Biochemistries

Na+ 135~153mEq/l
↓1.4mmol/l,每 100mg/dl↑plasma glucose
K+
3.5~5.3mEq/l
Cl95~105mEq/l
Bicarbonate 24~31mEq/l
AG=Na+-(Cl-+HCO3-);12±4mEq/L(8~12)
BUN
5~25mg/dl
Creatinine
0.5~1.4mg/dl
Glucose 65~109mg/dl, 3.61~6.06mmol/l
Calcium 9~11mg/dl, 2.25~2.75mmol/l
Ca2+,corrected (4-Alb,patient)0.8+Ca,pat
Ca2+,ionized
=4.0~5.5mg/dl, 1.0~1.375mmol/l

Electrophoresis
TPE Serum 6.0~8.0
CSF
15~40
A/G
1.0~1.8
Alpha 1
0.1~0.4
Alpha 2
0.6~1.0
Beta
0.6~1.3
Gamma 0.7~1.5
HbA1C
4.0~5.2%

* 45~50% of total Calcium
Phosphate (PO4 )=2.5~4.6mg/dl
Mg2+
1.9~3.1mg/dl, 0.83~1.29mmol/l
Total Protein 6.0~8.3g/dl
Albumin 3.5~5.0g/dl
A/G
1.5~2.01
Total Bili 0.2~1.0mg/dl
Direct Bili
0.0~0.2mg/dl
Alk Phos 32~92U/I
SGOT, AST 10~35U/I
SGPT, ALT 10~40U/I
GGTP
7~64 U/I
LDH
91~180U/I
CPK
22~269U/I
CPK MB 2.3~9.5
Troponin <0.1
Homocystein 5~15μM
Amylase
60~180 U/I
Lipase 4~25U/I
Acid Phos,Tot
0~10 U/I
Acid Phos,Pr
<4 U/I
Osmolality
285~295mOsm/kg
Osmolality 2Na++BUN/2.8+Glu/18
Ammonia
<70μg/dl

Creatinine
80~140ml/min/
Clearance 1.73m2BSA
Glucose <300mg/day
Osmolality
250~1000mOsm/l
Total Volume 720~1600ml/day
Urea Nitrogen 6~17g/day
Uric Acid
250~750mg/day
Specific Gravity 1.002~1.030
17 Ketos M: 10~20, F: 5~15 mg/day
17OH
2~10mg/day
VMA
0.5~12.0mg/day
5-HIAA 2~8mg/24h
pH
4.6~8.0
β-HCG
0~10mIU/ml
Phosphorus 0.9~1.3g/day
Potassium 25~115mEq/day
Protein
10~200mg/day
Sodium 50~250mEq/day
Calcium <150mg/day
Cu
0~30μg/24h
Pb
<100μg/24h
Mg
0.24~0.48mg/dl
CCr(ml/min) x0.85(women)
= [(140-age) x weight(kg)]

Urine
Albumin 20~100mg/day
Amylase <20U/hr(560~2240IU/day)
Creatinine
1~2g/day

Uric Acid 2.6~7.2mg/dl
Lactate
0.5~2.2mmol/l
CRP
<5
IgG(serum) 917.2~1891.2
IgG index
<0.7(0.65)
IgG index IgG(CSF)/IgG(serum)
Albumin(CSF)/Albumin(serum)
Triglycerides 35~160mg/dl
Cholesterol 140~200mg/dl
LDL Chol
0~130mg/dl
HDL Chol
29~85mg/dl
Chol/HDL
<4.5~6.0
Hematology
Lymphocyte(diff)

[72xserum Cr(mg/dl)]
CCr(ml/min)
= [urine Cr(mg/dl) x volume(ml)]
[serum Cr(mg/dl) x time(minutes)]
FENa = [(UNaxPCr)/(PNaxUCr)]x100
TTKG = [(K+U)/(K+P)]/[OsmU /OsmP]

Total T, CD3 60~87%
Total T/mm3 630~3170
B Cell
1~25%
Suppr, CD8 10~40%
Suppr/mm3 240~1200
Helper, CD4 30~50%
H:S, CD4/CD8 0.8~3.0
WBC
4000~11,000/ul
Segs 37~75%
Bands 0~5%
Lymph 12~50%
Mono 0~10%
Eos
0~4%
Baso 0~1%
RBC M:4.5~6.0, F:4.0~5.5 x106/mm3
Hb M: 13~17 l, F: 12~16 g/dl
Hct M: 40~53 , F: 37~47 %
MCV M: 79~101, F: 80~100 fl
MCH 26~35pg
MCHC(=MCH/MCV) 31~37%
Platelets
130~500 x103/ul
Reticulocyte Count 0.5~2.0%
(Corrected
= reticulocyte *HCT/45 or *Hb/15)

Factor 8 60~120%
Factor 9 70~120%
Factor 11
70~120%
α-2A
80~120%
Antithrombin III
80~120%
Protein C 70~140%
Eosinophil count 150~300cu.mm.

