National Aeronautics and Space Administration

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Einstein’s Predictions

Three startling outcomes of Einstein’s general relativity: • The expansion of the Universe (from a Big Bang) • Black holes • A Cosmological Constant acting against the pull of gravity Observations confirm these outcomes . . .

Hubble discovered the expanding Universe in 1929

Black holes found in our Galaxy and at the center of quasars over the past three decades

Evidence for an accelerating Universe was observed in 1998

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

What Powered the Big Bang?

What Powered the Big Bang?
Gravitational Waves Can Escape from Earliest Moments of the Big Bang

Inflation (Big Bang plus 10-34 Seconds) Big Bang plus 300,000 Years
gravitational waves light


Big Bang plus 15 Billion Years

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

What Happens at the Edge of a Black Hole?

Chandra deep image reveals Black Holes are ubiquitous Each point of x-ray light is a Black Hole!

Black Holes are a prediction of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity and can be used to test the theory in the strongest possible gravity fields
Simulated Black Hole Image

4-8 µ arc sec

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

What is Dark Energy?

We do not know what 95% of the universe is made of!

Dark Energy is causing the expansion of the Universe to accelerate. Solving this mystery will fundamentally change our view of the Universe!

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Completing Einstein’s Legacy

Einstein’s legacy is incomplete, his theory fails to explain the underlying physics of the very phenomena his work predicted
We are on the threshold of a breakthrough comparable to Einstein’s breakthrough discoveries a century ago…. Beyond Einstein is a NASA program that will employ a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and common science goals to answer the questions

What powered the Big Bang? What happens at the edge of a Black Hole? What is the mysterious Dark Energy pulling the Universe apart?

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Beyond Einstein Program


Science and Technology Precursors






National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Realizing Science Beyond Einstein

Three inter-linked elements that work together:
1. Einstein Observatories providing breakthrough capabilities to address Beyond Einstein science:
• LISA: Gravitational waves from merging Black Holes • Constellation-X: Observe matter falling into Black Holes & address the mysteries of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

1. Einstein Probes address focused science questions:
• How does Dark Energy evolve? • Can we detect the Big Bang? • How many Black Holes are there?

1. Education & outreach program, technology investments, and theoretical studies towards the vision
• Inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers

Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes

The Constellation-X Mission
• Black Holes:
− Probe close to the event horizon − Evolution with Cosmic Time

• Dark Matter and Dark Energy
− Clusters of galaxies pin down the expansion of the universe

• Origin of the elements, New States of matter, Cosmic Feedback A Constellation of X-ray telescopes for high resolution spectroscopy:
• 25-100 times sensitivity gain over Chandra • Baseline of four space-craft working as a single large telescope

The National Academy of Sciences decadal survey ranked Constellation-X the next priority after JWST in the large space observatories category & Endorsed in the NAS Turner Committee Quarks to Cosmos Report

Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes

Constellation-X Science Objectives

Black Holes
Observe hot matter spiraling into Black Holes to test the effects of General Relativity Spectroscopy of the faint Chandra sources to trace the evolution of Black Holes with cosmic time

Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Use clusters of galaxies to trace the locations of Dark Matter and as independent probes to constrain the amount and evolution of Dark Energy

Origin of the Elements, New States of matter, Cosmic Feedback
Search for the hot missing matter in the Cosmic Web and investigate the influence of Black Holes on galaxy formation Study the behavior of matter in extreme environments e.g. neutron stars

LISA Overview
S &P -P p s l Me g E I re ro o a e tin

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA mission to design, build and operate the first spacebased gravitational wave detector The 5 million kilometer long detector will consist of three spacecraft orbiting the Sun in a triangular formation Space-time strains induced by gravitational waves are detected by measuring changes in the separation of fiducial masses with laser interferometry to 1/100th the size of an atom

LISA is expected to detect signals from merging supermassive black holes, compact stellar objects spiraling into supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, thousands of close binaries of compact objects in the Milky Way and possibly backgrounds of cosmological origin LISA a high priority in moderate mission class in National Academy of Sciences McKee-Taylor decadal survey & endorsed in the Turner Committee Quarks to Cosmos Report

LISA Science Goals & Sources
S &P -P p s l Me g E I re ro o a e tin

Determine the role of massive black holes in galaxy evolution Make precision tests of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Determine the population of ultra-compact binaries in the Galaxy Probe the physics of the early universe

Merging supermassive black holes Merging intermediatemass/seed black holes Gravitational captures Galactic and verification binaries Cosmological backgrounds and bursts


National Aeronautics and Space Administration

The 21st Century Beyond Einstein
How did the Universe begin? Does time have beginning & an end? The questions are as old as human curiosity. The answers have always seemed beyond the reach of science. . .

until now!