:

V

0 rms

= Vph {[(H - ) + (1/2) Sin 2] / H}

1/2

Where V

0 rms

is the theoretical RMS value of the output voltage,

V

ph

is the phase voltage of the input voltage and

is the firing angle

(ii) For RL load:

V

o rms

= V

ph

{[(| - o) + (1/2)(Sin 2o - (1/2) Sin 2|)] / 2H}

1/2

Theoretically the value of Extinction angle can be calculated by,

| = (H + |); Where | = tan

-1

(eL / R)

In AC voltage controllers Self-commutation is used.

IMPORTANT POINTS AND DEFINITIONS:

The function of inverters is to convert Fixed DC voltage into Variable voltage AC

with variable frequency.

In a Voltage source inverters, the DC source has negligible impedance where as inn

Current source inverters, the DC source is having high impedance.

In all the inverters self-commutation is employed except for Mc Murray and Mc

Murray Bedford inverters. For these two inverters forced commutation is used.

In Mc Murray inverter, Auxiliary commutation is used and in Mc Murray Bedford

inverter Auxiliary impulse commutation is used.

In all of the voltage control techniques used for inverters, Pulse Width modulation

(PWM) technique is more advantageous one and also it reduces the harmonic

content in the output waveform.

In single-phase parallel inverter, the capacitor is used for commutation.

The function of inverters is to convert Fixed DC voltage into Variable voltage AC

with variable frequency.

In a Voltage source inverters, the DC source has negligible impedance where as inn

Current source inverters, the DC source is having high impedance.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

In all the inverters self-commutation is employed except for Mc Murray and Mc

Murray Bedford inverters. For these two inverters forced commutation is used.

In Mc Murray inverter, Auxiliary commutation is used and in Mc Murray Bedford

inverter Auxiliary impulse commutation is used.

In all of the voltage control techniques used for inverters, Pulse Width modulation

(PWM) technique is more advantageous one and also it reduces the harmonic

content in the output waveform.

In single-phase parallel inverter, the capacitor is used for commutation.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS :

1. A single-phase voltage controller feeds an induction motor (A) and a heater (B)

(a) In both the loads, fundamental and harmonics are useful

(b) In A only fundamental and in B only harmonics are useful

(c) In A only fundamental and in B harmonics as, well as fundamental are useful (d)

In A only harmonics and in B only fundamental are useful.

2. A load resistance of 10 is fed through a I-phase voltage controller from a voltage

source of 200 sin 314 t. For a firing angle delay of 90, the power delivered to load

in kW, is

(a) 0.5 (b) 0.75

(c) 1 (d) 2

3. A single-phase voltage controller is employed for controlling the power flow from

260 V, 50 Hz source into a load consisting of R = 5 and eL = 12 . The value of

maximum RMS load current and the firing angle are respectively

(a) 20 A, 0 (b) 260/10.91A, 0

(c) 20 A, 90 (d) 260/10.91 A, 90

4. A "load, consisting of R = 10 and eL = 10 , is being fed from 230 V, 50 Hz

source through a I-phase voltage controller. For a firing angle delay of 30, the

RMS value of load current would be

(a) 23 A (b) 23/2 A

(c) > 23/2 A (d) < 23/2 A

5. In a single-phase voltage controller with RL load, ac output power can be controlled

if

(a) firing angle > (load phase angle) and conduction angle =

(b) > and <

(c) << and =

(d) < and >

6. A single-phase voltage controller feeds power to a resistance of 10 .0. The source

voltage is 200 V rms. For a firing angle of 90, the RMS value of thyristor current

in amperes is

(a) 20 (b) 15

(c) 10 (d) 5

7. A single-phase voltage controller is connected to a load of resistance 10.0 and a

supply of 200 sin 314t volts. For a firing angle of 90, the average thyristor

current in amperes is

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22

(a) 10 (b) 10 /

(c) 52 / (d) 52

8. A single-phase voltage controller, using two SCRs in anti parallel, is found to be

operating as a controlled rectifier. This is because

(a) load is R and pulse gating is used

(b) load is R and high-frequency carrier gating is used

(c) load is RL and pulse gating is used

(d) load is RL and continuous gating is used

9. A single-phase ac voltage controller (or regulator) fed from 50 Hz system supplies a

load having resistance and inductance of2.0 .0 and 6.36 mH respectively. The

control range of firing angle for this regulator is

(a) 0 < < 180 (b) 45 < < 180

(c) 90 < < 180 (d) 0 < < 45

10. If, for a single-phase half-bridge inverter, the amplitude of output voltage is Vs and

the output power is P, then their corresponding values for a single-phase full-bridge

inverter are

(a) Vs, P (c) 2 Vs, 2P

(b) V/2, 2P (d) 2 Vs, P

11. In voltage source inverters

(a) load voltage waveform Vo depends on load impedance Z, whereas load current

waveform io does not depend on Z

(b) Both V

o

and i

o

depend on Z

(c) V

o

does not depend on Z whereas i

o

depends on Z

(d) both V

o

and i

o

do not depend upon Z

12. A single-phase full bridge inverter can operate in load-commutation mode in case

load consists of

(a) RL (b) RLC over damped

(c) RLC under damped (d) RLC critically damped

13. A single-phase bridge inverter delivers power to a series connected RLC load with

R = 2 , L = 8 Q. For this inverter-load combination, load commutation is

possible in case the magnitude of l/C in ohms is .