FDP(3’P)

<5.0μg/ml

Endocrinology
T4 RIA
4.5~11.5ug/dl
T3 Uptake
25~37%
Free T4
0.7~1.8ng/dl
T3
80~200ng/dl
TSH
0.4~5.0uIU/ml
Aldosterone,supine 3~12ng/dl
Aldosterone,upright 5~25ng/dl
Calcitonin
<75pg/ml
Cortisol
5~25ug/dl,AM
≦1/2AM 值,PM
Gastrin
0~200pg/ml
Growth Hormone 1~10ng/ml
Pepsinogen 25~100mg/ml
Prolactin M:1.5~9.7, F:1.4~14.6 ng/ml
PTH
10~60pg/ml

Reticulocyte production index(2.5)
= Corrected reticulocyte count
maturation time correction
(Hct=25%時為 2)
Hgb A1C 4.0~5.2%
Haptoglobin 100~250mg/dl
ESR
0~10mm/hr
PT
10.2~11.7sec
APTT
24.0~36.8sec
Bleeding Time
Duke: 1~3min, Ivy : 2.5~9.5min
Thrombin Time 10~14sec
RDW-CV
11.5~14.5
RDW-SD
36~46
Iron M: 60~200 , F: 55~180 ug/dl
UIBC
130~300ug/dl
Iron % Saturation 20~55%
[=Iron/(Iron+UIBC)]
Ferritin
30~300ng/ml
Fibrinogen
170~410mg/dl
Fibrin Split Prod Variable per dilution
D-dimer Blood or sodium: <324μg/dl
ABGs
PH
7.35~7.45
PaCO2
35~45mmHg
PaO2
75~100mmHg
HCO3
22~26mEq/l
SaO2
95~98%
SvO2
60~85%
BE 0±2mmol/l
tCO2
23~27mmol/l
pH= 6.1+log([HCO3-]/0.03PaCO2)
[H+](nM/L)= 24x(PaCO2/[HCO3-])
PAO2= (Patm-PH2O)×FIO2-PaCO2/R
A-aDO2= PAO2-PaO2(room air<10~12)
CaO2= 0.003×PaO2+1.36×Hb×SaO2
AG=[Na+]-([HCO3-]+[Cl-]);12±4mEq/L

Thyroglobulin <25ng/ml
TSH-Ab receptor ≦15U/l
Testosterone M:270~1070ng/dl
F:6.0~86.0ng/dl
ACTH
7.4~55.7pg/ml
C-peptide Fasting: 0.3~2.5ng/ml
Peak: 4~10ng/ml
Insulin
3~35IU/ml

IgG
IgA
IgM
IgE
IgD

Immunoglobulin
1355.5~1452.9mg/dl
235.8~270.4mg/dl
139.2~163.6mg/dl
66.4~109mg/dl
1.32~3.12mg/dl

Complement
C3
83.1~125.5mg/dl
C4
17.2~32.8mg/dl
C3 activator 28.9~32.1mg/dl
C5
11.5~12.3mg/dl
C1q 13.3~13.9mg/dl
CH50
34.2~35.8IU
CSF
Protein 10~40mg/dl
Glucose 40~80mg/dl
(0.6 x Serum glucose)
Pressure 80~180mmH2O
Leukocyte,total <5/HPF
Leucocyte,Diff
Lymph 60~75%(70%)
Mono 25~50%(30%)
Neutro 1~3%
Cell Count
0~5lymphs/HPF
Osmolarity
292~297mOsm/L
Albumin(serum) 3800~5300mg/dl
Lactate <2
IgG(serum) 917.2~1891.2

Metabolic acidosis
HCO3- deficit(mEq/L)=
[0.5xbody weight(kg)]x(24-[HCO3-])
Expected PaCO2= 1.5x[HCO3-]+8±2
Metabolic alkalosis
HCO3- excess(mEq/L)=
[0.4xbody weight(kg)]x([HCO3-]-24)
Expected PaCO2 ([HCO3-]≦40mEq/l)
= 0.7x[HCO3-]+21±1.5
Expected PaCO2 ([HCO3-]>40mEq/l)
= 0.75x[HCO3-]+19±7.5
Respiratory acidosis
Acute △pH/△PaCO2 = 0.008
Chronic △pH/△PaCO2 = 0.003
Respiratory alkalosis
Acute △pH/△PaCO2=0.008
Chronic △pH/△PaCO2=0.002

