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The progress of distributed generation set is
an important energy option in the present scenario
because distribution generation or cogeneration can be
used as a backup option to the load for the continuity of
the supply or it can be used as peak shaving load. Here
Microturbine-Permanent magnet synchronous generator
is used as distributed generation set. In which the
permanent magnet synchronous generator is having high
output frequency. So, there is a necessity to convert High
frequency to low frequency (50) Hz, conventional
rectifier-inverter or sparse matrix converter can be used
as frequency converter. In this paper, simulation results
of sparse matrix converter are compared with
conventional rectifier-inverter.

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Application of Sparse Matrix Converter for

Microturbine-Permanent Magnet Synchronous

Generator output Voltage Quality Enhancement

N.Vinay Kumar

1

, A.Bhaskar

2

1

PG Scholar, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Narayana Engineering College, Nellore. AP, India.

2

Associate professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Narayana Engineering College. Nellore, AP,

India.

Abstract The progress of distributed generation set is

an important energy option in the present scenario

because distribution generation or cogeneration can be

used as a backup option to the load for the continuity of

the supply or it can be used as peak shaving load. Here

Microturbine-Permanent magnet synchronous generator

is used as distributed generation set. In which the

permanent magnet synchronous generator is having high

output frequency. So, there is a necessity to convert High

frequency to low frequency (50) Hz, conventional

rectifier-inverter or sparse matrix converter can be used

as frequency converter. In this paper, simulation results

of sparse matrix converter are compared with

conventional rectifier-inverter.

Keywords---Microturbine-Permanent magnet synchronous

generator, sparse matrix converter, filters, Harmonics.

I. INTRODUCTION

Distributed generation sets have received

significant attention as a mean to improve the

performance and reliability of electrical power

system. They can provide low-cost energy and

increase energy efficiency. Moreover, through

combined heat and power (CHP) mode of

operation and their application can also reduce

transmission and distribution (T&D) losses, relieve

T&D assets, reduce constraints, and improve

overall power quality and reliability. Nowadays,

there is a growing interest in deploying

Microturbine in distribution generation

application, because of their quick start capability

and easy controllability useful for efficient peak

shaving [1]. In the past few years the uses of

Distributed generation sets have increased

significantly. MTGs are small, high speed power

plants that usually include the turbine, compressor,

generator, and power electronics to deliver the

power to the load. MTGs [2] have a high- speed

gas turbine engine driving an integral electrical

generator that produces 25-300Kw power while

operating at a high speed, generally in the range of

30,000-80,000 rpm. Electric power frequency is

produced about 10,000 of Hz and this has to be

converted in standard frequency (50) Hz by the

application of sparse matrix converter [3].

Microturbine-Generator is having single-shaft and

split-shaft. Single shaft is having high speed

synchronous machine with the compressor and

turbine mounted on the same shaft while the shaft

used for power turbine rotating at 3000rpm and a

conventional generator connected via a gear box

for speed multiplication [3].

In this paper, the Singleshaft is usually

composed of gas turbine electric power generators.

The main advantage of using the single-shaft

configuration with Permanent magnet synchronous

generator (PMSG) or asynchronous generator is

that it is simpler in design. Moreover there is no

need for a gear reducer as power electronics sparse

matrix converter is used to supply standard

frequency to the load.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) volume 5 number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 170

The disadvantages of using high speed

Permanent magnet synchronous machine are

thermal stress, demagnetization phenomenon

centrifugal forces, rotor loses because of fringing

effects, high cost etc.

The main advantage of coupling a synchronous

generator with the split-shaft Microturbine is that

it eliminates the use of the rectifier and power

converter. These generators are robust and less

costly as compared to permanent magnet

synchronous generator and all other problem with

high speed is eliminated. The use of power

electronic interface for power conversion

introduces harmonics in the system which reduces

the output voltage quality. These harmonics are

eliminated if synchronous generator is used with a

gearbox. However, the main drawback of a gear

box is that it requires maintenance along with its

lubricating system.