(a) 10 (b) 8

(c) 6 (d) zero

14. For a 3-phase bridge inverter in 180 conduction mode, Fig. A-33, the sequence of

SCR conduction in the first two steps, beginning with the initiation of thyristor 1, is

(a) 6, 1,2 and 2,3, 1 (b) 2,3, 1 and 3, 4, 5

(c) 3, 4, 5, and 5, 6, 1 (d) 5, 6, 1 and 6, 1, 2

15. For a 3-phase bridge inverter in 120 conduction mode, Fig. A-33, the sequence of

SCR conduction in the first two steps, beginning with the initiation of thyristor 1, is

(a) 6, 1 and 1, 2 (b) 1,2 and 2,3

(c) 1, 6 and 5, 6 (d) 1, 3 and 3, 4

16. In single-pulse modulation of PWM inverters, third harmonic can be eliminated if

pulse width is equal to

(a) 30

0

(b) 60

0

(c) 120

0

(d) 150

17. In single-pulse modulation of PWM inverters, fifth harmonic can be eliminated if

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23

pulse width is equal to

(a) 30

0

(b) 72

0

(c) 36 (d) 108

18. In single-pulse modulation of PWM inverters, the pulse width is 120. For an input

voltage of 220 V dc, the RMS value of output voltage is

(a) 179.63 V (b) 254.04 V

(c) 127.02 V (d) 185.04 V

19. In single-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, Vs is the input de voltage. For

eliminating third harmonic, the magnitude of RMS value of fundamental

component of output voltage and pulse width are respectively

(a) 22 V

s

, 120 (b) 4 V

s

, 60

(c) 22 V

s

, 60 (d) 4 V

s,

120

20. In multiple-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, the amplitudes of reference

square wave and triangular carrier wave are respectively 1 V and 2 V. For

generating 5 pulses per half cycle, the pulse width should be

(a) 36 (b) 24 (c) 18 (d) 12

21. In multiple-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, the amplitude and frequency

for triangular carrier and square reference signals are respectively 4 V, 6 kHz and 1

V, 1 kHz. The numbers of pulses per half cycle and pulse width are respectively

(a) 6, 90 (b) 3, 45

(c) 4, 60 (d) 3, 40

22. In sinusoidal-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, amplitude and frequency for

triangular carrier and sinusoidal reference signals are respectively 5 V, 1 kHz and 1

V, 50 Hz. If zeros of the triangular carrier and reference sinusoid coincide, then the

modulation index and order of significant harmonics are respectively

(a) 0.2,9 and 11 (b) 0.4,9 and 11

(c) 0.2, 17 and 19 (d) 0.2, 19 and 21

23. Which of the following statement/statements is/are correct in connection with in-

verters:

(a) VSI and CSI both require feedback diodes

(b) Only CSI requires feedback diodes

(c) GTOs can be used in CSI

(d) Only VSI requires feedback diodes

24. In a CSI, if frequency of output voltage is f Hz, then frequency of voltage input to

CSI is

(a) f (b) 2f

(c) f/2 (d) 3f

25. In sinusoidal-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, amplitude and frequency of

triangular carrier and sinusoidal reference signals are respectively 5 V, 1 kHz and 1

V, 50 Hz. If peak of the triangular carrier coincides with the zero of the reference

sinusoid, then the modulation index and order of significant harmonics are

(a) 0.2,9 and 11 (b) 0.4,9 and 11

(c) 0.2, 17 and 19 (d) 0.2, 19 and 21

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24

26. In sinusoidal PWM, there are 'm' cycles of the triangular carrier wave in the half

cycle of reference sinusoidal signal. If zero of the reference sinusoid coincides with

zero/peak of the triangular carrier wave, then number of pulses generated in each

half cycle is respectively

(a) (m - 1)/m (b) (m - 1)/(m - 1)

(c) m/m (d) m/(m - 1)

27. In an inverter with fundamental output frequency of 50 Hz, if third harmonic is

eliminated, then frequencies of other components in the output voltage wave, in Hz,

would be

(a) 250, 350, 450, high frequencies (b) 50, 250, 350, 450

(c) 50,250,350,550 (d) 50, 100, 200, 250

28. A single-phase CSI has capacitor C as the load. For a constant source current, the

voltage across the capacitor is

(a) square wave (b) triangular wave

(c) step function - (d) pulsed wave

29. A single-phase full bridge VSI has inductor L as the load. For a constant source

voltage, the current through the inductor is

(a) square wave (b) triangular wave

(c) sine wave (d) pulsed wave

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

PREVIOUS SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1) A pump has a torque-speed curve given by TL = (1.4/10

3

)N

2

Nm. It is proposed to use

a 240V, 50 Hz, 4 pole, star connected Induction motor with the equivalent circuit

parameters (referred to stator turns) R1 = 0.25O, R2 = 0.6O, X1 = 0.36O, X2 = 0.36O,

Xm = 17.3O. The pump speed N is to vary from full speed 1250 RPM to 750 RPM by

voltage control using pairs of inverse-parallel connected thyristors in the lines. Calculate

the range of firing angles required.