Others
Vitamin B12 200~950pg/ml
Folate
3.0~17.0μg/ml
Aluminum
4~10ug/l
Copper
90~200ug/dl
Zinc
50~150ug/dl

Drug level
Digoxin
1~2μg/l
Lithium
0.5~1mmol/l
Phenobarbital 10~40mg/l
Tegretol(CBZ) 5~10mg/l
Phenytoin(DPH) 10~20mg/l

IgG index
<0.7(0.65)
IgG index
= IgG(CSF)/IgG(serum)
Albumin(CSF)/Albumin(serum)
Others
Apo B M: 96~176 , F: 42~112 mg/dl
Apo A M: 96~176, F: 109~203 mg/dl
ASLO Adult:<200, Child:<100 T.U/ml
α1-Antitrypsin 144.6~151.4mg/dl
α1-acid glycoprotein 33~88mg/dl
α2-macroglobulin
120~269mg/dl
β2-microglobulin
Blood:70~340μg/dl
Other:<12.6μg/dl
Ceruloplasmin 21~53mg/dl
Microalbumin (urine) <1.9mg/dl
Prealbumin
17.0~42.0mg/dl
RA factor(RHF) <30IU/ml
Transferrin
299.5~316.3mg/dl
Tumor marker
AFP
<25ng/ml
CEA
<2.5ng/ml
CEA,Smoker
<5.0ng/ml
Ca-15-3 <30U/ML
CA-19-9 <37 U/ml
CA-125 <30U/ml
Free β-HCG
0~10mIU/ml
TPA
<70 U/L
SCC
≦1.5 ng/ml
PSA
0~4ng/ml
Gentamicin
Trough:<2μg/ml
Peak:
Traditional dosing
5~12μg/ml

Valproic acid 50~100mg/l
Extended-interval dosing
Theophylline 10~20mg/l
10~20μg/ml(<65y/o)
Amikacin
10~18μg/ml(>65y/o)
Trough: 1~8μg/ml
Vancomycin
Peak: 20~30μg/ml
Trough:5~15μg/ml
Ethanol <3mmol/l
Peak:20~40μg/ml
Lab Value
Transudate
Exudate
Specific gravity
<1.016
>1.016
Absolute protein
<3g/dL
>3g/dL
Protein(ascitic or pleural to serum <0.5
>0.5
ratio)
LDH(ascitic or pleural to serum
<0.6
>0.6
ratio)
Absolute LDH
<200IU
>200IU
Glucose
<1
>1
+(serum to ascitic or pleural ratio)
Fibrinogen(clot)
No
Yes
3
WBC(ascitic)
<500/mm
>1000/mm3
WBC(pleural)
Very low
>2500/mm3
Differential(pleural)
PMN early, monocytes later
RBC(ascitic)
>100 RBC/mm3
pH(pleural):一般>7.3,
在 7.2 和 7.3 之間:考慮 TB 或 malignancy 或兩者。 若<7.2:考慮 empyema
Glucose(pleural):normal pleural fluid glucose=2/3serum glucose,
RA 可能會低到 0~16mg/dl
TG(>110mg/dl) 和 Sudan stain(+)(pleural fluid):chylothorax
Food fibers(ascitic):perforated viscus
CSF study
壓力
細胞數
主要的細
糖份
蛋白質
3
(sugar)
(protein)
胞種類
(mmH2O)
/ mm
60~200
0~5
L
50~100mg/dl 20~45
正常
(80~180)
mg/dl
1000~5000 PMN
急性細菌性腦膜炎 上升
下降
上升
50~500
L
結核菌性腦膜炎
上升
下降
上升
100~700
PMN,L,M 下降
黴菌性腦膜炎
正常 or
正常 or
(如隱球菌)
上升
上升
0~500
PMN,L,M 正常 or 下降 *
腫瘤引起之腦膜炎 *
*
50~100
L,M
疱疹性腦炎
正常
正常
10~1000
L
*
無菌性腦炎 aseptic *
正常
25~2000
L
急性梅毒性腦膜炎 *
正常
上升
0~5
L
N
急性發炎性脫髓鞘 正常
上升
病變