Frequency converter and protection and control

system (fig.1) [4]. The interface converter is used

to convert permanent magnet synchronous

generator output voltage-frequency (High

frequency) to power frequency (50/60Hz).

In this paper, sparse matrix converter is

proposed and this sparse matrix converter is

compared with the conventional rectifier-Inverter.

II. MICROTURBINE-MODELLING

In this paper proposed model [5] is considered

for Microturbine, and modeling of Microturbine

has been done in Matlab/Simulink (fig.2). The

model consist of speed controller, accelerator

controller, Temperature controller, and fuel

(including valve positioned and actuator)

The exhaust temperature function is given by:

) ( ). (1)

The torque function is given by:

) ( ). (2)

Where,

= speed or the turbine

W

f1,

W

f2

= fuel flow signals

T

R

= Rated exhaust temperature.

Fig.1 Block diagram of a single-shaft Microturbine-Generator

III. SPARSE MATRIX CONVERTER

The sparse matrix converter is an AC/AC

converter which offers a reduced number of

components, a low-complexity modulation

scheme, and low realization effort. Sparse matrix

converters avoid the multistep commutation

procedure of the conventional matrix converter

improving system reliability and output voltage

quality at the load. Characteristics of the sparse

matrix converter topology are having 15 IGBTs

and 18 Diodes and 7 isolated driver potentials.

Compared to the matrix converter, this topology

provides identical functionality, but with a reduced

numbers of switches and the option of employing

an improved zero dc-link current commutation

scheme, which provides lower control complexity

and higher safety and reliability. Sparse matrix

converter is shown in fig. 3

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) volume 5 number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 171

The sparse matrix converter is fed by voltage

source and, for this reason; the input terminal

should not be short circuited. On the other hand

the load has an inductive nature and for this nature,

an output phase must never be opened.

Fig.2 Microturbine model.

Fig.3 Sparse matrix converter

IV. MICROTURBINE

Microturbines are small and simple cycle gas

turbines. The output of the Microturbine range

typically from around 25 to 300 Kw. Performance

improvement technique incorporated in

Microturbine include recuperation, low emission

technologies, and the use of advanced materials,

such as ceramic for the hot section parts.

Microturbines are available in single-shaft or split-

shaft unit. Single-shaft unit is a high-speed

synchronous machine with the compressor and

turbine mounted on the same shaft. For these

machines, the turbine speed ranges from 50000 to

120000 rpm. They can supply customers base-

load requirements or can be used for standby, peak

shaving, and cogeneration applications. The block

diagram of Microturbine is shown in fig.4

Fig. 4 Block diagram of Microturbine.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

In this section the Microturbine-Generator is

simulated in Matlab. The model of permanent

magnet synchronous generator is available in

Simulink library and is used for generator

simulation

In this simulation the focus will on the

comparing the sparse matrix converter with

conventional rectifier-inverter. The block diagram

of the simulated system is shown in fig.5. The

reference speed of the Microturbine-Generator is

set to 4500 rpm. And at t=14 sec. load is increased

from 0.2 Pu to 0.8 Pu.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) volume 5 number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 172

Fig.5 Simulated system

Fig.6 Speed of Microturbine-Generator

Fig.7 Mechanical torque of Microturbine-Generator

At this speed the frequencies of the output

frequency of the permanent magnet synchronous

generator is 3000Hz, and must be converted to

power system frequency (50 Hz), This can be done

by using Sparse matrix converter.

In fig.8 shows the permanent magnet

synchronous generator output voltage of phase-a

(a)

(b)

Fig.8 Permanent magnet synchronous generator output voltage at (a) 0.2 Pu

and (b) 0.8 Pu

Sparse matrix converter and conventional

converter operates on these load voltages to

construct a 50 Hz. Output wave form of these

converters before filtering is shown in fig.9 and

fig.10.

(a)

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) volume 5 number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 173

(b)

Fig.9 Sparse matrix converter output voltage at (a) 0.2 Pu and (b) 0.8 Pu

(a)

(b)

Fig.10. Conventional rectifier-Inverter output voltage at (a) 0.2 Pu (b) 0.8Pu

These voltages are filtered by using filter to

construct the load terminal voltages. The filtered

output voltages of the sparse matrix converter and

conventional rectifier-Inverter are shown in fig. 11

and fig.12.