2) A 3 phase, 4 pole, 50 Hz squirrel cage Induction motor has the following circuit

parameter.

r

1

= 0.05ohm, r

2

= 0.09ohm,X1 + X2 = 0.55ohm.

The motor is star connected and rated voltage is 400V. It drives a load whose torque is

proportional to the speed and is given as T1 = 0.05e Nw-m. Determine the speed and

torque of the motor for a firing angle of 450 of the AC Voltage Controller on a 400V, 50

Hz supply.

3) What is an AC Voltage Controller?

Explain with suitable diagrams the various types of solid state 3 phase AC Voltage

Controllers that can be used for speed control of 3-phase Induction motors from stator

side. Mention the advantages of the AC Voltages Controllers over the other methods of

solid-state speed control techniques of 3-phase Induction motor.

4) (a) For stator voltage control scheme of a 3-phase Induction motor discuss about speed

range, regeneration, harmonics, torque pulsating, power factor, cost, efficiency and

applications.

(b) Draw a block schematic diagram for automatic speed control of 3 phase cage

Induction motor using solid state AC Voltage Controller on stator side.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25

5) (a) Using 3 phase solid state AC Voltage Controllers explain clearly how it is possible

to achieve 4 quadrant operation of 3 phase Induction motors.

(b) Draw a closed loop block schematic diagram for the above speed control technique.

Mention the merits of the above method of speed control.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

UNIT VI

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR THROUGH STATOR FREQUENCY

To study the operation of stator supply frequency control method of induction

motor by VSI (voltage source inverter), CSI (current source inverter) and Cyclo

converters. And their speed torque characteristics.

To know about the PWM (pulse width modulation) control of induction motors

To study the comparisons between VSI and CSI.

To study the block diagram of closed loop operation of induction motor drives.

IMPORTANT POINTTS:

The function of inverters is to convert Fixed DC voltage into Variable voltage AC

with variable frequency.

In a Voltage source inverters, the DC source has negligible impedance where as inn

Current source inverters, the DC source is having high impedance.

In all the inverters self-commutation is employed except for Mc Murray and Mc

Murray Bedford inverters. For these two inverters forced commutation is used.

In Mc Murray inverter, Auxiliary commutation is used and in Mc Murray Bedford

inverter Auxiliary impulse commutation is used.

In all of the voltage control techniques used for inverters, Pulse Width modulation

(PWM) technique is more advantageous one and also it reduces the harmonic

content in the output waveform.

In single-phase parallel inverter, the capacitor is used for commutation.

The function of inverters is to convert Fixed DC voltage into Variable voltage AC

with variable frequency.

In Voltage source inverters, the DC source has negligible impedance where as inn

Current source inverters; the DC source is having high impedance.

In all the inverters self-commutation is employed except for Mc Murray and Mc

Murray Bedford inverters. For these two inverters forced commutation is used.

In Mc Murray inverter, Auxiliary commutation is used and in Mc Murray Bedford

inverter Auxiliary impulse commutation is used.

In all of the voltage control techniques used for inverters, Pulse Width modulation

(PWM) technique is more advantageous one and also it reduces the harmonic

content in the output waveform.

In single-phase parallel inverter, the capacitor is used for commutation.

CYCLO CONVERTERS:

Cyclo converters are single stage frequency conversion devices.

Their function is to convert Fixed AC voltage with fixed frequency into Variable

AC voltage with variable frequency.

Cyclo converters are classified into mid point type and Bridge type cyclo

converters.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. If, for a single-phase half-bridge inverter, the amplitude of output voltage is Vs and

the output power is P, then their corresponding values for a single-phase full-bridge

inverter are

(a) Vs, P (c) 2 Vs, 2P

(b) V/2, 2P (d) 2 Vs, P

2. In voltage source inverters

(a) load voltage waveform Vo depends on load impedance Z, whereas load current

waveform io does not depend on Z

(b) Both V

o

and i

o

depend on Z

(c) V

o

does not depend on Z whereas i

o

depends on Z

(d) both V

o

and i

o

do not depend upon Z

3. A single-phase full bridge inverter can operate in load-commutation mode in case

load consists of

(a) RL (b) RLC over damped

(c) RLC under damped (d) RLC critically damped

4. A single-phase bridge inverter delivers power to a series connected RLC load with

R = 2 , L = 8 Q. For this inverter-load combination, load commutation is

possible in case the magnitude of l/C in ohms is

(a) 10 (b) 8

(c) 6 (d) zero

5. For a 3-phase bridge inverter in 180 conduction mode, Fig. A-33, the sequence of

SCR conduction in the first two steps, beginning with the initiation of thyristor 1, is

(a) 6, 1,2 and 2,3, 1 (b) 2,3, 1 and 3, 4, 5

(c) 3, 4, 5, and 5, 6, 1 (d) 5, 6, 1 and 6, 1, 2

6. For a 3-phase bridge inverter in 120 conduction mode, Fig. A-33, the sequence of

SCR conduction in the first two steps, beginning with the initiation of thyristor 1, is

(a) 6, 1 and 1, 2 (b) 1,2 and 2,3

(c) 1, 6 and 5, 6 (d) 1, 3 and 3, 4

7. In single-pulse modulation of PWM inverters, third harmonic can be eliminated if

pulse width is equal to

(a) 30

0

(b) 60

0

(c) 120

0

(d) 150

8. In single-pulse modulation of PWM inverters, fifth harmonic can be eliminated if

pulse width is equal to

(a) 30

0

(b) 72

0

(c) 36 (d) 108

9. In single-pulse modulation of PWM inverters, the pulse width is 120. For an input

voltage of 220 V dc, the RMS value of output voltage is

(a) 179.63 V (b) 254.04 V

(c) 127.02 V (d) 185.04 V

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28

10. In single-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, Vs is the input de voltage. For

eliminating third harmonic, the magnitude of RMS value of fundamental

component of output voltage and pulse width are respectively

(a) 22 V

s

, 120 (b) 4 V

s

, 60

(c) 22 V

s

, 60 (d) 4 V

s

, 120

11. In multiple-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, the amplitudes of reference

square wave and triangular carrier wave are respectively 1 V and 2 V. For

generating 5 pulses per half cycle, the pulse width should be

(a) 36 (b) 24 (c) 18 (d) 12

12. In multiple-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, the amplitude and frequency

for triangular carrier and square reference signals are respectively 4 V, 6 kHz and 1

V, 1 kHz. The numbers of pulses per half cycle and pulse width are respectively

(a) 6, 90 (b) 3, 45

(c) 4, 60 (d) 3, 40

13. In sinusoidal-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, amplitude and frequency for

triangular carrier and sinusoidal reference signals are respectively 5 V, 1 kHz and 1

V, 50 Hz. If zeros of the triangular carrier and reference sinusoid coincide, then the

modulation index and order of significant harmonics are respectively

(a) 0.2,9 and 11 (b) 0.4,9 and 11

(c) 0.2, 17 and 19 (d) 0.2, 19 and 21

14. Which of the following statement/statements is/are correct in connection with in-

verters:

(a) VSI and CSI both require feedback diodes

(b) Only CSI requires feedback diodes

(c) GTOs can be used in CSI

(d) Only VSI requires feedback diodes

15. In a CSI, if frequency of output voltage is f Hz, then frequency of voltage input to

CSI is

(a) f (b) 2f

(c) f/2 (d) 3f

16. In sinusoidal-pulse modulation used in PWM inverters, amplitude and frequency of

triangular carrier and sinusoidal reference signals are respectively 5 V, 1 kHz and 1

V, 50 Hz. If peak of the triangular carrier coincides with the zero of the reference

sinusoid, then the modulation index and order of significant harmonics are

(a) 0.2,9 and 11 (b) 0.4,9 and 11

(c) 0.2, 17 and 19 (d) 0.2, 19 and 21

17. In sinusoidal PWM, there are 'm' cycles of the triangular carrier wave in the half

cycle of reference sinusoidal signal. If zero of the reference sinusoid coincides with

zero/peak of the triangular carrier wave, then numbers of pulses generated in each

half cycle are respectively

(a) (m - 1)/m (b) (m - 1)/(m - 1)

(c) m/m (d) m/(m - 1)

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29

18. In an inverter with fundamental output frequency of 50 Hz, if third harmonic is

eliminated, then frequencies of other components in the output voltage wave, in Hz,

would be

(a) 250, 350, 450, high frequencies (b) 50, 250, 350, 450

(c) 50,250,350,550 (d) 50, 100, 200, 250

19. A single-phase CSI has capacitor C as the load. For a constant source current, the

voltage across the capacitor is

(a) square wave (b) triangular wave

(c) step function - (d) pulsed wave

20. A single-phase full bridge VSI has inductor L as the load. For a constant source

voltage, the current through the inductor is

(a) square wave (b) triangular wave

(c) sine wave (d) pulsed wave

21. A cyclo converter is a

(a) frequency changer (fc) from higher to lower frequency with one-state

conversion

(b) fc from higher to lower frequency with two-stage conversion

(c) fc from lower to high frequency with one-state conversion

(d) either (a) or (c).

22. The cyclo converters (CCs) require natural or forced commutation as under:

(a) natural commutation in both step-up and step-down CCs

(b) forced commutation in both step-up and step-down CCs

(c) forced commutation in step-up CCs

(d) forced commutation in step-down CCs.

23. For converting 3-phase supply at one frequency to single-phase supply at a lower

frequency, the basic principle is to_______(vary/keep) the firing angle

__________ (constant/gradually).

24. Three-phase to three-phase cyclo converters employing 18 SCRs and 36 SCRs have

the same voltage and current ratings for their component thyristors. The ratio of VA

rating of 36-SCR devices to that of 18-SCR devices is

(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4.

25. Three-phase to 3-phase cyclo converters employing 18 SCRs and 36 SCRs have the

same voltage and current ratings for their component thyristors. The ratio of power

handled by 36-SCR devices to that handled by 18-SCR devices is

(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4.