(a)

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) volume 5 number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 174

(b)

Fig. 11 Load terminal voltage of sparse matrix converter at (a) 0.2 Pu (b) 0.8

Pu

(a)

(b)

Fig. 12 Load terminal voltage of conventional rectifier-Inverter at (a) 0.2 Pu

(b) 0.8 Pu

Selected FFT signals for the sparse matrix

converter and Conventional rectifier-Inverter at 0.2

Pu and 0.8 Pu is shown in fig.13 and the total

harmonic distortion (THD %) at the load terminal

voltage of sparse matrix converter and

conventional rectifier-Inverter is shown in fig.14

and fig.15. The total harmonic distortion for the

load terminal voltage of sparse matrix converter at

0.2 Pu and 0.8 Pu are 5.50% and 4.50% and the

Total harmonic distortion for the load terminal

voltage of conventional rectifier-Inverter are

7.50% and 6.50%. From these values (THD%), we

can observe that the total harmonic distortion of

load terminal voltage using sparse matrix

converter is less than the load terminal voltage of

conventional rectifier-Inverter and the output

voltage of Microturbine-permanent magnet

synchronous generator is improved.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 13 Selected signals of both sparse matrix converter and conventional

rectifier-Inverter at the load terminal voltage at (a) 0.2 Pu (b) 0.8 Pu.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) volume 5 number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 175

(a)

(b)

Fig. 14: Total harmonic distortion of the load terminal voltage of sparse

matrix converter at load (a) 0.2 Pu and (b) 0.8 Pu

(a)

Fig.15: Total harmonic distortions of the load terminal voltage of

conventional rectifier-Inverter at (a) 0.2 Pu (b) 0.8 Pu

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper Microturbine-permanent magnet

synchronous generator is used as distributed

generation set. Here the application of sparse

matrix converter is used as frequency converter

for the Microturbine-Generator for improvement

of output voltage quality at the load and

simulation results of sparse matrix converter is

compared with the conventional rectifier-inverter

and larger dc-link capacitor which is common in

conventional rectifier-inverter is omitted and

hence, output voltage quality of the Microturbine-

Permanent magnet synchronous generator

converter is enhanced.

REFERENCES

[1] A.K.Saha, S.Chowdhury, S.P.Chowdhary, and P.A.Crossley,

Modeling and performance of a Microturbine as a distributed energy

resource, IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 529-538, Jun.

2009.

[2] Stephanie L.Hamilton, Southern California Edison, Project title:

Microturbine generator program, Proceedings of the 33

rd

Hawaii

International conference on system science. 2000

[3] Johann W.Kolar, Frank schafmeister, Simon D. Round, Hans Ertl,

Novel three phase Sparse matrix converter, IEEE Trans. on power

electronics, vol. 22, no.5, pp.1649-1661, Sept.2007.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) volume 5 number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 176

[4] E.F.Pavinatto, M.B.Peres, P.D. Reis, L.S. Pereira, and F.P.Salles, Use

of Microturbine in remote isolated oil and gas facilities in Brazil,

IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., pp.62-68, Nov/Dec.2008.

[5] R. Norooizian, M.Abedi, G.B.Gharehpetian, and S.H.Ossein,

Modeling and simulation of Microturbine-Generator system for on-

grid and off-grid operation modes, Int. Conf. on Renewable Energies

and Power Quality (ICREPQ09), Apr.2009.

About Authors

N.Vinay Kumar received B.Tech. Degree from AVS

College of Engineering and technology, Venkatachalam affiliated to

JNTU ANANTHAPUR, At present he is perceiving M.Tech in

Electrical Power Engineering from Narayana Engineering College,

Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.

A.Bhaskar received Master degree in Power Electronic

in Industrial Drives (PE & ID) from Sathyabhama University,

Chennai. And B.Tech degree from Visvodaya Institute of Technology

and science, Kavali. At present he is an Associate Professor in EEE

department, Narayana Engineering College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh,

India.

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