26. The number of thyristors required for single-phase to single-phase cyclo converter

of the mid-point type and for three phase-to three-phase 3-pulse type cyclo

converters are respectively -.

(a) 4, 6 (b) 8, 18 (c) 4, 18 (d) 4, 36.

27. A 3-phase to single-phase conversion device employs a 6-pulse bridge cyclo

converter. For an input voltage of 200 V per phase, the fundamental rms value of

output voltage is

(a) 600/ V (b) 3003/ V (c) 300/ V (d) 6003/ V.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. A 3 , squirrel cage induction motor is developing a torque of 1500sync. Watts at

50GHz and 1440rpm (N

s

= 1500rpm). If the motor frequency is now increased to

75Hz using constant power mode, determine the new value of torque developed by

motor at constant slip.

2. A 3 star connected, 50Hz, 4-pole induction motor has the following parameters

in per phase referred to the stator:

R

1

= R

2

= 0.034O and X

1

=X

2

=0.18O

The motor is controlled by the variable frequency control with a constant (V/ f).

Determine the following for an operating frequency of 15Hz.

(a) The brake down torque as a ratio of its value at the rated frequency for motoring

and braking.

(b) The starting torque and rotor current in terms of their values at the rated frequency.

(c) The frequency, stator current and the voltage at rated braking torque and 1200rpm.

3. An inverter supplies a 4 pole, 3 cage induction motor rated at 220V,

50Hz.Determine the approximate output required of the inverter for motor speeds of

(i) 900rpm (ii) 1200rpm (iii) 1500rpm (iv) 1800rpm

4. A 3 400V delta connected induction motor has the following parameters at

50 Hz.

R

1

= 0.5O, R

2

= 1.5O and X

1

= X

2

=2.5O, X

m

= 130O

This motor is fed from a square waved inverter. The voltage waveform is such that

its fundamental is equal to the rated voltage of the motor. Determine input current

wave from corresponding to a rotor frequency of 2Hz. When the supply frequency

is 50Hz and 10Hz and the voltage applied is proportional to frequency. What

waveform do you expect at 10Hz if the voltage is varied to keep air gap flux

constant.

5. A 3 400V, 50 Hz, 4 pole; 1450rpm star connected squirrel cage

induction motor has the following parameters per phase referred to the stator.

R

1

= 0.11O, R

2

= 0.09O and X

1

=0.4O, X

2

=0.6O, X

m

= 12O, 6-stepinverter

controls the motor. The DC input to the inverter is provided by a 6 pulse fully

controlled rectifier.

6. What should be the rectifier firing angle for getting the rated fundamental voltage

across the motor if the rectifier is fed by an AC source of 400V, 50Hz.

If the machine is operated at a constant flux then determine

a. The inverter frequency at 560rpm and rated torque.

b. The inverter frequency at460 rpm and half the rated torque.

Also determine the motor current.

7. A 3 , 400V, 50Hz 980rpm, 6pole star connected squirrel cage induction motor

has the following parameter. per phase referred to the stator

R

1

= 0.20O, R

2

= 0.12O and X

1

= 0.18O, X

2

=0.4O, X

m

= 10.3O

The current source inverter controls the motor at the rated value, flux maintain constant.

Compute the following

(a) The stator current and DC link current, when the machine operates at rated torque

and 50Hz.

(b) The inverter frequency and DC link current for a speed of 500rpm and rated torque .

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31

The motor speed stator current and DC link current for half of the rated torque and

inverter frequency of 25Hz.

PREVIOUS SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1) With the help of circuit diagram and waveforms explain the induction motor with

current source inverter. Draw the circuit diagram of the Auto-sequentially commutated

inverter.

2) A 460V, 100-HP (74.6 KW), 1775 RPM, three-phase, squirrel cage Induction motor

has the following equivalent circuit parameters.

Rs = 0.060 ohm Rr = 0.0302 ohm

L1s = 0.638mH, Lms = 23.3 mH, L1r = 0.957 mH

The motor is to be driven from a current source inverter with the rotor frequency

controlled at the rated value. Maximum output power is to be limited to 80% of the rated

value. Motor friction, windage, and core losses may be neglected. The load is to consist

of a pump presenting a load characteristic described by the equation. T = e

m

2

/110 N.m.

Determine the maximum values of motor speed, inverter frequency, rms motor line

current, and fundamental line-to-line motor terminal pd at maximum power output.

3) Explain the operation of voltage source inverter (180-degree conduction mode), used

for induction motor speed control. Draw neat waveforms of line voltages (Vab, Vbc,

Vca) and hence show that the phase voltage, Van, is six-step voltage waveform.

4) Discuss in detail the role of Cyclo converters for speed control of Induction motor.

Draw neat circuit diagram for speed control of 3-phase Induction motor using

Cycloconverters. Mention the merits and limitations of the above scheme.

5) A three phase star connected 50 Hz, 4-pole induction motor has the following

approximate per-phase equivalent circuit parameters referred to stator side:

Rs=Rr=0.024, Xs=Xr=0.12. The motor is controlled by the variable frequency control

with constant (V/f) ratio. For an operating frequency of 12 Hz, calculate

(a) The breakdown torque as a ratio of its value at the rated frequency for the motoring

operation,

(b) The starting torque and rotor current in terms of their values at the rated frequency.

6) While explaining the principle of varying the speed of 3 phase Induction motor by v/f

method discuss if for the following two different modes.

(a) Operation below rated frequency

(b) Operation above rated frequency.

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32

UNIT VII

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR FROM ROTOR SIDE

To study the performance Static rotor resistance control of the induction motor

drives.

To study the performance Slip power recovery scheme of the induction motor

drives.

To study the performance Static Scherbius drive.

To study the performance Static Krammer drive.

To derive the Torque Speed characteristics of all the induction motor drives.

To know the advantages, disadvantages and applications of all the induction

motor drives.

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the Static rotor resistance control scheme of induction motor drive with

neat circuit and waveforms and draw their speed torque characteristics.

2. Explain the Slip energy recovery scheme of induction motor drive with neat circuit

and waveforms and draw their speed torque characteristics.

3. Explain the operation of Static Scherbius Drive with neat circuit and waveforms

and draw their speed torque characteristics.

4. Explain the operation of Static Krammer drive with neat circuit and waveforms and

draw their speed torque characteristics.

List out the advantages and applications of any three rotor side controlled induction

motor drives.

PREVIOUS SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1) A 3-phase, 420V, 50Hz, star connected induction motor has the following parameters:

R1 = 2.95O, R2 = 2.08O, X1 = 6.82O, X2 = 4.11O per phase. Neglect core loss. The

motor draws a current 6.7A at no load and controlled by rotor resistance controller. A

resistance Re Ohas been controlled by chopper. Determine the value of Re to get a speed

range of 1500 to 500 rpm, assuming a turns ratio of two between stator and rotor. The

torque and speed of the load are related by T o N. Determine the characteristics giving

the speed Vs time ratio of the chopper.

2) A 3-phase, 400V, 50Hz, 4 pole, 1400rpm, star connected wound rotor induction motor

has the following parameters referred to the stator R1 = 2O, R2 = 3O, X1 = X2 = 3.5O.

The stator to rotor turns ratio is 2. The motor speed is controlled by static Scherbius

drive. The inverter is directly connected to the source. Determine.

(a) The speed range of the drive when omax = 165

0

(b) The firing angle for 0.4 times the rated motor torque and speed of 1200 rpm.

(c) Torque for a speed of 1050rpm and firing angle of 95

0

.

3) The speed of a 3-phase slip ring induction motor is controlled by variation of rotor

resistance. The full load torque of the motor is 50Nm at a slip of 0.3. The motor drives

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 33

load having a characteristics T o N

2

. The motor has 4 poles and operates on 50Hz, 400V

supply. Determine the speed of the motor for 0.8 times the rated torque. The operating

condition is obtained with additional resistance in the circuit. Chopper in the rotor circuit

controls the resistance. Determine the average torque developed for a time ratio of 0.4.

4) A 3-phase 400V, 4 pole, 50Hz, Star connected induction motor has the following

parameters referred to the stator: R2 = 0.2O, X2 = 0.35O. Stator impedance and the

magnetizing branch can be ignored. When driving a load with its torque proportional to

speed, the motor runs at 1450rpm. Calculate the magnitude and phase of the voltage

(referred to the stator) to be impressed on the slip rings in order that the motor may

operate at 1200 rpm and unity power factor.

5) A 3-phase, 50Hz Star connected, 970rpm, 6-pole induction motor has the following

parameters referred to the stator. R1 = 0.2O, R2 = 0.15O, X1 = X2 = 0.4O. Stator to

rotor turns ratio = 3.5. The motor is controlled by the static Kramar drive. The drive is

designed for a speed range of 30% below the synchronous speed. The maximum value of

firing angle is 170

0

. Calculate

a) Turns ratio of the transformer

b) Torque for a speed of 750rpm and = 140

0

.

c) Firing angle for half the rated motor torque and a speed of 850rpm.

6) A 600V, 50Hz, 30kW, 3-phase induction motor is used as the drive motor in an SER

system. It is required to deliver constant (rated) motor torque over the full range from

100rpm to the rated speed of 1000rpm. The motor equivalent circuit parameters are:

R1 = 0.05O,R = 0.07O,R0 = 53O,X0 = 23O, X1+ X2 = 0.153O.

Stator to rotor turns ratio is 1.3. Calculate the motor currents, efficiency and power factor

at 300 rpm.

7) (a) Draw and explain a closed loop operation for a static Kramer controlled drive.

(b) In which way static Kramer Control is different from static Scherbius drive?

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34

UNIT VIII

UNIT OBJECTIVE:

CONTROL OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

To know about the separate control of synchronous motors.

To know about the self-control of synchronous motors.

To study the operation of self controlled synchronous motor drives by VSI.

To study the operation of self controlled synchronous motor drives by CSI.

To study the operation of self controlled synchronous motor drives by Cyclo

converters.

To study the operation of load commutated CSI fed synchronous motor drives and

to draw the Speed Torque characteristics.

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the difference between separate and self-control of synchronous motor.

2. Explain the operation of VSI fed self-controlled synchronous motor drive with neat

circuit and waveforms and also draw their speed torque characteristics.

3. Explain the operation of CSI fed self-controlled synchronous motor drive with neat

circuit and waveforms and also draw their speed torque characteristics.

4. Explain the operation of Cyclo converter fed self - controlled synchronous motor

drive with neat circuit and waveforms and also draw their speed torque

characteristics.

5. Explain the closed loop control of synchronous motor drives with neat block

diagrams.

List out the advantages, disadvantages and applications of self controlled synchronous

motor fed by VSI, CSI and Cyclo converter.

PREVIOUS SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:

1) A 6 MW, three phase, 11 kV, 50 Hz, unity power factor, 6-pole, star-connected

synchronous motor has the following parameters: armature resistance = 0, synchronous

reactance = 9 ohms, rated field current = 60 A. The machine is controlled by variable

frequency at constant V/f ratio up to base speed and at constant V above base speed.

Calculate the torque and field current for rated armature current, 750 rpm and 0.8 leading

power factor. Draw motor characteristics and waveforms under the above method of

control.

2) Describe self-controlled and load-commutated inverter controlled synchronous motor

drives in detail and compare them.

3) Describe the open loop and closed loop methods of speed control of a synchronous

motor using VSI.

4) Discuss the VSI method of speed control of synchronous motor describe the operation

of the converter with waveforms.

5) A 500 kW, 3-phase, 6.6 kV, 60 Hz, 6-pole, Y-connected wound-field synchronous

motor has the following parameters: Xm = 78, Xsf = 3, rated pf = 1, n = 5, Rs =

negligible. The motor speed is controlled by variable frequency control with a constant

V/f ratio up to base speed and rated terminal voltage above base speed. Calculate and plot

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B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35

T, Pm, V, Im, and IF versus speed for the motor operation at rated armature current and

unity pf. What is the range of constant power operation? Neglect friction, windage and

core loss. Draw motor characteristics and waveforms under the above method of control.

6) Describe the converter and control systems used for

(a) constant air gap flux density and

(b) constant V/f operation of a synchronous motor. Draw the characteristics of the drive

for the two cases.

7) Draw the block diagram of a closed loop synchronous motor drive fed from VSI and

explain.

Old Question Papers

Co de No: 07A70201 R07 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Examinations,MAY 2011

POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DRIVES

Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

? ? ? ? ?

1. (a) Generally the stator voltage control is suitable for speed control of Induction

motor in fan and pump drives. Discuss in detail why the above method is

useful.

(b) Explain why the stator voltage control is not an efficient method of control.

[8+8]

2. Draw the circuit diagram and explain the operation of rotor- resistance control

using chopper. Mention the advantages and disadvantages of the above method of

control. [16]

3. Derive the Speed, Torque Equations of a fully controlled converter connected to

separately excited D.C motor with continuous current operation with necessary

waveforms. [16]

4. Explain the basic operational aspects of three phase fully controlled converters

with

neat sketches of the waveforms and the circuit diagram. What is the e

ect of free

wheeling diode. [16]

5. What is continuous current operation of chopper fed DC motors? Explain with

relevant waveforms. [16]

6. With suitable circuit diagrams discuss in detail the principle of operation of Self

controlled Synchronous motor drive employing a Cyclo converter. [16]

7. A 50 hp 440 V, 50 Hz six pole Star connected Induction motor has the following

equivalent circuit parameters:

R1 = 0.1 Ohm, R2 ' = 0.12 Ohm,

X1 = 0.3 Ohm, X2 ' = 0.3Ohm . Xm = 15 Ohm. For a slip of 0.03 at rated frequency

determine the torque developed. [16]

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36

8. (a) With neat circuit diagram and waveforms, explain dynamic braking of sepa-

rately excited motor by single phase converter.

(b) A dc shunt motor has the armature resistance of 0.04 oms and the field winding

resistance of 10

. Motor is coupled to an over hauling load with a torque of

400N-m. Following magnetization curve was measured at 600 rpm:

Field Current, A 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 1.5 17.5 20 22.5 25

Back emf, V 25 50 73.5 90 102.5 110 116 121 125 129

Calculate the value of RB when the motor is required to hold overhauling load

at 1200rpm. [8+8]

?????

1

Co de No: 07A70201 R07 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Examinations,MAY 2011

POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DRIVES

Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

? ? ? ? ?

1. Explain static motor resistance control for speed control of I.M. Draw speed &

torque charecterstics.

[16]

2. Explain in detail the braking operation of a controlled separately excited d.c

motor.

[16]

3. Explain in detail the operation of a full- converter feeding a D.C series motor with

reference to voltage and current waveforms, Assuming that the motor current is a

continuous one. [16]

4. Draw and explain the speed torque curves with variable frequency control for the

two di

erent modes.

(a) Operation at constant

ux

(b) Operation at constant (V/f ) ratio. [16]

5. A 3 half wave bridge comprising three thyristors is fed from a 277Vrms, line to

neural, 60Hz supply and provides an adjustable dc voltage at the terminals of a

separately excited dc motor. The motor has Ra=0.02, La =.001H, Ka=1.2 and full

load Ia = 500A. Find the ring angle so that the motor operates at full load current

and at rated speed of 200rps. Assume continuous conduction and neglect thyristor

forward voltage drop. [16]

6. Explain the principle of operation of self control of synchronous motor fed from

VSI source. [16]

7. A 3-, 8 pole, 50Hz IM has the following circuit parameters r2 =0.15

x2 = 0.7

.

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37

The motor speed is controlled by varying the applied voltage by an AC voltage

controller, which operates from a 380v, 50Hz supply. Detemine the applied voltage

perphase of the motor to have a slip of 0.15. The motor drives a load with a

charectersitc of T1 = 0.014W2 NW-m. Determine the ring angle of the converter.

[16]

8. A class-A chopper, operating in time-ratio control, is supplying the armature of

the

separately excited dc motor. Show that the motor speed-torque relationship is ,

!m= :V

K Ra

K2 Ta

Where V - chopper input voltage, Ra - Armature resistance, Ta - motor torque, K-

torque constant. [16]

? ? ? ? ?

2

Co de No: 07A70201 R07 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Examinations,MAY 2011

POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DRIVES

Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

? ? ? ? ?

1. In variable frequency control of asynchronous motor why (V/f) ratio is

maintained

constant up to base speed and V constant above base speed. Draw the relevant

characteristics. [16]

2. Write down the basic performance equations for a D.C Series motor Sketch char-

acteristics of constant torque drive and constant power drive regions. [16]

3. Explain how braking mode of operation is obtained in D.C drives. [16]

4. (a) State the major features of Rotor resistance control of Wound Rotor Induction

motor.

(b) In the rotor resistance control, what type of motor speed - torque character-istics

will be obtained if one phase has a loose contact? [8+8]

5. Discuss in detail the principle of operation of a 3 Phase Induction motor when it

is operated below rated frequency and above rated frequency. Draw relevant speed

torque characteristics. [16]

6. What is a Chopper? Explain the Chopper control of a separately excited D.C

motors

(a) Motoring Mode

(b) regenerative braking mode and also draw the Speed-Torque Curves in each

mode. [8+8]

7. Describe how the speed of a separately excited dc motor is controlled through the

use of two 3- phase full converters. Discuss how two quadrant drive can be obtained

from the scheme. Derive expressions for rms values of source and thyristor currents.

State assumptions made. [16]

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 38

8. The rotor resistance and stand still reactance referred to stator of a 3 phase, 4

pole,

50 Hz Squirrel cage Induction motor is 0.2 ohm and 0.8 ohm per phase respectively.

The full load slip of the motor is 4 percent. Neglect stator resistance and leakage

reactance. Determine how much stator voltage should be reduced in order to get a

speed of 1200rpm if the load torque remains constant. [16]

? ? ? ? ?

3

Co de No: 07A70201 R07 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Examinations,MAY 2011

POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DRIVES

Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

? ? ? ? ?

1. Derive the Speed, Torque Equations of a fully controlled converter connected to

D.C series motor with continuous current operation with necessary waveforms.

[16]

2. Mention the reasons

(a) Why V/f ratio is maintained constant when the motor is operated below the

base speed.

(b) Why the terminal voltage is maintained constant, when Induction motor is

operated above base speed. Draw relevant speed torque characteristics. [8+8]

3. Explain the operation of four quadrant chopper fed to the D.C separately excited

motor and also draw the current and voltage wave forms for continuous current

operation. [16]

4. What are the various possible combinations of voltage source DC link converters

to

obtain a variable voltage variable frequency supply to feed a Synchronous motor?

Draw the circuit diagrams and discuss in detail. [16]

5. (a) Starting from fundamentals prove that torque developed by the Induction

motor is proportional to square of the supply voltage.

(b) Draw the speed torque curves for di

erent voltages fed from stator voltage

controller. [8+8]

6.The field circuit and armature circuit of a separately excited dc motor are

controlled

by two identical three phase fully controlled converter and are fed from a 400V 50

Hz supply .The rated armature current of the motor is 170A.motor parameters are

Ra=0.2

Rf=320

motor constant is 0.5. Field converter has zero degree

----------------------------------------------------------------------- Power Semiconductor Drives

B.V.R.I.T. Course File --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

ring

angle delay. For rated load torque of 60Nm at 2000rpm. Calculate

(a) Rated armature current

(b) Firing angle delay of the armature converter

(c) Speed regulation at rated load. [16]

7. Explain with block diagrams closed loop torque control and closed loop speed

con-trol of drives. [16]

4

Co de No: 07A70201 R07 Set No. 3

8. A 3 phase,400 V,50 Hz 4 pole,1400 rpm, Star connected Induction motor has the

following parameters referred to the stator.

Rs = 2 ohm, Rr' = 3ohm, Xs = 3.5 ohm, Xr'= 3.5. The stator to rotor turns ratio

is 2 ohm. The motor speed is controlled by Static Scherbius drive. The Inverter is

directly connected to the source. Determine the ring angle for 0.4 times the rated

motor torque and a speed of 1200 rpm. [16]

? ? ? ? ?

5

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